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California State Library 



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7 



CALIFORNIA SWE LIPP4PY. 

SA<" V. . 




Volume XVII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1879. 



Number 1. 



A New Eastern Seedling Grape. 

Among the many horticultural labors under- 
taken by Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, N. 
Y., has been the raising of seedling grapes with 
a view to securing new and desirable varieties. 
As is common with efforts for good seedlings, 
but a small percentage of the new fruit was 
considered worth farther propagation. Of 100 
seedlings, they destroyed all but two, and these 
two they do not announce as at all startling in 
their excellence, but they seem to possess some 
good qualities. One of these new varieties we 
show in this engraving on this page, merely for 
the novelty and possible value there may be in 
it, for it is wholly untried on this coast. The 
grape is named the "Rochester," and has fruited 
for several years in New York State, never fail- 
ing in the most unfavorable seasons, and pro- 
ducing grapes which are favorably regarded by 
experts. 

The characteristics of the new grape as they 
are seen in New York, are good quality, earli 
ness and certainty of ripening, wherever any 
grape can be ripened, the hardiness of vine, 
both in wood and foliage, resisting equally the 
cold of winter and heat of summer. These 
characteristics may not be of much account in 
those parts of this coast where the peerless Eu- 
ropean grapes reach their perfection, but there 
are outlying districts in which our resident 
readers may find the " Rochester" adapted to 
their needs. 

The "Rochester" was started from seed taken 
from a wall where "Delaware," "Diana," "Con- 
cord" and "Rebecca," were planted and trained 
together. Our illustration and the following 
description of it will give our readers its char- 
acter and appearance. Bunch large to very 
large, shouldered, frequently double shouldered, 
very compact. Berries medium to large size, 
round, dark purple or purplish lilac, peculiar, 
with thin white bloom. Flesh very sweet, 
vinous, rich and aromatic. Vine a remarkably 
vigorous grower; wood short-jointed and hardy; 
foliage, large, thick, healthy; has never been 
known to mildew in the grounds where it orig- 
inated. The habits of the vine are similar to the 
" Diana, " and it requires ample room and rather 
long pruning. Has never failed to ripen well 
in the worst of seasons since it first bore fruit. 
It ripens in New York during the first week in 
September. 



Firing Stumps. — Our readers have given 
one of our querists information on killing 
stumps. Perhaps notes on the disposition of 
the defunct stumps would be of value. We read 
of a Georgia man who says that he disposed of all 
kinds of stumps when clearing up lands for 
cultivation, except those of the pitch or long 
leaf pine, by the use of niter and tire. A cavity 
on the crown of the stump was formed to hold 
a small quantity of niter in solution. This 
would quickly be absorbed by the stump, dif- 
fusing itself into the roots so that, when fire 
was applied to the stump, it and the principal 
roots, all that were in the way, were consumed 
in a short time. A few blows of an ax suffice 
to make the necessary cavity, and two or three 
cents' work of saltpeter was sufficient for a 
large stump. The reason given for the failure 
of this method, when applied to the pitch pine 
stump, was that the presence of pitch prevent- 
ed the dissemination of the saltpeter through 
the pores of the wood, the firing only charring 
the surface of the stump. This method may be 
worth a trial 



Prof. Gray and the Lightning-Rod Man. 
— We read in an Eastern exchange that Prof. 
Gray, the eminent botanist, says that green 
herbage and green wood — sappy wood — are ex- 
cellent conductors of electricity. A tree is 
shattered by lightning only when the discharge 
reaches the naked trunk or naked branches, 
which are poor conductors. An old-fashioned 
Lombardy poplar, by its hight, by its complete 
coning of twigs and small branches and their 
foliage, down almost to the ground, and by its 



peddler. It is a fryingpan-fire sort of deliver- 



The Codling Moth. — According to the 
Country Gentleman, the evil of the codling moth 
(apple worm) has been greatly reduced by 
starvation. Last year orchards at Union 
Springs, on Cayuga lake, were destitute of fruit, 
the whole not furnishing a single bushel. This 
entire failure of the crop extended for some 
miles, and at a greater distance it was quite 




THE "ROCHESTER," A NEW SEEDLING GRAPE. 



sappy wood, makes a capital lightning-rod and | 
a cheap one. To make this unpatented conduc- 
tor surer it is advised that the tree should stand 
in moist ground or near water, for wet ground 
is a good conductor and dry soil a poor one. 
Happily no one can patent it, says the Professor, 
and bring it around in a wagon and insist upon 
trying it on. He is right on the patentability 
of his proposition, but we are very much mis- 
taken if the sharp tree-peddlers do not use the 
Professor's endorsement to sell their scrub cut- 
tings of all kinds for Lombardy poplars. He 
frees us from the "lightning-rod man," only to 
deliver us over to the clutches of the tree- 



light. What the codling moths did, or what 
became of their progeny, if they had any, is a 
question for entomologists. The result is that 
this year's crop, by far the largest for many 
years, is nearly free from the insect; certainly 
not one apple in 20 is infested. This may be 
one of the compensations for a barren year. It 
would seem to have little practical value, for to 
reap the mooted benefit, every blossom or apple 
must be removed for a considerable extent of 
.country, else there might be enough of the in- 
sects bred in one orchard to restock the whole 

neighborhood. 

The Oldham cotton operatives' strike is over. 



Time for Vine Pruning. 

Editors Press :— For want of other work, I 
commenced pruning my grapevines, December 
7th. A few days after, I met a friend in San 
Jose, who advised me : rather do something 
else, anything you may choose, but don't prune 
your grapevines now. The reason he gave was, 
that the grapevines, owing to the peculiar 
construction of their wood when pruned now, 
will have their future health injured. He does 
not prune his vines, till up to the time when 
they commence to bleed, which will cause a 
kind of sealing over, and therefore prevent any 
injury which may arise from early pruning, 
when the vines do not bleed. Now, for myself, 
I can't see why grapevines should get hurt 
when pruned in the present month, and 
especially, when they grow in a locality where 
they get paid a visit from Jack Frost about 
once in two years. Will the bleeding of the 
grapevines, when pruned, be beneficial or 
injurious ? What is your opinion about that ? — 
W. Pfeffer, San Jose. 

Editors Press : — The question of the time 
for pruning vines is one that must, in a great 
measure, be settled independently for each 
locality. Undoubtedly too much stress has 
been laid upon the supposed injury to vines from 
"bleeding ;" yet while it is not to be regarded 
in the light of blood-letting in the human sub- 
ject, it is incredible that such a waste of sap, 
crude though it be, should be advantageous to 
the general vigor of the vine. But there may 
be other considerations that may render it pre- 
ferable to incur this waste, rather than prune 
early. As for the injury done by frost to 
pruned vines, the fact that cutting back in 
December and January is on the whole the 
prevailing practice in the more northerly 
regions of vine culture, disposes of any such 
hypothesis. If the vines of Germany and the 
Lake Erie islands can stand it, it is not likely 
that the puny frosts of San Jose can do damage 
to the cut ends. 

The most obvious effect of late, as against 
early pruning, may be thus stated : The first 
onset of the flow of sap in spring, always tends 
to start first the buds farthest from the stock. 
Hence if left unpruned, those buds which in 
spur-pruning are intended to form the bearing 
shoots, will be later in starting] than is the case 
when the cutting-back has been done before the 
sap-movement commences. Thus late pruning 
often carries the tender shoots beyond the 
reach of late frosts or cold weather, that might 
otherwise have injured them. In many locali- 
ties this may be a serious consideration ; but 
that is a point that each locality must settle for 
itself, and herein the experience and practice 
of successful growers is the best guide. There 
is strong evidence to the effect that the fruit of 
late-pruned vines will generally ripen as early 
as that of the early-pruned, and that its quality 
is often superior. — E. W. Hilgard, University 
of California. 



A Cussed Country, This. — A farmer not 
1,000 miles from Santa Rosa, finds it hard to 
get along in this country and make both ends 
meet, etc. He did not believe in borrowing 
money to go to the circus, but was bound to 
have his family enjoy the show. He has a 
large property, and his credit is good at the 
store. One day his storekeeper was surprised 
at the unusual amount of goods ordered. Af- 
wards he found that he had sold out a dollar's 
worth of sugar here for 50 cents and a dollar 
of coffee to another for GO cents, and so on, to 
raise the tin. His whole family rode into the 
circus. 

A German paper suggests that 15,000,000 
marks revenue might be raised on petroleum. 



2 



T HE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. —Eds. 



Scenes in the High Sierra Back of 
Yosemite— Continued. 

{Written for the Pkess by J. G. Lemsion.] 

Glaciers and Their Work. 
Nowhere else in California are glaciers more 
folly represented than here around the bases of 
this Lyell group of half a dozen peaks. It is 
not so surprising that the much loftier Whitney 
group to the south, nor the great domes of Dana 
and Gibbs northward, scarcely retain an active 
glacier, when we consider the character of their 
rock, reddish porphyry, greenstone and slates, 
all good absorbants of solar rays. The cold, 
gray granite and silvery quartz of Lyell, added 
to the interior location of the group, condense 
the moisture out of the over-blowing winds for 
a longer period of the year, to fall in copious 
showers of snow on their plateaus, then to crys- 
tallize to nere, soon hardening to fields of ice, 
called Mers de Glace, from whence glaciers 
emerge, grinding their way to the plain. 

First the Facts, Then Their Origin. 

These Men de Glaee are ribbed from upper to 
lower side with hard snow, the lowest end 
the largest between each ridge, in the warmest 
hours of summer days, there flows the daily 
melt of snow, filling the cracks that occur always 
in a mass of ice upon every change of tempera- 
ture. Down each canyon of every peak, where 
favored by shade, flows a frozen river, a glacier. 
On its back, regularly distributed, are rocks of 
all sizes, some partly covered with the ridges of 
snow. These glaciers move slowly down the 
canyons, which they exactly fill, to the level of the 
melting point at the present time in this region, 
at an elevation of about 11,500 feet. Arrived 
at the melting line the glacier abruptly ter- 
minates in a sheer precipice, semi-circular in 
outline. Off from its edge, one after another, 
fall the rock passengers, forming a curved row 
of high-piled rocks, a moraine. These moraines 
are often one to two miles long in their sweep- 
ing curve and"50 feet high. 

Following down the ravine, it is found to be 
smooth on the bottom and sides, with no sharp 
angles in its course, nor yet the short bends pe- 
culiar to water courses. At intervals, deep, 
round or oval lakes are found in or near the 
center of the ravine. 

At every change of level, that is, every preci- 
pice down which this ravine-maker continues, 
just over the brow there is found a moraine. 

Farther on, w hen the plain is reached, the 
ravine joins with others to form a deep, narrow- 
valley, strangely regular in contour, no sharp 
angles or beads, but at a few points curving 
gracefully from side to side, always bending 
away from a tributary, never towards one, as 
often do rivers. 

The Glacio-Aqueous Epoch. 

Before we attempt to interpret these phe- 
nomena, let us recall the glacio-aqueous epoch 
of the world's history, and note the configura- 
tion given to our globe by the universal ice 
mantle. The waters of the earth then flowed 
at an elevation far above the tops of the present 
mountains. In the lapse of time, as condensa- 
tion of the earth's elements took place, the 
waters were gradually drawn off into preparing 
oceans, at the same time ridges or undulating 
bilges of the earth's crust appeared, constituting 
the present mountain chains, with their com- 
plement of material, now removed. 

As the sea, with its immense blocks of ice, 
driven about by wiud and tide, receded, the 
icebergs began to touch the earth's ribs, and at 
once the work of grinding and denuding com- 
menced. While age upon age elapsed, lower 
and lower sank the icy sea, and its ice blocks 
beat harder and harder upon the ribs. The 
weakest formed rock gave way first, and, it may 
be, that between now towering peaks there once 
existed much higher, but easier denuded rocks. 
At length the great icy sea receded until it 
became fenced into basins by the appearing 
mountain chains. In the weakest places chan- 
nels were formed, and as differences of level 
occurred, as respects the basins, the resistance 
of the sierra barriers caused tremendous pressure 
upon the sides of these channels, and the ice 
blocks squeezing through, often wrenched the 
toughest rocks from their ledges and hurled 
them upon the distant plain. Other rocks suf- 
fered the loss of crowns and angles and remain 
to-day as domes or bosses upon the flanks of 
the mountains, notably in the region of Yo- 
semite, where they may be counted by the score, 
their scratched and polished surfaces recording 
at once the hight, strength, and direction of 
the ice currents. 

At last the glacio-aqueous epoch was ended. 
The waters were gathered into their future 
home, the ocean. The dry land appeared, 
strewn with debris for hundreds and thousands 
of miles on each side of the mountain chains, 
while a warm atmosphere crept from the plains 
by degrees up the mountains, clothing them 
with vegetation. 

Next succeeded the wonderful phenomena of 
Glaciers. 

At first glaciers were developed on a scale so 
grand as to be scarcely conceived of now. 
Their work is denuding mountain ranges and 



sharpening domes into pinnacles, as did their 
parent, the icy sea, but they toil in a very dif- 
ferent manner, {slow as the cycles of ages, silent 
as the mold of the tomb. Their power is equal 
to the destruction of the highest mountains of 
the globe, and to the furrowing of the deepest 
Yosemites of the plateaus. 

It all begins with the Mers de Glace. 

These masses of ice, at first, stranded upon 
plateaus, afterward formed from snow falling in 
favoring localities, are fixed to the earth, in 
winter, thoughout their extent, by freezing. 
Certain points of greatest cold are developed, 
coinciding probably with the lowest places. 
At these points the rocks are clasped firmly 
by the ice and form a fulcrum for dynamic 
movements, w 7 hich will be examined soon. 

First, let it be remembered that ice expands 
when forming, about one-ninth of its volume. 

Second, when crushed at a temperature be 
low 22° it re-congeals, over and over again. 

Third, that the force of ice-expansion is one 
of the most powerful known, utterly irresist 
ible. 

Now from the point of greatest cold under an 
ice-field, this fulcrum firmly clasped, the ice ex- 
pands by congealing, thawing, crushing and re 
gelation, and pressed in every direction, 
wrenching off and taking the contiguous rocks 
with it, and rasping them upon those left in 
the matrix. 

The result is a spreading outward and up 
ward of the mass of ice and consequently the 
excavating of the crater-like amphitheaters 
that are found, some of them now empty, on 
the sides of the mountains. This accounts also, 
for the holes along the glacier's track, once ice 
wombs now filled with water-forming. 

Glaciers at Work. 
The upper edge of this powerful excavator 
impinges against the mountain, undermining 
rocks and earth, causing them to fall upon its 
back, to be carried slowly down the frozen river, 
as seen. 

When glaciers are in operation on both 
sides of a mountain rim, they remove all the 
material between, and thus isolated peaks are 
formed at the side. 

The greatest amount of pressure will be suc- 
cessful in the direction of least resistance, hence 
the final downward flow of the frozen river. 
Glacier Lakes. 
The Modus operandi of lake-forming is so in 
teresting that a few words of detail may be 
apropos. Anywhere^that ice forms upon i 
plateau or mountain side, the work of excava 
ting a basin may commence, so soon as the con 
ditions are favorable, i e., frequent thawings 
and freezings, which, as shown, are attended 
by expansion, crushing of ice and regelation, 
the latter of course attended with renewed ex- 
pansion. The fulcrum or fixed point wauld 
change from side to side of the bottom seeking 
the lowest place, from season to season, or rather 
from age to age. The result would be the 
scooping out of a crater of more or less depth, 
stopped only by the condition of unchanged, 
low temperature reached at the bottom, gener- 
ally several feet. When a change to warmer 
temperature occurs (which rise will soon show 
is sudden, and by several degrees at once), the 
ice is melted, and the ice-womb or fountain 
becomes a deep clear glacier lake, or often, if 
in loose soil easily drained, remains empty. 

These lakes distributed along a ravine, show 
where glaciers had their origin, or where por 
tions of a flowing stream fastened on the bot- 
tom, for a period, and proceeded to diggin 
wells upon the most gigantic scale, and with 
the most powerful yet simple of mechanical 
agents, ice-expansion. 

The warmth of the atmosphere in a distinct 
stratum at the melting limit, causes an abrupt 
termination of the glacier, while its How being 
unhindered in the center, is faster there and 
causes the outward curve to its front, and this 
rain-bow curve determines the shape of the 
moraine of rocks dropped from its brow, added 
to those disgorged from its mouth below. 

The regularity of form of the glacier bed re- 
sults from the power of ice to remove obstruc- 
tions, like an immense furrowing flow, and its 
graceful curves away from the entering tribu- 
tary glacier shows by the degree of deflection 
the size of the tributary — a phenomenon never 
exhibited by water currents. 

Trains of rocks often seen, longitudinally dis- 
posed upon a glacier, show the union of two or 
more such tributaries. Their rocks deposited 
upon the terminal moraine form nodules or 
heaps in the latter. When left in situ by the 
sudden melting of the glacier, they form medial 
moraines ; while those rocks carried outward 
to the side of the glacier form the third kind, 
lateral moraines. 

Terminal moraines being found deposited at 
the brow of every precipice in the glacier's 
course, prove that the heat of the atmosphere 
has increased by intervals of several degrees at 
a time, not gradually — a most important deduc- 
tion from the study of glaciers, bearing upon 
the subject of climatology, the sudden with- 
drawal and introduction of different species of 
animals, and plants, etc. If the increase of 
temperature was gradual no terminal moraines 
of immense size as now seen, would be formed, 
but the rocks would be scattered along the 
track of the receding glacier. 

The few rocks found on the back of a glacier, 
its very slow movement, the bottom of it only 
moving in summer, the swiftest recorded 
motion being a Swiss glacier that only traveled 
4,400 feet in nine years, together with the 
often, immense hight of the terminal moraines, 
50 feet or more, all prove the necessity of 



vast periods of time required for their forma 
tion. 

Finally the long, deep, glacier-carved valleys, 
like the famous Yosemite, prove the prevalence 
of glaciers of prodigoug size and power, plow 
ing the plateaus of the middle region of the 
Sierra, down to a low point near the foothills, 
the melting line being met at their mouths at 
an elevation of only about 3,000 or 4,000 feet. 

Climate Becoming: Warmed. 

From this brief study of glaciers may be de 
duced a theory of the positive increase of the 
earth's atmosphere as the ages have rolled by 
an increase which has advanced the melting 
point— 33° Fah. — upthe Sierra, 7,C 03c r8,000 feet, 
since the day of the great glaciers. At that 
period, such valleys as Sierra and its sisters, 
now decorating the flanks of the Sierra north 
and south, were either lakes imprisoned with 
ice, or complete ice-wombs, the source of gla- 
ciers whose moraines have been scattered since 
by floods from higher basins as their contents 
were feed ; while the great valley of California, 
and the great basin of Nevada were cold, fresh 
water seas, their shores barely producing Arctic 
willows and sages 

At present the warm strata of air are found 
high up the mountains melting the few, short 
glaciers away nearly to their founts. When an 
increase occurs that shall melt them and the 
Mers de Glace all away, and there remains no 
more perpetual snow and ice to keep springs and 
rivers alive in summer; the parched plains being 
mantled by a torrid substratum of moistureless 
air, the poor inhabitants of earth, if living by the 
same means as we exist now, may sigh for the 
return of the almost unknown and totally un 
appreciated boon — a condition of climate that 
admits of glaciers. 

Scintillations from the Los Angeles 
Fair.— No. 2, 

Raisins. 

Editors Press : — Dried peaches by Jas. 
Boyd ; raisins by Geo. D. Carlton, E. G 
Brown and C. E. Packard of Riverside, 
foreshadow a prosperous future for that 
enterprising community, the expansion of 
the industries represented, the monopoly of the 
American raisin market by California, and, 
finally, a foreign demand for our raisins suscep- 
tible of indefinite extension. A high merchant- 
able character is established for the Riverside 
raisins by unblemished bloom, the pliancy of 
the skin, even to the corners and edges; the lus- 
cious softness of the pulp, without expense to 
the keeping qualities ; the small ratio of seed to 
pulp ; the size of the raisin ; the fullness of the 
bunches ; the uniformity in all respects through 
out the box, and by the paper separators of 
layers. The boxes were neat, but without the 
usual outside stencilling and the interior pic 
torial decorations. Consumers refuse to be 
made entirely happy, however good the raisin, 
if there was in the box either no picture at all 
or an unsuitable one. Hence the seemingly 
arbitrary difference in the prices of raisins, 
where all else is equal except in the matter of 
pictures. 

R. B. Blower, of Woodland, Yolo county, the 
leading raisin maker of California, is aware of 
the rapid deterioration of the best keeping 
raisins, and the rapid progress going on from 
year to year in the improvement of the raisin, 
and will therefore not be surprised at the result 
of a comparison of his raisins of 1S77, with 
those of Riverside of 1878. 

Apples. 

Twenty-four varieties of apples were 
exhibited by the Rev. S. Bristol, of San 
Buenaventura ; a splendid nameless variety, 
by Josiah Durrell, of Florence ; 12 varieties of 
apples and a number of pears, by B. F. Moore, 
of Florence ; several varieties, by Doll Russell, 
of Floreuce ; 12 ounce white winter pearmains, 
from three year old trees, by A. W. Thaxter, 
of Floreuce ; superb displays of apples were 
made, by O. N. Cadwell, of Santa Barbara; by 
M. D. Halladay, of Santa Ana ; by John Torry, 
of Westminster ; by Jas. Royd and D. C. Two- 
good, of Riverside ; by P. M. Green and Dr. O. 
H. Congar, of Pasadena ; by J. D. Durfee, of 
El Monte ; by Jos. Kirk, of Artesia ; by A. J. 
Cooper, of Los .Angeles ; and two varieties 
without exhibitor's name, probably Mr. Potts, 
of Los Angeles ; one a "limbertwig," the other 
a winter apple, also, and both in clusters around 
limbs at the rate of a dozen to the foot. 

Every lot of apples mentioned, except two 
had apples that attain their prime for the table 
respectively in November, December, January 
and February ; those for the last named month 
by care, lengthening their prime into March and 
April. 

Apples here should be kept on shelves, apple 
not touching apple. The large apples come into 
prime, and thence too decay sooner than the 
small ones. Being on shelves selections are 
conveniently and accurately adjusted to the 
order of coming into prime. This course will 
prolong the season of almost any winter apple 
from 30 to (iO days. Apples are now realily 
selling from the tree, at one dollar a bushel 
anil will in a few weeks appreciate to two 
dollars. 

Semi-tropical and tropical fruits do not super- 
sede the apple. The writer saw more New 
Kngland apples than tropical fruits, at the 
stands in Havana, Cuba. 

B. F. Moore, of Florence, made cider of 



selected apples, on the space allotted him in the 
pavilion. The cider-man drove the soda-man 
almost to despair. 

The peaches by Dr. O. H. Congar and P. M. 
Green, of Pasadena ; by A. J. Cooper, of Los 
Angeles, and the well-known successful produc- 
tion of excellent peaches, on the artesian 
belt, and on naturally low and moist lands, show 
the adaption of that fruit to a variety of soils 
and situations. But it will dwindle in mild 
alkaline soil, where prosper the apple, the orange, 
and especially the pear. 

Dried Fruits. 

Wm. Butts, of Petaluma, exhibited his drier 
and illustrated its efficiency, as a drier of fruit, 
vegetables and flesh, by a varied and handsome 
display of dried fruit, sardines, etc. 

Dried figs, by G. C. Swan, of San Diego, 
indicated progress in that inconsistantly back- 
ward industry. 

Almonds. 

Soft shell almonds, by A. J. Davidson, of 
Pasadena, and Jose Rubio, of Los Angeles, 
revived some degree of hope in that branch of 
nut growing hitherto unprosperous in Los 
Angeles county, and in some other sections of 
the State. Mr. Olmsted's grove in the Carpin- 
teria, is a considerable success. Fine almond 
trees abound in southern California, but pro- 
fitable nut bearing is the exception. 

Choice amber sugar cane, by Hiram Ogden, 
and amber cane and Egyptian corn, by Geo. C. 
Swan, of San Diego, were superior and were not 
irrigated. Josiah Durrell, of Florence, exhibited 
Chinese sugar cane, said to yield its sugar with 
less than ordinary difficulty. 

A bunch of bananas, by J. M. Asher, of San 
Diego, had its individual fruits long and slender. 
It bore the marks of good genesis. In the 
pavilion a banana grove imparted an air highly 
tropical. It was made up of selections from 
groves in the vicinity ; chiefly from the groves 
of C. E. White and J. WolJskilL Fresh un- 
dried figs, large and luscious, by Ivar A. Weid, 
of Cahunga, and A. E. Pitney, of Florence, 
were mute protests against the continued im- 
portations of dried figs. 

Nine large green oranges, in a single cluster, 
from a three-year-old bud on a five-year-old 
stock, by M. Serrott, of Florence, proved what 
has long been surmised, that the lands aiound 
Florence are well adapted to citrus fruits. The 
tree that bore the nine retained 90 oranges of 
the same sort. The display of deciduous orna- 
mental shade trees by A. J. Cooper, included 
the umbrella China tree, a variety of which is 
the favorite shade tree of the Southern States. 
Deciduous fruit trees by Fisher, Richardson At 
Co., were in contrast with the splendid ever- 
greens of their citrus grove in the pavilion. 
This enterprising firm exhibited northern and 
semi-tropical fruits, all from the same orchard. 
There were also rapeseed by B. F. Moore, of 
Florence ; leaf 4 plants, tree fern and palmetto 
by Jas. Shaffer, of Los Angeles ; flowering 
plants and a coffee tree by Mr. Wolfskill. The 
coffee tree here is beautiful, but the traditionary 
goat waxeth not festive in browsing among its 
berryless branches. 

Wine and Oil. 

Orange brandy, essence of orange flowers, 
orange bitters, and oil of lemon were distilled 
and exhibited by N. Gray, of Anaheim. Dry 
white wine and angelica wine by J. de Barth 
Shorb, of San Gabriel ; old port wine and an- 
gelica wine by W. M. Koenig, of Anaheim, 
and dry white wine by F. Hartung, of Anaheim. 
The olive oil, by J. de Barth Shorb, equal 
to the imported, originated interrogation and 
commentary on the subjects of the wholesale 
importation of olive oil and olives, and the in- 
ducements and backwardness of olive culture 
in California. 

Prejudice against Home Products. 

Bacon, smoked beef, spiced corn beef, Bologna 
sausage, tongue-sausage and head cheese, by 
Vickery & Hiues, of Los Angeles, would have 
been attractive in a Cincinnati meat market on 
a Christmas eve ; but to make some Califor- 
nians believe this, Yickery & Hines must tack 
a Cincinnati pork-packer's card on the said 
meats. It is funny, but true, that some south- 
ern Californians scornfully reject home-cured 
bacon truthfully labeled, and wax happy as the 
identical bacon digests, if it came out of a San 
Francisco cask ; that Irish potatoes are watery 
if presented in barley bags, the bag of the south 
Californian potato- raiser ; but dry and mealy 
and lovely if in gunny bags, the bag of the San 
Francisco merchant ; that Congar s Pasadera 
peaches are insipid if the origin is known, but 
nectar unspeakable if bought at treble price 
from under a Sacramento label ; that CadwelPg 
Carpinteria pears are woody in a Santa Barbara 
box, but melting celestially if branded "San 
Jose ;" that Glasses' thoroughbred sweet pota- 
toes are stringy, as Los Angeles' tubers, but 
sweetened grains of gold-mist if from the Sands 
of Georgia ; that Waldron's excelsior melons 
are Florence hatcheries of ague-shakes, while 
its real equal on the cotton belt would be 
rinded up pure and honeyed aurora. It is also 
true that many buyers of Augusta, Georgia, see 
the muslins of the Augusta mills thin aud dear 
under the true name, but buy the same article 
at ten per cent advance, thickened up under a 
New England trade-mark ; that a choice old 
lady, when the storekeeper offered to sell her 
honest home-made cloth, sung out angrily, "See 
here, Mister, I don't want none of yer home- 
made truck, neither ; gim me suthin not made 
at all, fotched on in the store." To the same 
school of philosophers belonged a certain judi- 
cious mule, who would not be shod until his 



January 4, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



3 



nose was twisted, but would hold down his 
nose to a little boy to be twisted, and would 
then rather enjoy the racket of hammering at 
his feet. A man who would not cheat such a 

mule as that is well, I was going to say, is 

ready for business in heaven. The other mules 
referred to hold down their heads to have their 
noses twisted, and are happy, too, when they 
get twisted. 

Native Wood. 
Gier & Bartholme, of Los Angeles, among 
other articles exhibited a center table made of 
Los Angeles orange tree. The same firm has 
since completed a bedstead of Los Angeles 
English walnut tree. Both woods are fine 
grained, very hard, polish well, but would be 
handsomer if the colors were darker by many 
shades. 

Marbles and Minerals. 

A block of white marble, by W. H. Mentzer, 
of the Colton quarry, a surface specimen trans- 
lucent to a considerable thickness, suggested the 
strong probability that statuary marble is in the 
substrata somewhere. It is pretty clear that 
there is white marble enough in the vicinity of 
Colton to build a few marble cities. 

There were on exhibition a number of cabinets 
of minerals. The extensive display of ores 
from the scores of mining claims at Silverado 
well supported the prediction that Los Angeles 
will yet be known far and near as a mining 
county. A massive block of bituminous coal 
from the Star coal mine, of Los Angeles, upon 
a test of a few small chips ignited readily, gave 
out a high degree of heat, leaving a quantity of 
residuum within the limit of satisfactory com- 
bustion. 

At this point I will close my notes on the fair 
of the Southern California Horticultural Society, 
although I leave several interesting departments 
of the exhibition untouched. 

The Southern District Agricultural fair was 
held during the same week as the Horticultural 
fair. The two societies are distinct and hold 
their fairs each at its own grounds, which are 
nearly three miles apart. Special engagements 
prevented me from doing more than to pay a 
flying visit to the agricultural fair. My ob- 
servations were too superficial to authorize an 
attempt on my part to write up that fair. 
Judging from public opinion and what I saw, I 
would say that the agricultural fair was highly 
creditable to the State and to the Managers of 
the Southern District Agricultural Society. 

J. H. Shields. 

Florence, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

[Gen. Shields has our thanks for the deep 
interest he has taken in bringing forward the 
points of agricultural progress in southern Cali- 
fornia as they cropped out at the fair which he 
has described. We doubt not his plain state- 
ments of facts and tendencies will be of value 
to many inquiring readers. — Eds. Press. 

Santa Cruz County Productions. 

Editors Press: — I have before spoken of the 
inducements offered in Santa Cruz county to 
persons seeking a pleasant and quiet home, in 
consequence of our mild, steady and healthful 
climate; and manufactories of lumber, lime, 
leather, sugar and powder — together with the 
productiveness of the soil, and especially as a 
fruit-growing country. Now, in proof of some 
of these statements, I send you a sample of 
wheat, oats, barley and corn, grown on, or near 
my ranch at Soquel; also a few winter nellis 
pears, as a Christmas present for the "little 
folks" (as you have heretofore hinted that there 
were some about your new home, which you 
told us about). The pears were grown ou my 
place, are five-year-old trees, that produced 
from 30 to 40 pounds to the tree. These are 
not an average of the pears gathered, for we 
have all been eating at them for a month, and 
the best goes first; but they will compare favor- 
ably with the pears in market, I think, in size 
and quality; and when we consider the fact 
that winter nellis pears, as well as a great 
variety of other choice fruits are a sure crop 
here without irrigation, it is an item worth con- 
sideration. 

As for the corn, I don't offer it as anything 
extra, only that is of fair size, well matured 
aud grown on land from which I cut a heavy 
crop of barley hay in the spring, before plant- 
ing the corn; and considering that this is the 
secoud crop in one season, I think it is hard to 
beat, as one ear is eight inches long and the 
other has 22 rows of well-matured corn; and 
these are not much above an average of the 
crop. 

The wheat heads are from five to six inches 
long, and contain from 80 to 100 grains to the 
head, and show a fair quality of coast wheat. 

The oats, I think, are hard to beat for 
"high," as some measure 8 feet 4 inches in 
hight, with heads 2 feet lou^, and more oats on 
them than 1 can count. 

Now when you consider that we have a 
steady, sure thing on fruit, grain and vege- 
tables, without irrigation; and yet more "sun- 
shine" in the year than anywhere else on the 
continent, where you can grow good crops 
without irrigation — you may safely say we have 
a good place for a home. M. P. Owen. 

Soquel, Cal. 

[Mr. Owen's samples were received with 
pleasure, and are very creditable. They bear 
out all the statements he has made concerning 
them.— Eds. Press.] 



Tuolumne County. 

Editors Press: — Frosty nights and fine days 
are the rule and not the exception. The present 
appearance of the weather denotes an early rain- 
A new moon may bring us our daily expressed 
wish — much needed by the farmer. The young 
grain does not suffer, but a continuance of the 
present dry and frosty weather would blast the 
hopes of the husbandman; but nature is a kind 
mother, and will soon dispel our fears by copious 
tears, allaying all our apprehensions. 

A few days ago I made a visit to Sonora and 
Columbia, picking up a few items worthy of 
note. The one sight which pleased me most 
was an orange tree in full bearing. The dark 
green foliage and yellow orange are beautiful to 
see. Several trees were in bearing by the way- 
side, but this one tree at the Ohio house was 
a sight to please those who love the useful and 
the beautiful. Now, if one tree, six inches in 
diameter, can be successfully cultivated, why 
not a thousand ? It is only a matter of time. 
The orange and the lemon will bring wealth to 
these foothills, and health to the patient worker. 
In a sanitary point of view, I consider them in- 
valuable, and this has been the general ex- 
perience. 

The fruit drying establishment at Sonora is a 
credit to the county. The building is three- 
story, aud is substantially built. A new quartz 
mill adds to the noise and wealth of Sonora. 
Also a flour mill is in process of erection, with 
a sash, door and blind factory in connection. 
Altogether Sonora improves in appearance and 
enterprise. 

Columbia is only the ghost of her former 
greatness. She is still great in her fruit culture. 
The soil and climate cannot be eclipsed; but the 
town is being torn to pieces by the miner. The 
lime boulders appear like the skeleton of a dead 
world. Shaw's Flat and Springfield partake of 
the same woe-be-gone appearance. These 
weather-beaten specters are a schoolhouse to 
the geologist and naturalist. 

Miners are still engaged amongst these nat- 
ural wonders. We are not advised as to the 
bottom or bedrock having been reached. But 
the danger of working the deep diggings, owing 
to the size and fantastic shape of these lime 
creations, deters many from prospecting in 
search of the bedrock, owing to the expense. It 
is almost worth a trip from the Bay city to view 
this mystic aud fantastic collection of water- 
washed rocks. 

Bodie and Bridgeport have been a splendid 
market for orchardists this season. Prepara- 
tions are being made for extending operations. 
The peach seems to pay the labor for drying the 
best, hence peach trees are in demand. Apples 
pay well in their natural condition, but will 
not pay at present prices when dried by the 
sun. " John Taylor. 

Mt. Pleasant, Dec. 23d, 1878 



Almonds, Walnuts and Winter Fruits. 

Editors Press : — Farmers are now busy 
making needed improvements, preparatory to 
seeding their land, for the next season's crop, 
which will commence with the first clear day< 
after the first rain. The almond crop this 
season in Ventura, was light, not being over 
half the usual yield in weight per tree, and the 
nuts were inferior in size and quality, to those 
of former years. The trees set unusually full last 
spring, and seemed to do well, until about June, 
when the trees seemed to be stricken with some 
kind of a blight, which caused the husks to dry 
and adhere to the nuts, and prevented them 
from maturing plump meats. And some of 
the large fine looking hard-shell nuts contained 
no meat whatever. 

Ventura county seems to be the natural home 
of the. walnut. I have never known a failure of 
the crop, or any kind of blight to infect the 
trees, except gophers. The nuts are large and 
sound, the meat is white, and of superior 
quality, and our walnuts always bring the 
highest market price. It requires a long time to 
bring a walnut orchard into bearing, (eight to 
ten years) but after that, it is like compound 
interest, each year will increase the amount of 
revenue. This season about 200 of my eight- 
year-old trees bore walnuts, some of them gave 
a yield of five or six pounds, and some only 
three or four nuts per tree ; from one tree 13 
years old, I gathered 45 pounds, (weighed after 
they were dried ready for market. ) The cost of 
'-arvesting a walnut crop is nothing in compari- 
son with the expence of harvesting almonds. 
When the walnut is fully matured, the outer 
shell or husk opens, and the nut falls to the 
ground, all nice and clean ready for the sack, 
while their little nest of a shell stays up in the 
tree, laughing to see them tumble. Some 
gather the nuts that have fallen every day, 
others let them remain under the tree until all 
the nuts have fallen, they then rake them in 
j>iles aud sack them for market, for they will 
dry under the tree as well as elsewhere, if there 
is nothing to molest them. Ten cents per sack 
will cover the cost of harvesting walnuts. 

This season it cost me over $5 per 100 pounds 
to harvest my almonds. I paid $3 per hundred 



for gathering and shelling. The nuts were 
weighed each night after shelling, and then 
spread on platforms to dry ; and one lot of 868 
pounds, when first shelled, only weighed, when 
sacked for market, 477 pounds, making a shrink- 
age in drying of 391 pounds. My Languedoc 
almonds brought $15 per 100 pounds in San 
Francisco. I sold my walnuts for $10 per 100 
pounds in San Buenaventura. 

As yet there are but few bearing orange trees 
in Ventura county. My Sicily lemons have 
changed their color from green to golden, and 
will soon be ready for the market. They have 
only one fault — I have not quite enough of 
them. My loquat trees are covered with large 
clusters of white blossoms, which betokens an 
abundance of that delicious fruit ripe for the 
first month of spring (March). My guava 
trees are well loaded with fruit, which are now 
about the size of plums ; so we will not be 
without ripe fruit during the winter months. 

I regret that my absence from home last sum- 
mer deprived me the pleasure of meeting your 
traveling correspondent, Mr. W. B. Crowell, 
who so truthfully portrayed our county in the 
Rural Press of August 17th ; and had I known 
when he was at Nordhoff (which is only 7 miles 
from my place), I would have met him there, 
and persuaded him to spend a few days with us 
at Cliff Glen, our mountain home in the Ma- 
talja canyon. No doubt, Mr. Crowell, I should 
have wearied you with questions in regard to 
the orange groves of Los Angeles ; and when 
you were rested and refreshed, I would ask you 
to go with me through my Cliff Glen orchard, 
and tell me how my orange and lemon trees 
compare with those young orchards of the San 
Gabriel and Los Angeles valleys, for it is not 
always we can see our own as others see it. 

Bobt. Lyon. 

Cliff Glen, Ventura Co., Nov. 28th, 1878. 



California Honey. 

Editors Press:— While the beekeepers of 
California are just on the eve of making their 
purchases of lumber and getting ready to make 
hives for the increase of the coming season, 
they are greeted with the news from their re-' 
presentative in New York that "there is noth- 
ing to be done in honey here at this time, as 
there has been so much adulteration in this 
article that buyers are alarmed." And from 
our English correspondent come gloomy re- 
ports of a small lot of California honey having 
been offered at auction on two occasions with- 
out being sold. Then comes another, that a 
large shipment of California honey from New 
York by a large dealer there, and that the cus- 
tom authorities had seized and destroyed it in 
accordance with English laws on account of its 
being largely adulterated with glucose. 

A Test for Glucose. 

I, as a producer, will venture to offer a sug- 
gestion or two to those educated blockheads, 
that may be of service to them in future if they 
will act on the suggestion. If you have cause 
to suspect adulteration in honey with glucose, 
proceed as follows: Take a quantity of honey 
and add one part water, dissolving the honey 
thoroughly by stirring. Then add alcohol of 
80% until a turbidness is formed, which does 
not disappear on shaking. If glucose syrup is 
present in the honey, soon a heavy deposit of a 
gummy, milky mass, will form, while with pure 
honey there will be only a very slight milky 
appearance observed. This test is so simple 
and at the same time so true, that any dealer 
who fails to become acquainted with the sim- 
plest test used for detecting frauds in the ar- 
ticle in which he deals, is unworthy of the call- 
ing he has accepted. 

Granulation of Honey. 

Good authority says that honey is composed 
of grape sugar, fruit sugar, cane sugar and 
flavoring substances, and the percentage of each 
vary a great deal, depending upon the source 
from which it is gathered by the bees and the 
season it is gathered in. The honey taken in 
May generally candies in a few days after it is 
extracted. Later in the season, when the air is 
less humid, the honey gathered is white, very 
thick and heavy, weighing 12 to 12£ pounds per 
gallon of 231 cubic inches, and does not candy 
so readily, as some samples have been kept 
three years without any symptom of change. 

A different class of pasturage comes on in 
August and continues through the fall months, 
the air becomes more humid as the rainy season 
approaches, and the honey gathered is thinner, 
has more color and candies very soon, differing 
from April and May honey in flavor. 

In the Atlantic States all honey made through 
the entire season, candies upon the approach of 
winter, and a large dealer in Cincinnati says all 
good honey becomes candied during the winter 
in that climate. 

The San Francisco dealers rule that all honey 
that becomes candied is reduced in value from 
one to three cents per pound, and our corre- 
spondent in France says of the samples of honey 
sent to him, that it seems to be very fine, but 
that the French people are not accustomed to 
that kind of honey, as all sold there is solid, 
and asks if we cannot aend them solid honey 
(meaning candied honey). 

Direct Shipment to England. 
• There was produced over 300 tons of ex- 



tracted honey the past season in Ventura 
county, and a large portion of it was shipped 
from here under the care of the producers them- 
selves to San Francisco and turned over to 
Messrs. C. Adolphe Low & Co., a firm who 
stand high in the commercial world as first-class 
merchants, and by them taken direct from the 
wharf where it was landed and put on board the 
ships Roxellana and Oalatea for Liverpool, 
destined to be placed upon the English market. 
Knowing our honey to be pure and good, and 
knowing the character of the shipping merchants 
who are transacting our business, we have an 
abiding faith that our product will be allowed to 
fairly compete in these markets with like prod- 
ucts from other parts of the civilized world. 
We wait with patience the results. We have 
the climate, the pasturage is abundant, our bee- 
keepers are energetic, industrious and econom- 
ical men; are determined to push our products 
into all the markets of the world, and we warn 
all men who are engaged in the production of 
honey every where, that if they cannot produce 
large quantities of the article that is first class, 
and do not put it up in an attractive form, more 
so than we do, that they had better stand aside 
and admit "that the survival of the fittest" is 
a fixed fact. John G. Corey. 

Santa Paula, Ventura Co. , Dec. 22d. 



PisciciJLjiJ^e. 



Carp Culture— No. 3. 

Editors Press:— The hatching pond, men- 
tioned in my last letter, serves more particu- 
larly for natural impregnation and hatching; or 
rather for natural propagation, as generally a 
number of male and female fishes are placed in 
the pond. Here the female drops the eggs, du- 
ring the spawning season, upon aquatic plants 
(grass or bush), where they are impregnated by 
the male. The female bears a great number of 
eggs, as has already been stated. A small num- 
ber only are impregnated, nor do all of these 
come to life. I think a fair estimate is 1,000 or 
1,500 young fish to one old female. It is hard 
to say what is the best number of spawners to 
place in the hatching pond, as the views on this 
subject differ widely in Europe. The hatching 
pond need not be as large as the breeding pond. 
Its depths should not exceed one or two feet 
over the central ditch. The outer edge should 
be from three to six inches deep, and the pond 
should be from 20 to 40 feet in width. In this 
hatching pond is where you want your gras3 and 
aquatic weeds. This pond must be well guarded 
against the intrusion of pike, eels, bass, catfish, 
tritons, trout, water-shakes, turtles and water- 
lizards, rats and water-fowl, or any voracious 
animals. A fine grating will prevent the 
former, and against the latter various traps are 
used. 

The young fish stay in this pond until spring, 
and then must be transferred to a larger pond. 
This should be done with great care. The 
water should be drawn off very slowly through 
the grated outlet, so that no fish is left in the 
mud. 

The larger ponds have the same construction 
as the hatching pond, only they are larger and 
deeper. From 800 to 1,000 stock fish are cal- 
culated to one acre when not fed, and if fed a 
great many more. 

In favorable ponds where the carp is left to 
seek its food, it will g-<i" about one and one- 
half pounds in the ens ing autumn; but when 
well fed, it will gain consii erably more. 

I have given some oi Uie rules of carp culture, 
according to the different ages of the fish, in 
special ponds (hatching, breeding and carp 
ponds). This is termed "class culture." I will 
now speak of mixed ponds, where there are 
fish from one to ten years old. Not much can 
be said of this method, as there are no hatching 
and breeding ponds ; but only one pond which, 
however, must combine all the characteristics 
of the different class ponds. It must, therefore, 
have shallow places, over-grown with grass, or 
aquatic plants, for the spawners and young fish, 
and also deeper water for the larger fish. There 
is, I presume, a situation on one-fourth of the 
farms for a pond of this kind which would yield 
both pleasure and profit. If a farmer has a 
pond only four or five rods square, he can have 
many a mess of the finest fish in the world, and 
pleasure enough to pay for all trouble. I wiU 
speak of their food, and give something of their 
profits, in my next. Levi Davis. 

Forestville, Sonoma Co. , Cal. 



Making Pencil-Marks Indelible.— Paper 
marks arc made indelible, says the Papier Zeif 
tung, on paper prepared as follows : Any ordi- 
nary drawing-paper is slightly warmed and then 
rapidly and carefully laid on the surface of a 
bath, consisting of a warmed solution of 
bleached colophonium in alcohol until the en- 
tire surface is moistened. It is then dried in a 
current of hot air. The surface of the paper 
becomes smooth, but readily takes the impres- 
sion of a lead-pencil. In order to make the 
lead-pencil marks indelible, the paper is warmed 
for a short time on a stove. This .method may 
prove valuable for the preservation of working 
drawings when a lack of time will not permit 
the draftsman to finish them in ink. 



4 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



National Grange Meeting. 

We give below the conclusion of the report 
of the proceedings at the late meeting of the 
National Grange at Richmond, Virginia: 
Eighth Day. 

The Grange was called to order at 9 o'clock, 
the worthy Overseer in the chair. The open- 
ing exercises, reading the journals, etc., con- 
sumed the time until 9:30, the hour fixed on 
yesterday for the election of a member of the 
executive committee. This committee consists 
of three members of the Order, the term of one 
of them expiring each year. The committee is 
at present composed of Messrs. D. Wyatt Aiken, 
of South Carolina, S. H. Ellis, of Ohio, and 
Henly James, of Indiana. The term of Mr. 
James expires with this session, and the elec- 
tion was held to till the vacancy. On the third 
ballot Mr. James was re-elected. 

Mr. Chase from the committee on constitution 
and by-laws, reported that the committee had 
carefully considered all the proposed amend- 
ments referred to them, and deemed it inex- 
pedient at this time to legislate upon the sub- 
ject. 

Mr. Lang, of Texas, moved as a substitute 
for the report, the resolutions offered by him, as 
follows : '.'Sixth degree (Flora) composed of 
representatives and their wives who have taken 
the degree of Pomona, and who have been 
elected by their several State Granges, and the 
officers and members of the executive committee 
of the National Grange : Provided, that only 
representatives and their wives shall be entitled 
to vote therein." In a speech of force and 
power, full of argument and illustration, he 
urged the adoption of his resolution. Other 
speeches were made, and the vote taken on the 
substitute by yeas and nays. It was defeated 
by the following vote : Nays, 32 ; yeas, 15. 

It being e /ideut there was a desire to have 
certain changes in the constitution, the subject 
was sent back to the committee, with instruc- 
tions to report amendments as indicated — yeas 
24, noes 16. 

Co-operation. 

Mr. Blanton, from the committee on this 
subject, made report. The committee state 
that this is one of the most important ques- 
tions now affecting the Patrons of the country. 
In order to succeed, it requires the aid of all. 
This is so in any proposition we may undertake; 
but all must be done in strict accordance with 
the principles of the Order. Co-operation means 
acting .together. We have now reached the 
point at which the National Grange can no 
longer refuse its protecting and fostering care 
over the subordinate Granges. It must make 
suggestions and give instructions. The princi- 
ples of co-operation must be well understood 
and strictly adhered to. The best men in the 
Order must be 'employed in the enterprise when- 
ever undertaken, and the cash system rigidly 
adhered to; and where properly carried out, the 
stores must succeed. The report closes with 
the following recommendations: 

First. That the members of our Order organ- 
ize co-operative associations in accordance with 
the rules and regulations for co-operative stores, 
as suggested by the National Grange. 

Second. That the establishment of co-opera- 
tive inter-State agencies, or inter-State co- 
operative associations, be left to the discretion 
and good judgment of the executive committee 
of the several States and the co-operative asso- 
ciations of the several States. 

Third. That the executive committee of the 
National Grange be instructed to prepare and 
send out to the States a circular letter embrac- 
ing the true principles of co-operation, and the 
rules and regulations recommended by the Na- 
tional Grange for the establishment of co- 
operative stores, and thus keep this important 
and vital matter before the membership of our 
Order. 

The report and accompanying recommenda- 
tions were unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Piolett, of Pennsylvania, from the 

Committee on Transportation, 
Made a very interesting report in the form of a 
memorial petitioning Congress and the Legisla- 
tures of the several States to enact such laws 
as to prevent unjust and indiscriminating tariffs 
on produce. 

Mr. Harwell, from the committee on educa- 
tion, mado a report recommending that the 
matter referred to them be referred to the exec- ' 
utive committee for action in their discretion. 
One of the recommendations was in favor of 
publishing a monthly newspaper or bulletin, to 
be sent to every Grange. 

A motion to recommit with instructions to 
bring in a report against the propriety of pub- 
lishing such a paper was lost. 

The question was then divided, and the first 
recommendation was defeated and the second 
laid on the table. 

The committee on education also reported, 
urging the importance of legal enactments in- 
corporating into the public school laws of the 
country such changes as will require an elemen- 
tary training in agricultural chemisbry. 

Adopted. 

The committee on ritual reported, recom- 



mending some important changes, which are 
not given to the public. 

The Grange then adjourned to 3:30 o'clock in 
the afternoon. 

Afternoon Session. 

Mr. Piolett moved to amend the constitution 
so as to make the annual dues to the National 
Grange three cents per member instead of five, 
as it now stands. The motion was defeated by 
ayes 9, noes 27. 

Mr. Ellis, of Ohio, introduced a preamble 
and resolution against the use of intoxicating 
liquors, recommending that Patrons should 
carefully consider before they vote for any man 
for office who is in the daily, habitual, or even 
moderate use of them. 

The resolutions were adopted by the following 
vote: Yeas 28, noes 11. 

Resolutions of thanks to Churchland Grange 
for their hospitality during the late excursion 
of the National Grange to their section were 
passed. 

Mr. Lang, from a special committee to whom 
was referred the resolution of Mr. Darden, of- 
fered several days since, reported in favor of its 
adoption. This is the paper referred to by us 
at the time of its presentation as more clearly 
defining the declaration of principles of the Or- 
der. It takes higher ground in seeking and ob- 
taining redress for the grievances under which 
it is stated that the farmers of the country are 
laboring. The report is also emphatic in its 
plans to make the education of the farmers one 
of its leading, central ideas. 

A long, earnest, and interesting discussion 
was had on this subject. 

Before coming to a vote, the Grange took a re- 
cess until 8 o'clock. 

Night Session. 

The consideration of the subject was resumed 
and discussed until 10 o'clock. Upon a call of 
the roll it was passed by a vote of 31 yeas to 9 
nays. The Grange then adjourned until 9 
o'clock this morning. After adjournment the 
Grange was organized in the seventh degree 
and the degree conferred upon all who had not 
heretofore received it. 

Ninth Day. 

The Grange met at 9 o'clock on Saturday, 
pursuant to adjournment, and was opened in 
regular form. The committee on finance re- 
ported the following schedule of salaries for 
the current year: Worthy Master, $750; Trea- 
surer, $500; Lecturer, $4 per day when actually 
employed under the direction of the proper au- 
thorities; members of the executive committee, 
$4 per day, when employed in the business of 
the Order. All of these officers to have their 
actual necessary expenses paid. 

The committee also reported in favor of pay- 
ing the janitor of the hall in which this meet- 
ing is held. The report was concurred in. 

The committee on constitution and by-laws, 
to whom had been referred certain proposed 
amendments, reported that in their judgment 
it was inexi>edient to legislate further upon the 
subjects proposed. 

Authority was given to the Farmers' Trust 
Company of New York to draw the interest on 
United States bonds whenever due, and place 
the amount on their books to the credit of the 
G range. 

Under instructions the committee reported 
an amendment regarding the representation in 
the State Grange, allowing any fourth-degree 
member to be elected a representative from the 
county to the State Grange. The report was 
not concurred in. 

Mr. Lang, of Texas, presented the following 
as an 

Amendment to the Constitution : 
" State Granges * * • shall be composed 
of representatives elected by the subordinate 
Granges; Provided, that when the number of 
subordinate Granges in any State becomes so 
great as to render it necessary, such State 
Grange may, in such manner as it may deter- 
mine, reduce its representation. Section 2. 
Fourth-degree members in good standing are 
eligible and may be elected as representatives 
in a State Grange." 

The amendment was not adopted, the com- 
mittee subsequently reporting adversely to its 
adoption. 

The committee on the good of the Order re- 
ported resolutions recommending, under request 
of the Commissioner of Agriculture, closer and 
more intimate oonnections with his deparment, 
and appointing a committee to confer with 
him. The report was adopted. 

The committee on resolutions reported, rec- 
ommending the adoption of the supplemental 
paper offered on Friday night by Mr. Darden, 
of Mississippi. Adopted. 

The committee on foreign relations re- 
ported fraternal resolutions of greeting to the 
Dominion Grange of Canada, which were 
adopted. 

The committee on the order of business re- 
ported a regular order of business for the 
future, and recommending the appointment of 
18 standing committees. Adopted. 

The committee on credentials reported that 
California was entitled to representation in the 
body. 

Tax on Tobacco. 
The following paper waB offered by Dr. 
Blanton, and referred to a special committe, 
of which Mr. Wayne, of New York, is chair- 
man : 

Whereas, The internal revenue tax upon to- 
bacco is not only unequal and unjust, but oper- 
ates injuriously both upon the producers of 
this great agricultural staple and the consumers; 
and whereas its disastrous effects are to be seen 



in the depressed condition of all the markets 
for the sale of this product, as well as in the 
condition of the once flourishing towns and vil- 
lages in some parts of the States in which this 
is the principal money crop; therefore 

Resolved, That this National Grange direct 
that a respectful but earnest memorial be pre- 
pared by the executive committee of the Na- 
tional Grange, and have the same presented to 
the Congress of the United States, praying for 
the repeal of the unjust law levying this 
onerous and partial tax, or at least a reduction 
of the same. 

On this paper the committee on Saturday 
made the following report: 

Your committee, to which was referred the 
foregoing resolution, has given careful attention 
to the subject-matter presented, and especially 
to the request embodied therein, by which this 
body is sought to direct its executive committee 
to prepare a memorial to the National Congress, 
asking relief from an onerous tax. In the judg- 
ment of the members of your committee, there 
is rank injustice in the law that assigns to a 
special product of agriculture any undue share 
of the public burden ; and that such is the fact 
in the case presented is apparent. We do, 
therefore, recommend that this Grange comply 
with the terms and spirit of the resolution, and 
assign to the executive committee the duty of 
preparing and presenting the memorial at such 
time and in such manner as the committee may 
deem for the best interests of the farmers, 
whose interests are concerned. 

Very much interest was manifested in the 
matter, it seeming to meet the sentiments of 
every member, so much so that in order to make 
it more effective in its operations it was amend- 
ed so as to make it the duty of the executive 
committee to have the memorial printed in the 
form of a petition to Congress and sent to every 
subordinate Grange in the country for signature. 
The report as amended was unanimously 
adopted. 

The subject of change in 

The Regalia 
of the Order was referred to the executive 
committee for consideration and report at the 
next meeting of the Grange. 

Motions and Resolutions. 

Mr. Ellis, of Ohio, moved to amend the rul- 
ings so as to allow subordinate Granges to bal- 
lot for more than one applicant for membership 
at the same time. The motion was lost. 

Resolutions of thanks to the Governor for the 
free use of the hall, fuel and lights, were unan- 
imously adopted with a rising vote. 

The proposed amendments to the constitu- 
tion were ordered to be promptly printed and 
forwarded to the State Grange for their action 
thereon. 

The proceedings of this session of the Grange 
were ordered to l>e printed and forwarded to 
the secretaries of the several State Granges. 

Place for the Next Meeting. 
A good many places were proposed by the 
members from the several States and their 
claims advocated. The law requires that the 
selection shall be made by ballot, and the 
Grange proceeded to vote. On the sixth ballot 
the town of Canandagua, N. Y., was chosen as 
the place. 

Mr. Chase, of New Hampshire, was appointed 
delegate to the Dominion Grange of Canada. 

Mr. Lang, of Texas, offered the following: 
Itenolved by the National Grange, That it is 
contrary to the laws and purposes of the Order 
of the Patrons of Husbandry for a Grange — 
Subordinate, State or National — to call political 
conventions, nominate candidates for political 
offices, or discuss their merits. 

The resolution was uanimously adopted. 

The journal was then read preparatory to 
adjournment. After its approval the Master, 
in a few remarks thanking the members for 
their courtesy and kindness, and wishing them 
a safe an'd happy return to their homes, closed 
the Grange in due form. This ends the twelfth 
Bession of the National Grange, Patrons of 
Husbandry. 

Declaration of Principle. 

The following is the declaration of principles 
which were passed by the Grange Friday night : 

We, the members of the National Grange, 
desiring to define the precise objects of the 
Order of Patrons of Husbandry, and place them 
before the membership of the Order throughout 
the Union, do hereby set forth the following 
proposition with our distinct declaration of 
purpose relating thereto : 

In view of these truths we are bound, in 
defence of our manhood, to assert our rights, 
and we therefore declare our unalterable pur- 
pose to emancipate agriculture from the burdens 
unjustly heaped upon it, and the means by 
which we shall seek to secure the desirable 
ends. 

1. We shall strive earnestly, within and 
without our Order, to extend the benefits of 
education, which shall comprise knowledge of 
public affairs and the methods of self-govern- 
ment. 

2. We shall demand admission in the Legis- 
latures of the several States, and in both houses 
of the National Congress, for representatives of 
agriculture chosen directly from its votaries, as 
the only means of relief. 

3. We shall accord to other industries all 
the rights, privileges and immunities, which we 
claim for our own, and join with their repre- 
sentatives in earnest endeavors to impress upon 
the Governments of States and nations habits of 
wise economy and frugality as essential to the 
thrift and prosperity of all the people. 



4. We shall give constant care and attention 
to the public schools, in which the youth of the 
nation are deeply interested, limiting expendi- 
tures therefor only by their usefulness, striving 
always for that higher and practicable enlight- 
enment which should become the distinguishing 
feature of a free people. 

After the above had been adopted the follow- 
ing was also presented and passed. 

In accordance with the above objects of our 
organization, and the methods by which they 
are to be obtained, we pledge our unyielding 
devotion to the work marked out. We believe 
the principles enunciated in our declaration are 
in full accord with the highest welfare of our 
country, and that they deserve support, espe- 
cially by all farmers. The history of agricul- 
ture on this continent shows that no organiza- 
tion in its behalf has ever been attempted 
without direct effort on the part of those who 
prey upon its products to neutralize the work ; 
and the lessons of the past establish the convic- 
tion that our only hope is in the full and cordial 
co-operation of farmers, wherever located, to in- 
sure that success which is within their grasp. 

We appeal, therefore, to good men and 
women, whose interests are our own, to join 
their efforts with ours, confident that, with 
their support, we shall not wait long for the 
consummation of our hopes. We appeal to 
the agricultural journals of the land, asking 
their great influence in aid of the above object, 
as a potent means for the attainment of a 
great object. To these forces and to the intel- 
ligence of our people we present the purposes 
which animate thousands of farmers in every 
State of our Union, and reverently trust in the 
direction of the wise Providence by whose 
decree we were made tillers of the soil, that 
our efforts may be rewarded by the full accom- 
plishment of the measures which justice de- 
mands in the relief of an oppressed industry 
and the higher enlightenment of its votaries. 

Election of Officers/ 

Georoiana Grange, No. 122, Sacramento 
Co.— Election Dec. 28th. H. F. Smith, M. ; F. 
M. Pool, O.; D. C. Wallace, L.; C. P. Hensly, 
S.; C. R, Hilgrow, A. S.; J. H. Staten, C; 
Sister Jessie Knott, T. ; P. H. Gardiner, Secy; 
J. N. Pool, G. K. ; MissE. B. Limfaugh, Ceres; 
Miss A. Davis, Pomona; Mrs. A. E. Pool, 
Flora; Mrs. M. A. Hensly, L. A. S. ; Josiah 
Pool, Trustee for three years. 

Sacramento Grange. — Dr. W. S.'Manlove, 
M. ; H. W. Johnston, O. ; Daniel Flint, L. ; John 
Rcith, S. ; Geo. Rich, A. S. ; Rufus Devenport, 
C. ; Moses Sprague, T. ; C. H. Hull, Sec'y. ; G. 
\V. Hantock, G. K. ; Mrs. D. D. Hull, Ceres; 
Mrs. P. Johnson, Pomona ; Miss Sprague, 
Flora ; Mrs. F. Manlove, L. A. S. ; Mrs. D. C. 
Tibbitts, Organist. 

•Secretaries of Subordinate Oranges are invited to send 
us for publication, lists of officers as soon as they are 
elected ; also dates of installation. 

Installation. — The new officers of Temescal 
Grange, will be installed on Saturday, January 
4th, at Cameron's hall, 14th street, Oakland. 
The meeting will open at 2 o'clock. An installa- 
tion feast will be given. All members and 
PatronB are invited. 



In Memoriam. 

DEEP CREEK GRANGE, No. 130, Tulare Co., Cal. 

Whkrkax, It has pleased Our Supreme Master to re- 
move by death from among us our beloved Sister F. H. 
Catkon, we bow with humble submission to Him that 
doeth all things well; and therefore be it 

» >r. ./, That in her death the Grange has lost a 
much respected sister and the commuuity a worth mem- 
ber. 

Ketnlved, That we tender our heartfelt sympathy to 
the bereaved husband of our deceased Bister; that these 
resolutions be placed on the minutes of our Giangc; that 
a copy be transmitted to the family of Sister Catron; and 
also that copies for publication be furnished the RritAL 
Pkkss and the Calif t>ria I'alnm. [Mrs. C. Van Loan, Mrs. 
L. Mathewson, W. G. Pennybaker, Committee. 



A New Industry. — A company has just been 
organized in this city for the manufacture and 
sale of Boswell's fruit drier, cooking and heat- 
ing apparatus, with an authorized capital of 
$100,000, about one-third of which, we under- 
stand, has been already subscribed. The office 
of the company is located in Sherman's building, 
corner Clay aud Montgomery streets, where 
samples of the driers can be seen, and any in- 
formation relative to the operation of the com- 
pany maybe obtained. Mr. Eugene L. Sulli- 
van, an old and well-known citizen of the State, 
is at the head of the company, and S. R. Lip- 
pincott, Esq., formerly an extensive manufac- 
turer in the Eastern States, is the Secretary. 

Pacific Coast Postal Changes.— Following 
are the postal changes for the week ending Dec. 
29th: Offices Established— Novelty, Kings 
county, Washington Territory, George B. 
Boyce, Postmaster. Ashley, Wasatch county, 
Utah, Wm. H. Wallis, Postmaster. Offices 
Discontinued— Laplays, San Luis Obispo 
oounty, California. Name Changed— Willow 
Forks, Umatilla county, Oregon, to Pettysville, 
Postmasters Appointed — Charles Crandall, Al- 
toona, Trinity county; Karl H. Plate, Tyrone, 
Sonoma county, California. Henry Williams, 
Sweetwater, Esmeralda county, Nevada. 
David Sommers, Summersville, Union county; 
Joshua Pullen, Zion, Clackamas county, Oregon. 
Samuel Egesley, Silver Spring, Salt Lake 
county, Utah. 

A disastrous, gale occured at Aspinwall on 
the 10th inst., doing great damage to shipping, 
wharves and the railroad. 



January 4, 1S79.I 



THE PACIFIC BUR AL PRESS. 




California. 

AMADOR. 

Oranges. — Times: Some very beautiful, 
bright looking oranges attracted our attention 
in Woolsey's store on Monday, and we were 
surprised to learn that they were grown at 
Camanche Camp, on the Mokelumne river. 
Three trees produced 900 as handsome and 
luscious oranges as were ever imported from the 
Mediterranean. There is no doubt that orange 
cultivation can be made profitable in this re- 
gion. 

BUTTE. 

Large Farms and Short Crops. — Register, 
Dec. 20: While we do not believe that there is 
a 5,000-aere farm in Butte or Colusa counties, 
which during the past 11 years has paid 12% 
per year on its present market value, we think 
we know hundreds of small farms containing 
from 160 to 320 acres which have paid double 
that percentage. !No better illustration of the 
truth of this proposition can be had than exists 
the present year in those counties with short 
crops. On the one hand we find the big farmers 
with their $20,000 expenses incident to putting 
in the last year's crop, for which he received 
nothing, shinning around among the money 
lenders for means to cancel his last year's obli- 
gations, besides providing half as much more for 
the present year's outlay in getting in a new 
crop, or, as has been the case in too many 
instances recently among large farmers, filing 
an application for the benefit of the insolvent 
act. On the other we have the small farmer, 
also losing his crop, but undisturbed by the loss. 
As in addition to grain he raises hogs for his 
own meat, besides a number of them to sell. 
Keeping a few cows he makes some butter, and 
Kkises the calves for market; his wife has seve- 
ral donen chickens and turkeys to dispose of 
about the holidays, in addition to selling eggs 
enough during the year to purchase shoes, flan- 
nel, ealico and many other little things for the 
fft»ily; he grows his own vegetables instead of 
buying them; his hogs, calves, chickens, and 
turkeys live upon the offal from the house and 
barn, which would otherwise be wasted, and in 
consequence it coats him nothing to raise them; 
his hay is not wasted under the feet of his 
horses; neither does he feed his horses barley 
from the sack, and set what is left down in the 
•orner for the hogs to scatter among the ma- 
nure; he works his own machinery, hence his 
wagon never squeaks for want of grease, nor 
do the journals of his mower or header cut for 
want of oil. When the harvest is over he buys 
hogs enough to glean his fields, and gets $2 
worth of pork to the acre. Having but little 
land he studies by superior tillage how to ren- 
der it productive in the highest degree. In- 
dustry and economy become the habits of his 
life, and as a natural result, when his crop is 
harvested, but a small portion of it, if any, be- 
longs to the banker or merchant. 

Rancho Chioo. — Record, Dec. 27: The 
work of plowing and seeding is being pushed 
ahead with vigor on the Rancho Chico, notwith- 
standing the severe frosts of the mornings and 
evenings. Over 60 acres are perfected each 
day, and it is expected that more land will be 
pat in grain this season than ever before. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Growth of Fruit Trees. — R. S., in Anaheim 
Qavilte: The question is frequently asked, 
what kind of land shall we select for our trees? 
We have all kinds in this valley, and changes 
in quality are often abrupt and frequent. A 
few general remarks will suffice. Avoid alkali 
on the one hand, and very ooarse white sand on 
the other, and then the trees will do well with 
care on all the balance. But the trees have 
their preference, and it is well to consult them 
where there is a choice. Where the land grades 
from light sand to adobe or alkali, we should 
plant peaches, apricots, nectarines; and plums 
on peach stock, on the lighter soils; then apples 
on the intermediate; and pears and quinces on 
the heavier and damper land. My pear trees 
never grew so well or bore so well, as last year, 
though the land was a little tainted with alkali 
and oversoaked by the excessive rains. Peach 
trees on the same land were ruined. Quinces 
did very well, as usual. On the higher land 
peaches grew finely, and pears not so well. 
The lesson was easily read. Peaches and apri- 
cots must have good drainage; pears can stand 
more water than any other kind of tree; apples 
are intermediate; Japan persimmons seem to 
prefer the damper lands, and many were lost 
last year for want of this knowledge. A nur- 
sery now extending from light sandy land to 
the edge of an alkali streak improved in quality 
of growth all the way to the end. At the 
upper end, though watered frequently, we lost 
over half. At the lower end almost all lived 
and made a thrifty growth. Where, therefore, 
the planter, as here, has a choice of lands, he 
can give his trees their own preferences. But 
the general rule is a good one, that land that 
will raise uniformly good corn will raise good 
trees of all kinds. If the permanent water 
level is nearer than five feet from the surface 
the land should be plowed in rows of the proper 
width, and the trees set in the back furrows. 
On such land, unless very light, no irrigation 
will be needed after the first or second year. 
Then if the land is plowed just before the heavy 
winter rains so as to throw the soil to the trees, 
the dead furrow between the rows will act as a 
drainage ditch, until the next plowing is made 



necessary by the growth of weeds, and the land 
is thus leveled for the summer. 
MENDOCINO. 

Coast Items.— Ukiah Press, Dec. 27: The 
farmers between Albion and Point Arena show 
unusual activity this year. A large amount of 
land has been plowed and sown to grain, and 
even a few potatoes planted. The lack of work 
in hauling has caused many teams to turn their 
attention to farm work, thus providing cheap 
labor for extra work. Much land is being 
cleared of brush and timber, and some have 
made the mistake of clear'ng all their pine off, 
neglecting to leave a belt on the north side for 
shelter from wind. They will regret it. Clark 
Fairbanks has a beautiful field now, where 
scrub pine and brush held sway. a few years 
ago. Mesquit grass is being sold extensively 
for pasture and hay. Where kept closely fed 
stock are exceedingly fond of it. For hay it 
must be cut quite green. Even where ripe 
when cut stock thrive upon it, but refuse it at 
first. Ruel Stickney, of Little River, fed 
horses and cows upon it all last winter, with 
excellent results. The potato crop on low 
lands rotted badly this year, while that on 
higher land was very good. Prices ranged 
very low most of the season, except for early 
potatoes. George Wright and A. B. Lake har- 
vested 9,460 sacks from 70 acres, averaging 125 
pounds per sack. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Notes. — Editors Press : The severe and 
long spell of cold freezing weather seems to 
have spread uniformally throughout the State, 
which is unusual, especially in southern Califor- 
nia. The effects of the frost have been similar. 
Semi-tropical fruits have not escaped. Never 
since these fruits have grown on the plains and 
in our valleys, has the frost touched them as the 
present winter. The leaves show the appear- 
ance of a sweeping fire having passed over them, 
leaving them in a curled form and a drooping 
position. The result in this section, will not, 
I think, be any damage to the trees. The tender 
young growth at the ends of the limbs, are only 
killed, turning black. The leaves to a great 
extent will again resume their natural appear- 
ance, and the health of the trees remain the 
same. The maturity of the orange in our 
valley, and higher latitudes, is from six weeks 
to two months earlier for market use, than 
southern California. The crop of oranges for 
the year, has already entered the market. 
December 20th, Messrs. Strong & Co. received 
a cargo of thefm from four different points the 
same day, which was an unusual occurrence. 
They came from Tahiti, Mazatlan, Loretta and 
Los Angeles. And recently a car-load of the 
finest soft-shell almonds ever grown in Califor- 
nia, from Alameda county, were followed by a 
new crop of walnuts from Chile, and of Cali- 
fornia growth from Los Angeles. Pecans are 
coming from Texas ; filberts and Brazil nuts 
from New York. The culture of almonds in 
California is similar to other products in regard 
to points, adaptation, soil and climate. Writers 
from various localities of the State have shown 
by their own experience that to secure a good 
crop to pay for culture, a natural adaptation is 
requisite. No doubt there are other counties 
well adapted. Here, at various points, the 
growth of the tree is good, but in fruiting va- 
rious drawbacks are encountered, viz: soil, 
temperature of the atmosphere, early frosts, 
etc. California walnuts grow prolifically. The 
Eastern and American walnut should have more 
encouragement in its culture, as it is a larger 
and a finer nut. Other nuts, as the filbert, 
chestnut, and other varieties should find a place 
in our market of California production. — Geo. 
Rich, Sacramento, Cal. 

Dry Weather. — Folsom Telegraph, Dec. 27: 
From many sections comes the complaint of 
dry weather, which will if it continues much 
longer, materially affect the farming interest 
and in this way affect people generally. In 
this locality the weather has been exceedingly 
cold, heavy frosts night after night, that have 
in many instances retarded the growth that but 
a few weeks since promised a fair yield to the 
gardener in a winter crop. Many trees and 
plants that have in our usually mild winters 
stood out in the open air throughout the entire 
winter — many of them in full bloom, have by 
the late cold weather experienced serious in- 
jury. But more serious than all this is the 
prospect at present for cultivators of the soil, 
many of whom have waited expectant for the 
rain that has not fallen, and have already be- 
come discouraged, while others still hope to 

§et in a late crop. Cattle that have been 
rought down from the mountains to luxuriate 
upon the grass that usually covers hill and 
valley at this season, find as yet nothing on 
which to feed, and present to those who de- 
light in seeing sleek cattle, a sorry appearance. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside Raisins. — Preen, Dec. 20: Mr. 
R. H. Henderson has brought us in a box of his 
splendid raisins, of which, by the way, he has 
a tine crop. He has actually obtained a twenty- 
pound box from every seven vines, and the 
vines only twenty months old from the setting 
and set out at less than a year old. One thou- 
sand bearing vines and 140 boxes of excellent 
raisins, besides a quantity of green grapes sold 
fresh. The actual cash returns per acre from 
this prime vineyard this year (and this is the 
first year) were $126. Study this exhibit, ye 
doubters. 
SOLANO. 

Weather and Crops. — Dixon Tribune, Dec. 
27 : The weather is not encouraging for farmers, 
but we are glad to see that they do not yet de- 



spond. * Summer-fallowed grain is looking 
rather bad, but the best judges, comprising 
some of the oldest farmers in the vicinity, agree 
that it is not yet damaged beyond revival 
when the rain comes. A good many are re- 
sowing a little where it came up poorly at first; 
but we have nofyet heard of anybody on "the 
ridge" who is re-sowing entire. 
TUOLUMNE, 

Successful Fish Propagation.— Stockton 
Independent, Dec. 21 : Lake Elnor is a beauti- 
ful sheet of water, about three miles long and 
from one to one and a half mile wide, in the 
mountain regions of Tuolumne county, above 
Hetchy-Hetchy valley, on the Tuolumne river. 
The lake is the source of one of the brauchss of 
that river, and when first discovered was desti- 
tute of fish, the falls in the stream preventing 
the fish from reaching the lake. During the 
summers of 1876-7 and 1878 parties caught 
large numbers of mountain trout in the streams 
in the vicinity, and placed them in the lake in 
order, if possible, to stock it with that delicious 
fish. We now learn from the Tuolumne Inde- 
pendent that the experiment has been very suc- 
cessful and that trout weighing four pounds 
have been lately taken from the lake, which 
were some of a lot that weighed but four ounces 
when placed there two years ago, and trout 
weighing one pound have been caught that were 
spawned in the lake. Not long since we con- 
versed with one of the parties-interested in the 
enterprise, who informed us that the increase 
has been wonderful and that the lake must soon 
abound with the speckled beauties. 
VENTURA. 

Olives. — Free Press: At the Camulos this 
year, the olive crop considerably exceeds 500 
gallons. Mr. F. Sorily has put up a new style 
olive grinder, which consists of concave burrs, 
and will be run by horse powor. About 500 
gallons of olives will be converted into oil, of 
which it is expected there will be a yield of 
100 gallons. 

Ventura Lard. — E. A. Edwards is manu- 
facturing a new style can for the Ventura Lard 
Refinery. In place of the old style, the top is 
like that of an ordinary fruit can, and a wire 
handle is fastened to it in such manner as to al- 
low of the cans being packed one above the 
other, without injury in transportation. When 
the lard is used from one of these cans, it may 
be refilled with fruit and hermetically sealed. 
In case of shipments of lard to a warm climate 
like that of Arizona, the cans admit of being 
sealed, thus preventing leakage in case the con- 
tents should melt. 
YUBA. 

Beautiful Oranges. — Marysville Appeal, 
Dec. 27 : Wm. Karr, of this city, placed upon 
our table yesterday a half bushel of oranges. 
Some of these were in mammoth clusters, 
crowding each other on their stems, while the 
lot was of good size and well flavored. Mr. 
Karr, at his place on the corner of F and Sixth 
streets, has a dozen or more bearing trees, and 
in another year will be able to pick from 25 to 
30 trees. Mr. Karr is in the van this year in 
oranges, both as to size and number. 



6$ 



A TENTS AND 



«3F 

Inventions. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

[From Official Reports for tub Mining and Scientific 
Press, DEWEY & CO., Publishers and U. S. 
and Foreign Patent Agents ] 

By Special Dispatch from Washington. D. C. 

For the Week Ending December 17th, 1878. 
Clips for Hope Tramways.— Andrew S. Hallidie, S. F. 
Breech -Loading Fike-Arm.s.— Julius Bluemel, S. F 
Ore Stamps.— Stephen Kendall, Jackson, Cal. 
Wagon Jacks.— Harris H. Margeson, East Oakland, Cal. 
Windmills.— Thomas E. Martin, San Jose, Cal. 
Bitters —Trademark— Charles R. Burrage, S. F. 
Chocolate, Broma and Cocoa. — Trademark— Domingo 
Ghirardelli, S. F. 



News in Brief. 

Tartar agitation in Russia. 
Troubles with students in Russia. 
Virginia City shows further signs of settling. 
A question is being raised on the land titles 
of Bodie. 

Senator Sargent's health is rapidly im- 
proving. 

There are 6,000 unemployed persons in 
Geneva. 

The recent fatal epidemic has disappeared 
from Geneva. 

Two flouring mills destroyed by fire at Black 
Rock, near Buffalo, N. Y. 

The final appeal of the Spanish would-be 
regicide is reported rejected. 

Greece is pleased with the action of the Porte 
in appointing a frontier Commission. 

Several arrests have been made of the 
Breathitt county, Ky., desperadoes. 

A well-known resident of Washington, died 
from the effects of the bite of a man. 

E. L. Pierce, of Boston, has been appointed 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States. 

A hotel keeper has been arrested at Copen- 
hagen for threatening to shoot the King. 

The Captain and officers of the steamship 
Pomerania have been acquitted of blame. 

The Blaine Committee of Investigation has 
adjourned until the reassembling of Congress. 

The German Fishery Verein will hold an in- 
ternational exhibition at Berlin in April, 1880. 

Great preparations are making at the City 
of Mexico for the reception of the American ex- 
cursionists. 

A change of management is about to occur in 
the branch of the Bank of British Columbia at 
San Francisco. 

The people of Ceara, Brazil, are dying at the 
rate of 600 daily of small-pox, and the distress 
is appalling. 

The repair shops and other property of the 
Oswego Midland railroad, burned - at Middle 
town, N. Y. 

In the trial for slander at Victoria, B. C. , a 
verdict was given the plaintiff for the full 
amount claimed. 

Thirty steamers have been chartered at 
Odessa, to convey home a portion of the Rus- 
sian army of occupation. 

TnE Great Council of State of Geneva, 
Switzerland, has accepted the principle of sepa 
| ration of Church and State. 



Washington Irrigated Colony.— This col- 
ony enterprise, located in Fresno county, is pro- 
gressing favorably, we are informed. We gave, 
some months ago, a map and general description 
of the lands, and lots are still being sold to 
those who want homes, on easy terms, viz. : A 
20-acre lot, with a perpetual water-right for irri- 
gation, will cost $700, or $35 per acre, payable 
as follows: $150 cash at time of purchase, 36 
monthly installments of $12.50 each, and a final 
payment of $100. The office of the colony is 
at 22 Montgomery St., S. F., James Stratton 
being President and general Manager. 

Personal Adornment. — The number of 
people who have drawn upon the stock of 
Palmer Bros., for their handsome clothing, 
underwear, toilet articles, etc., during the last 
few weeks, is beyond count. The firm, at their 
establishment 726 to 734 Market street, have a 
splendid variety of goods to choose from, and 
one can hardly go amiss in seeking everything 
necessary for personal adornment and comfort 
at their store. 



San Jose Nurseries, 

Eds. Press:— I confess that I perform no duty as an 
occasional correspondent of the Press, which affords me 
more pleasure than an occasional visit to our splendid 
nurseries to note what progress is being made in that im- 
portant line of our industries. This business is clothed 
with peculiar interest on this coast, when we consider the 
wonderful adaptability of eur soil and climate to grow not 
only all the trees and plants of the Eastern States with 
which most of us are familiar, but a great variety of for- 
eign trees, shrubs and plants, new and unknown to us, 
till we see them growing in our nurseries and plant 
houses — especially the numerous strange and beautiful 
importations from Australia, China and Japan, with which 
our enterprising nurserymen surprise and delight us every 
year. I think in a few 3'ears more California will present 
the novelty of the world in a nut shell— an epitome not 
only of the different peoples, languages, habits and reli- 
gions, but of the climates, trees, fruits, plants and flowers 
of the whole world, so that our Eastern brethren who 
wish to see the world at small expense of time and money, 
will only have to cross the Sierras and spend a few months 
in California. 

The Los Gatos Nurseries, 

Of which S. Newhall is proprietor, offers the trade this 
season a larger and better assorted stock than ever before 
Although Mr. Newhall imports less than some of his 
brethren of the craft, yet he yields the palm to no one in 
the way of the honest home-made article. He is still, as 
in the past, regarded as an oracle "in the Willows" on all 
questions about fruit tiees. And I think a man could 
hardly ask for a better endorsement, or a better advertise- 
ment either (unless it should be in the Rural Press), than 
the splendid orchards that have grown up all around him. 
I found at 

Rock's Nurseries, 

North of town, an immense stock of home-grown and im- 
ported fruit and ornamental trees and plants, and every- 
thing in tiptop order for the looked-for rains and the 
planting season. The rich, deep sandy loam soil of the 
Cayote river banks, where most of Mr. Rock's home-grown 
trees are raised, always secures a strong, healthy and uni- 
form growth that can hardly fail to please the most par- 
ticular and fastidious customers. To those wishing to 
buy largely, and consequently at low figures, I should 
think Mr. Rock could afford peculiar inducements, as his 
plantations are large and broad, and his varieties are 
many. In the way of ornamentals, his numerous plant 
houses are well stocked with rare and beautiful gems 
gathered from many lands. In this department Mr. Kock 
keeps fully up with the times; and I understand that his 
importations from abroad have, so far this season, come 
to hand in most excellent condition. G. W. M. 

Santa Clara, Cal., Dec. 21st, 1878. 



For the best servant girls send to lady Clerk at A. 
Zcehandehiar's Employment Agency, 027 Sacramento St., 
San Francisco. In ordering female help it is always cus- 
tomary to advance the fare. Please remit the traveling 
expenses, for which will be purchased ticket and the girl's 
receipt taken. 

TDK celebrated Troy (N. Y.) shirts can be found at Pal 
mer Bros. , No. 726 Market street, San Francisco. They 
keep a full and complete stock, laundricd and unlaundried, 
of men's and boys' sizes of the above make. 



Artesian Wells Wanted — Parties who are prepared to 
contract for boring artesian wells are invited to send 
terms to Edward Frisbie, proprietor of the Reading Ranch, 
Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



The Youth's Companion. —For judicious editing, selec 
and popular contributors, and sprightly, entertaining 
reading, the Youth's Companion hM no superior amonjf 
the youth's publications. 



6 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 




Flower of Grass. 

The gracefulness that homely life takes on 

When love is at its roof, you saw in her; 

No color, but soft tints in lovely blur— 
A charm which if so much as named was gone, 

Like light out of a passing cloud. Yet when 
The fairer faces bloomed on you alone, 

Without the softening of your presence, then 
Into their look had something garish grown— 

Some tenderness had faded from the air— 
A loss so subtle and so undefined 

The thought was blamed that hinted loss was there 

The nature of such souls is to be blind 
To self, and to self-seeking; let them blend 

Their life as harmony and atmospnerc 

With other lives; let them but have a friend 

Whose merit they may set off, or endear, 
And they are gladder than in any guess 

Or dreams "of their own separate happiness. 

Earth were not sweet without such souls as hers; 

Even of the rose and lily might we tire; 
She was the flower of grass, that only stirs 

To soothe the air, and nothing doth require 
But to forget itself in doing good; 
One of life's lowly, saintly multitude. 

— Lucy Larcom, in Sunday Afternoon. 



Her Rose Garden. 

Being a Tale of Two Young Married People, 
and their Gardening Mishaps. 

(Written for the Rural Pbrss by Charlzs II. Bran. 
CHAPTER IV. 
The warm summer days came full of color 
and rapture. A golden sea of bending wheat 
rolled to the very doorstep. Mrs. Bailey loved 
to stand in the doorway every morning and 
watch the sunlight leap from peak to peak, and 
fill each dark ravine, and melt into the valley 
and fold it in a glowing embrace, and glorify 
with wonderful beauty the ripening harvest 
fields. But John Bailey said there was too 
much wheat, and no war anywhere; they should 
not make their fortuues that season. It was a 
very pretty picture, he admitted, but not much 
besides. 

"Shall we have country health and freedom, 
and our living, and a garden, and all this beauty 
— and a fortune the first year, besides ?" asked 
his wife, with brightening eyes. "We mustn't 
wish for a war anywhere. I hate the very idea. 
We shall have money enough, I am sure," she 
said. 

Mr. Bailey smiled. "Yes, I hope so," here- 
plied, and complained no more thenceforward. 

As for the garden, the days of irrigation and 
of much water-carrying, so gloomily prognos- 
ticated by the wise John, had fairly come. The 
hot days did not crack the well-mulched sur- 
face of the ground, but the plants certainly be- 
gan to droop. 

Mrs. Bailey sprinkled everything with labori- 
ous firmness, night and morning. Had this 
course been continued it would have ruined her 
garden, being merely a stimulus and temporary 
makeshift. Mere sprinkling is in the long run 
a failure, always, and s> Mr. Bailey decided 
when he investigated the surface of the ground. 

"Let us wet the garden tuoroughly," said he, 
"and then see how it works. I have an idea it 
will be a vast improvement " 

The well stood near the garden, and by nail- 
ing some old fence boards in the shape of V 
water-boxes, the water was easily carried into 
the corner of the garden. Mr. Bailey drew the 
water and kept an almost constant stream. 
Mrs. Bailey used a hoe, and made narrow chan- 
nels which directed the water to each plant in 
succession. They were near enough to chat 
back and forth. Minor adventures occurred, 
such as that Mr. Bailey nearly fell into the 
well, by reason of his over-anxiety to keep his 
wife busy; and Mrs. Bailey plastered her shoes 
with mud in her great desire to keep her hus- 
band doing his very best; which both of them 
did, to be sure. 

At last, after several hours of hard work, the 
garden was irrigated — and thorougly too. New 
mulching of straw was put on wherever the old 
was blown off. After a few days this was raked 
into heaps, the surface of the ground was care- 
fully mellowed, and the mulching was again 
spread on. The effect was marvelous, in that 
dry climate. The plants grew like weeds, pe- 
tunias, asters, candytuft and all the rest. The 
roses gave a quadrupled supply of buds. There 
was evidently great satisfaction in the little 
flower-republic, and nearly six weeks passed 
before there was slightest need of another 
watering. 

By July many of the plants raised from seeds 
were in full flower, and they lighted up tho 
whole garden. The square bed of double portu- 
laca, two feet each way, was a mass of color, 
and close beside this was a cluster of dark-eyed, 
winsome pansies. Each day, and often twenty 
times a day, Mrs. Bailey went to visit them, 
pansies and portulacas being close to her heart. 

"John," said she, one night, when they were 



watering the garden, "do you suppose that any- 
thing could happen to my pansies ? Do you 
see any contingency to speak of, anything, for 
instance, that an insurance man would make a 
note of ? " 

"Well, no !" he said. Pigs are unaccountable, 
but I don't think they will demoralize our fence. 
Gophers are not plenty here, though if you see 
any mounds of fresh earth let me know, and we 
will use a little poison. Cats are irrepressibly 
active, but they do not do much harm unless 
they roll on a brittle plant. I cannot at present 
imagine a greater danger. " 

But it came the next day in the shape of a 
large drove of cattle belonging to the wealthiest 
man in the neighlxirhood. They were being 
driven past on the public road, pushing 
and crowding each other through the dense 
cloud of dust, when the gate opening upon the 
Bailey's "rented ranch" gave way, being old 
and much dilapidated. In a second almost, a 
dozen of the herd pressed in at full speed, aud, 
passing around the corner of the house, one of 
them charged through the garden, making it 
appear a general mixture and wreck of affairs, 
aud carrying off some sweet-pea vines and a 
fragment of lattice tangled over her horns. 
One of the swarthy Mexican vaqueros galloped 
in, with the perfect elasticity and saddle-wise 
freedom which characterize that race of noble 
horsemen; Mr. Bailey left the hayfield and ran 
to the iield of action ; after a long, exciting 
chase over the grain, they gathered in the sulky, 
exhausted, panting cattle and thrust them out 
at the broken gate to join their companions, 
now half a mile down the road under the domin- 
ation of another red-shirted Mexican. 

Mr. Bailey came back and looked into the 
sunny little garden, where so many hopes had 
clustered and so many pure fancies had gathered; 
the little, blossoming garden of roses for love, 
and pansies for memory; the garden where birds 
sang and butterflies flitted, and the deep mur- 
mur of happy bees was even as the mysterious 
chime of a lost sea-shell. A littie figure crouched 
in its ruined heart ; there was a faint sound of 
weeping as delicate as the tinkle of dewdrops 
shaken from the ferns of spring. With her 
face hidden in the friendly sun-bonnet, Mrs. 
Bailey, who was the most child-like woman 
imaginable, was mourning over her pansies, 
crushed almost out of recognition. 

"Poor little faces, so broken, so soiled," she 
said softly. "It is a shame, a cruel shame." 

Mr. Bailey walked through the broken place 
and stooping over, put his strong arms around 
her, and lifted her up with soothing words and 
caresses. 

"Never mind, dearest," he said, "we are not 
going to give up, are we!" 

"No indeed," she cried, pushing back the 
sun- bonnet. "But 0! it does look so bad, 
John ! That dreadful cow took half the sweet 
peas up by the roots, and wore them off on her 
head" — 

"After the manner of a triumphal wreath, a 
sign of conquest," he interpolated. She looked 
half angry — "Now, John! This is not a funny 
subject. 1 it was awful I" 

"All right," said that personage, with a seri- 
ous air, and he drew down the corners of his 
mouth most amazingly, so that only a sly twin- 
kle revealed itself in the angles of his luminous 
eyes. 

"Yes ! you are right," he continued. "This i# 
a dreadful piece of business, and quite puts one 
out of conceit with life." 

Mrs. Bailey began to laugh at the tone of 
high tragedy, and quite recovered her usual spir- 
its. She caught him by the arm, and they took 
an inventory of damages: Fence broken in two 
places; two rose bushes broken off, both in full 
bloom, and very handsome; three aster plauts 
which were sending up flower-spikes, ruined; 
half the sweet peas torn up; the small patches 
of petunias, pansies and portulacas badly 
trampled and broken. 

"That is much more than any one of Mr. 
Leigh's cattle is worth," said Mrs. Bailey, in- 
cisively. 

"Yes, very nearly, madam," said a quiet voice 
with the courteous inflections of a gentleman. 

She looked up swiftly, with a sense of being 
most severely caught — a tall man, whom she 
recognized as Mr. Leigh, the owner of the cat- 
tle, stood by the fence, and raised his hat as he 
met her startled gaze. Her face fairly burned. 

"0, dear ! I didn't mean to say that," she ex- 
claimed, aud so subsided, being embarrassed be- 
yond expression. She took her husband's 
hands in hers, clinging fast, not looking again 
at Mr. Leigh. 

"0, John! John! she cried, "Tell him 
about our garden, and how we loved it; tell 
him I was only angry; it was only an accident, 
it wasn't his fault." And so saying, she gath- 
ered up her broken pausy flowers, and fled 
with swift silence into the house, wither may 
the sympathies of our readers attend her. 

The Gibraltar Tunnel. — The proposed 
tunnel between Spain and Africa is still before 
the public. This tunnel, according to the plan 
at present contemplated, is to extend from 
within a short distance of Algeciras, on the 
Spanish side, to between Tangier and Ceuta on 
the African side. The length of the submarine 
tunnel will be nine miles, with an inclination of 
one foot per hundrad, and the approaches wili 
have an extent of six or seven miles. The 
greatest depth of the sea is 3,000 feet ; and, as 
it is intended to have a thickness of some 300 
feet of rock left between the roof of the tunnel 
and the sea bottom, the greatest depth of the 
tunnel will thus be 3,300 feet below the level of 
the sea.— Am. Architect, 



Individuality. 

[Written for the Rural Prbsb, by Cordelia.) 

An apple once said to a pear, swinging on a 
Umb close by: "What gives you that form, 
friend ? What, this to me ? The parent stem 
which supports you, differs but little from that 
of mine in appearance, and seemingly, the same 
conditions give to your cheek a bronzed color 
while mine takes on the red." 

" Your query is a deep one," remarked the 
pear, "and calls to my mind the experience of 
the husbandman who persisted in feeding from 
the same bountiful trough, the same kind of 
food, to his poultry and pigs — yet feathers 
would grow on his poultry and bristles on the 
pigs. The hen, would be a hen and the hog, 
would be a hog. So it seems that our separate 
existence depends not so much on the sustain- 
ing power as on the creative ; that which con- 
stituted us distinctly individual. There are 
certain elements in the earth and atmosphere, 
which your organism calls for, to perfect you 
and give you that rose-tinted cheek of which 
you boast ; but you do not require all the sur- 
rounding elements to perfect your being, else a 
pear would never have been. Some parts which 
would have been rejected as unnecessary in 
your composition, could be used to the coraple 
tion of mine ; because of the very difference in 
our construction. Be it as it may, I am satisfied 
to be a pear, since I can better carry the stamp 
of my own individuality than that of any other. 
In the case of the hen and the pig, parts of the 
food given were absorbed to compose the finer 
flesh of the fowl, while the remainder was 
thrown aside as waste material ; yet, that which 
formed waste material for the fowl, could be 
used to make up the coarser body of the pig, 
thence the difference in the result." 

"Your philosophy is satisfactory said the 
apple, but why does not the same principle 
apply in the human family? It seems that a 
pear can be a perfect pear, a hen a perfect hen, 
etc. ; why cannot a human being be a perfect 
being ? On the contrary, we find him with a 
mind warped and dwarfed, purely from the ina- 
bility of the body to supply the conditions 
favorable to the growth of the mind toward 
perfection. He realizes this and has to con- 
tent himself to be incomplete, although in his 
origin was pronounced the most perfect of all 
created things." 

"True," said the pear, "but for them to 
make the most of this realization seems their 
hardest accomplishment. If they would but 
reflect that millions of your mates, and of mine, 
have fallen to the ground and have perished, 
while influence after influence was being 
brought to bear upon our germ life, through 
ever-changing conditions, until we were finally 
brought to our present standard of worth. 

"If they could realize that to be satisfied with 
their given individuality, and that to make the 
best use of its powers to possess the good and 
to resist evil, is their perfect life work. The 
end of human ambition would have been satis- 
fied in each individual, and each life a complete 
one as pertains to the earth. 

"Thus elements in principle 

Doth frive to life its soul 
And from the fragments incomplete 
Make one stupendous whole. 

Santa Clara, Cal. 

California. 

fWritten for the^RuRAL Press by O. W. Jolly.) 

The "Italy of America." The "land of 
sunshine and flowers," of "orange groves and 
milk and honey." The promised land of gold 
and plenty, where they toil but little, neither do 
they spin. That evergreen land where we may 
feast on strawberries in autumn, and water- 
melons and cucumbers in winter. Glorious 
laud 1 nearest like unto the Paradise lost, a 
shadow of the one to come. Beautiful homes 
bordering mountain streams laden with trout, 
with flowing wells, "big trees," groves and all 
complete, may be had for the taking. These, 
Mr. Editor, are some of the pictures drawn by 
many of our Eastern friends who migrate to 
California. They expect too much, and this is 
why so many return after a short stay at San 
Francisco or some other city or town near the 
terminus of the C. P. R. R. The majority 
come in the fall when all the fields and gardens, 
not irrigated, are dry and dusty. They see Cal- 
ifornia in the worst of its winter only, become 
alarmed at the contrast and return sighing for 
the green fields they left behind them, as did the 
children of Israel for their "onions and garlic" 
in the land of Egypt. 

California is the "Italy of America" in the 
broadest sense. As to the "sunshine and 
flowers" we have an abundance, especially of 
the sunshine, at present. The almost price- 
less orange groves of southern California make 
an emigrant with moderate means feel a good 
deal like a small boy in a candy shop with 
nothing but a big hole in his pocket. Yet 
oranges may be grown here with as little labor 
as apples in Iowa or peaches in New Jersey. 
There is plenty of public land in many of our 
counties, beautiful homes in embryo, but in 
many localities the wells flow only by means of 
a pump, with a man or windmill attached. To 
say nothing of the effects of hard winters, it 
requires just as much nerve, energy and enter- 
prise to make a new home in California as in 
Kansas or Nebraska. Unless one has plenty of 
means he must come down to the inevitable 
"shanty" and many other inconveniences as in 
the East. But new farms in this State are of- 
ten worth $50 to $100 per acre in a few years 



from settlement, which I am confident cannot 
be said of any other State in the Union. Our 
land appreciates in value rapidly, because it pays 
large dividends on investments. Our "New 
York" is at our door on the San Francisco bay, 
and we don't have to give two bushels of 
wheat or four of corn to get one to market. 
Paraiso Springs, Montery Co., CaL 

A Dinner of Horseflesh. 

"I went on Saturday," writes a Paris corre- 
spondent, "to a horse-flesh dinner, given by a 
M. Ducroix, Veterinary-in-Chief to the Etat 
Major of Paris. It was prepared by an ordinary 
cook, the host wishing his guests to know that 
the food placed before them owed none of its 
palatable virtues to extraordinary culinary sci- 
ence. Everything except the sweets at dessert 
was of Chevaline extraction. I thought the soup 
better than that made from beef. The bouilli 
was very toothsome; 'Cheval a la mode' was 
also excellent; but the crowning dish was roast 
filet, which was very tender and succulent. 
There was no flavor or odor that in the re- 
motest reminded one of the stable. 

"The weak point of the feast was the salad, 
which was dressed with oil taken from horse 
feet. M. Ducroix is an enthusiast, and dreams 
of nothing less than cheapening meat, and ren- 
dering the lives of horses tolerable by getting 
people to become hippophagists. If the ulti- 
mate fate of the horse was to be sent to the 
butcher's shambles instead of the slaughter 
house, cabmen, he opines, would be more mer- 
ciful to the beasts they drive, and the poor 
would be able to fall back from dear beef and 
mutton upon cheaper and more nutritive meat. 
Since hippophagy has been introduced here, 
more than 12,000 horses annually have fallen 
iuto the stewpans and soup-pots of the French 
capital. It appears, indeed, that the supply is 
scarcely equal to the demand. 

" On sitting down I felt, I confess, somewhat 
nervous. It occurred to me that sundry cheva- 
line diseases were propagated by innoculation. 
M. Ducroix, who suspected my misgivings, in- 
formed me that the inspection of horseflesh for 
the flesh market is more close than beef. The 
living animal has to pass a veterinary surgeon, 
and when it is reduced to the condition of 
butcher's meat, it is again subjected to a micro- 
scopic examination. Some members of the so- 
ciety fpr the protection of animals have invited 
M. Ducroix to London to make arrangements 
with them for a horse-flesh banquet at Crystal 
Palace, prepared by a French cook. " 

Home Scenes. 

I hate a dull, melancholy, moping thing ; I 
could not have existed in the same house with 
such a thing for a single month. The mopers 
are, too, all giggle at other times; the gayety is 
for others, ana the moping for the husband, to 
comfort him (happy man !) when he is alone ; 
plenty of smiles aud of badinage for others, but 
the moping is reserved exclusively for him. 
One hour she is capering about as-u rehearsing 
a jig, and the next, sighing to the motion of a 
lazy needle or weeping over a novel ; and this 
is called sentiment ! Music, indeed I Give me 
a mother, singing to her clean, and fat and rosy 
baby, and making the house ring with her ex- 
travagant and hyperbolical encomiums on it. 
That is the music which is " food of love," and 
not the formal pedantic noises — an affectation 
of skill in which is nowadays the ruin of half 
the young couples in the middle rank of life. 

Let any man observe, as I so frequently have 
with delight, the excessive fondness of the 
laboring people for their children. Let him ob- 
serve with what pride they dress them out on a 
Sunday, with means deducted from their own 
scanty meals. Let him observe the husband, 
who has toiled all the week like a horse, nursing 
the baby while the wife is preparing a bit of 
dinner. Let him observe them both abstaining 
from a sufficiency, lest the children should feel 
the pinchings of hunger. Let him observe, in 
short, the whole of their demeanor — the real, 
mutual affection evinced, not in words, but in 
unequivocal deeds. Let him observe these 
things, and having then cast a look at the Uvea 
of the great and wealthy, he will say with me 
that, when a man is choosing his partner for 
life, the dread of poverty ought to be cast to 
the winds. A laborer's cottage on a Sunday, 
the husband or wife having a baby in arms, 
looking at two or three older ones playing be- 
tween the flower-borders going from the wicket 
to the door, is, according to my taste, the most 
interesting object that eyes ever beheld. 

How to Smoke a Pipe. — A correspondent of 
the New York Sun gives the subjoined informa- 
tion: To those who are attached to the pipe, 
it may be a matter of interest to know how 
their last puff or draft of smoke may be as fresh 
as the first. It is well known that smoking in 
the usual manner the last portion of the tobacco 
becomes damp by presence of oil or nicotine 
drawn from the heated tobacco above, which 
causes a sickening and nauseating effect, bitter 
to the taste, unpleasant and unhealthy, as com- 
pared to the first half of a well-filled pipe. The 
following I have found to be effectual in giving 
me a good, fresh smoke from first to last: Place 
a small quantity of tobacco in the bottom of the 
bowl, light it, and when well afire, fill the pipe 
and before each draft give a light puff outward 
through the stem, which causes the tobacco to 
burn upward, all below being consumed. This 
is a sensible way of smoking the time-honored 
pipe. A still better way would be not to smoke 
atalL 



January 4, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PB1SS 



English Girls Then and Now. 

A writer to an English paper gives the modern 
English girl a sharp review. We trust the con- 
trast will not apply to American country girls. 
He writes: 

The English girls in the old country houses a 
generation agone, as the old-fashioned conserva- 
tive of the Standard remembers them, had a 
merry, genuine, unaffected smile. When a 
guest dropped in unexpectedly they were clearly 
delighted to see him, and not in the least 
ashamed of it. They showed an evident desire 
to please without a trace of an arriere pensee. 
Tall, well developed, in the hight of good 
health, with bloom upon the cheek and with 
brilliant eyes, they were irresistibly charming. 
But it was the merry laugh that dwelt so loDg 
in the memory— a laugh from the heart in the 
joyousness of youth. They joined freely in the 
conversation, but did not thrust themselves 
forward; and not a hint was breathed of those 
social scandals which now form the staple of 
fashionable gossip. They were well acquainted 
with household duties, and had not learned to 
regard them as menial. 

At table the mistress would suggest that tea 
was hardly strong enough for a man, and that 
a nip of brandy might improve it; and after the 
old-time late afternoon tea, all the girls would 
draw round the fire, and when pipes were pro- 
duced would ask the visitor to smoke; and even 
if he declined on account of the ladies, it was 
pleasant to be asked. As the conversation ran 
on, each of the girls candidly avowed her opin- 
ions upon such topics as were started, blushing a 
little when she was asked to give her reasons ; 
and there was individuality displayed that gave 
zest and interest to the talk. This was not so 
many years ago; but now when one calls at such 
a country house, how different is the reception! 
The servant shows the visitor into a drawing- 
room furnished in the modern style, and takes 
the name up stairs. 

By-and-by the ladies enter in morning cos- 
tume; not a stray curl allowed to wander from 
its stern bands; nature rigidly repressed; deco- 
rum, "society" in every flounce and trimming. 
A touch of the bell, and decanters of port and 
sherry are produced, and wine is presented on an 
electro salver, together with sweet biscuits — it 
being the correct thing to sip one glass and 
crack one biscuit. The conversation is so in- 
sipid, so entirely confined to the merest plati- 
tudes, that it becomes a relief to escape. The 
girls still have good constitutions and rosy looks, 
but they worry about it in secret, and wish they 
could appear thin and white and "more lady 
like." They have suppressed the slightest ap- 
proach to animation. They have all got just the 
game opinion on the same topics, for tliey have 
none at all. The idea of a laugh has departed. 
They read the so-called social journals and ab- 
sorb the gossip, tittle-tattle and personalities. 
The guest departs chilled and depressed. 
What a comfort when he can turn a corner 
behind the hedge, and can thrust his hand into 
his pockets and whistle. 

Indorsing for Friends. — My neighbor is in 
active business and I am only a fanner just out 
of debt, with a little at interest, bringing up 
and educating a family of children. He comes 
to me, holding out a note, large, for me to sign, 
saying, I wish you would just write your name 
on the back of this; I need the money very much; 
it will be a great accomodation to me, and you 
will only have to write your name. My answer 
is: "My friend, do you really understand what 
my position would be before the world and the 
law if I were to do this? I should instantly 
proclaim that from a state of complete indepen- 
dence, and without the slightest reason for a 
similar favor from you, and for no consideration 
whatever, except friendship, I have agreed to 
take upon myself the risk of your business, but 
with the difference against me, that if you lose 
I lose, and if you gain I do not. I share in 
your losses and not in your profits. But not 
only this; I should affirm before the public that 
you are responsible when I really know nothing 
of your circumstances, and in so far help you to 
deceive others. I give you a false credit. In 
short, I do that which no honest man true to 
himself and to his family, can do and be blame- 
less. Will any right-minded, real friend, with 
this view of the case, ask of me such a possible 
sacrifice?" — Country Gentleman. 



Book Clubs. — Few small American towns can 
boast of a circulating library of any importance, 
and cultured men and women suffer from the 
want of new books, periodicals, etc., which 
they individually cannot buy. This want can 
be obviated in a measure, by a friendly combi- 
nation between certain families or individuals, 
in which each contributes a given number of 
books to a common stock; these books are loaned 
to the members in turn. A more formal and a 
much better way is the formation of a book- 
club, in which each member pays at the begin- 
ning a certain sum, with which as many books 
are purchased as there are members, each 
one choosing a book; these pass in regular rota- 
tion from hand to hand, remaining a fortnight 
with each reader; thus 20 books may be read 
for the cost of one. When the books have 
passed around the circle they are sold to mem- 
bers for the benefit of the club. Fines for the 
detention and abuse of books also keep up th« 
funds. No officer is required in this associa- 
tion, except a treasurer. Another advantage 
in the plan is that books can be bought by the 
quantity at lower rates than singly. 



YodfJQ f ©tics' CqlJimn. 



The Three Billy Goats Gruff. 

Once upon a time there were three billy- 
goats, who were to go up to the hill-side to 
make themselves fat, and the name of all the 
three was "Gruff." 

On the way up was a bridge over a burn they 
had to cross; and under the bridge lived a great 
ugly Troll, with eyes as big as saucers, and a 
nose as long as a poker. 

So first of all came the youngest billy-goat 
Gruff to cross the bridge. 

"Trip, trap, trip, trap I" went the bridge. 

"Who's that tripping over my bridge?" roared 
the Troll. 

"Oh! its only I, the tiniest billy-goat Gruff; 
and I'm going up to the hill-side to make my- 
self fat," said the billy-goat, with such a small 
voice. 

"Now I'm going to gobble you up," said the 
Troll. 

"Oh, no! pray don't take me. I'm too little, 
that I am," said the billy-goat; "wait a bit till 
the second billy-goat Gruff comes; he's much 
bigger." 

'•Well, be off with you," said the Troll. 

A little while after came the second billy- 
goat Gruff to cross the bridge. 

"Trip, trap! trip, trap! trip, trap!" went the 
bridge. 

"Who's that tripping over my bridge?" roared 
the Troll. 

"Oh! its the second billy-goat Gruff, and I'm 
going up to the hill-side to make myself fat," 
said the billy-goat who hadn't such a small 
voice. 

"Now, I'm going to gobble, you up said the" 
Troll. 

"Oh, no! don't take me, wait a little till the 
big billy-goat Gruff conies; he's much bigger." 

"Very Well! be off with you," said the Troll. 

But just then came the big billy-goat Gruff. 

"Trip, trap! trip, trap! trip, trap!" went the 
bridge, for the billy-goat was so heavy that the 
bridge creaked and groaned under him. 

"Who's that tramping over my bridge?" 
roared the Troll. 

"It's I! the big billy-goat Gruff," said the 
billy-goat, who had an ugly hoarse voice of his 
own. 

"Now, I'm going to gobble you up," roared 
the Troll. 

"Well, come along! I've got two spears, 
And I'll puke your ey eballs out at your ears; 
I've got besides two curling-stones, 
And I'll crush you to bits, body and bones." 
That was what the billy-goat said; and so he 
flew at the Troll and poked his eyes out with 
his horns, and crushed him to bits, body and 
bones, and tossed him out into the burn, and 
after that he went up to the hill-side. There 
the billy-goats got so fat they were scarce able 
to walk home again, and if the fat hasn't fallen 
off them, why they're still fat; and so — 
"Snip, §nap, snout, 
This talc's told out. 



Lecture to Boys on Smoking. — Boys if you 
were German boys and should be caught smok- 
ing you would be locked up. In Germany the 
government has become anxious about the in- 
jurious effects of tobacco on the physique of the 
soldiers in coming days, and in order to rectify 
in some measure the evil, has ordered the police 
to arrest all under 16 found smoking on the 
streets, and to have them punished by fine and 
imprisonment. This will have a beueficial in- 
fluence in more ways than one. According to 
reports resulting from government investiga- 
tions among the boys attending the Polytechnic 
schools of Paris, a clearly defined line has been 
discovered between the smokers and the non- 
smokers, the latter being decidedly superior to 
the former in general scholarship and in mental 
vigor. The poisonous nicotine, so far counteract- 
ed in the adult smoker by the resisting forces of 
his matured physical constitution, lays hold of 
the forming nerve tissues of the young, and does 
its injurious work without hindrance. Smoking 
cannot be put down by act of Congress, but it 
would be a great improvement if the German 
custom of apprehending all under 1G found 
smoking in the streets could be put in force. 

Nine Subjects for Thought. — The following 
lines were copied from the album of a young 
lady of Elizabeth, N. J. : 

1. Three things to admire: Intellectual 
power, dignity and gratefulness. 

2. Three things to love: Courage, gentleness 
and affection. 

3. Three things to hate: Cruelty, arrogance 
and ingratitude. 

4. Three things to delight in: Frankness, 
freedom and beauty. 

5. Three things to wish for: Health, friends 
and a cheerful spirit. 

6. Three things to avoid: Idleness, loqua- 
city and flippant jesting. 

7. Three things to fight for: Honor, country 
and home. 

8. Three things to govern: Temper, ton- 
gue and conduct. 

9. Three things to think about: Life, 
death and eternity. 



He had broken his promise to marry the girl, 
and the father wanted a money consideration to 
help heal a wounded heart. The young man 
said he would consider areasonable proposition. 
"Well, then," said the irate father, who was 
seeking justice for his daughter, "young man, 
how does a dollar and a half strike you ?" 



Contagion in Carpets. 

Sewerage in these days is receiving a fair 
share of public and private attention, and the 
walls of houses, where contagious diseases have 
been, are very generally cleaned, whitewashed, 
or newly papered; but carpets are too often 
overlooked as the carriers of disease. The truth 
is that they, more than any article of furniture, 
more even than the walls of the room, gather 
and retain dust; and this dust, though chiefly 
inorganic and comparatively harmless, contains 
organic germs, which only need to be raised into 
the air and taken into the human economy to 
develop into active disease, creating, under 
favorable circumstances, an epidemic. Dust 
usually considered as comparatively harmless, 
is a most fruitful source of catarrh and con- 
sumption. The irritation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, throat and lungs, becoming 
chronic, leads to serious disease, that under- 
mines health and destroys life. 

Many women say: "If it were not for the 
sweeping of my carpets I could get along with 
housekeeping very well." Many women know 
from experience that sweeping is one of the 
great trials of the housekeeper's life, and that it 
causes much of "the weakness" among women. 
"Fore-warned is to be fore-armed." When we 
see the need of change, we are ready to accept 
the better methods. What shall these better 
methods be in relation to carpets and disease? 

How easy carpets may convey contagion was 
proved by a case quoted by Prof. Tyndall, when 
he showed that a case of scarlatina, which was 
supposed by the physicians to be sporadic, was 
not so, but obtained by contagion. He said: 
"The question arose, how did the young lady 
catch scarlatina? She had come on a visit two 
months previously, and it was only after she 
had been a month in the house that she was 
taken ill. The housekeeper at once cleared up 
the mystery. The young lady, on her arrival, 
had expressed a wish to occupy a nice isolated 
room. Iu this room six months previously a 
visitor had been confined with an attack of scar- 
latina. The room had been swept and white- 
washed, but the carpets had been permitted to 
remain." 



How to Make and Use Beef Tea. 

An ordinary glass jar, such as is used in can- 
ning fruit, with the glass cover laid over the 
top, is very convenient, but like all other recep- 
tacles, must be thoroughly cleansed and aired 
after using before using again. Scrupulous 
cleanliness is very essential. If in great haste, 
the juiciest portion of the beef held over a brisk 
fire until heated, but not cooked, and then 
squeezed hard through a perfectly cleansed 
lemon-squeezer, is an excellent way, and makes 
a palatable article with the addition of a little 
salt. Salt is the only seasoning usually 
allowed, but the patient's taste should be con- 
sulted, when not injurious. When the patient 
tires of these modes, scrape with a sharp knife 
enough lean, juicy beef to fill a pint bowl, add 
a little water, cover close and set in the oven 
and let it bake slowly. When about half done 
remove the cover and let it brown a little, then 
cover again and let it cook a while longer. Beef 
tea made after this last mode has been accepted 
in cases where all other ways have failed. 

Never approach a patient with a spoon in 
the hand when about to give nourishment. 
Put just what you wish taken, and no more, in 
the daintiest and prettiest teacup in the house. 
Have the tea of just the right temperature, 
and let the patient drink it from the cup, but 
remove the cup from the room as soon as used; 
and, we would add, wash, scald and put it in 
its proper place. When more tea is needed, 
take another and entirely different cup. This 
seem a little thing, but the comfort of the sick 
must depend largely on little things, and who 
shall blame them if sometimes fanciful or un- 
reasonable ? 



Starvation in the Nursery. — In an article 
headed "Starvation in the Nursery," the Lon- 
don Lancet calls attention to what it says is a 
fact established by daily experience — that large 
numbers of persons occupying decent positions 
in society systematically starve their children, 
in respect of that article of food which is the 
most essential to their nutrition. Even to very 
young and fast-growing children they give 
cocoa with water, and not always a suspicion of 
milk ; corn-flour with water just clouded with 
milk ; tea, oatmeal, baked flour, all sorts of 
materials, indeed, as vehicles of milk, but so 
very lightly laden with it that the term is a 
sham. The consequence of this misplaced 
economy is, that there are thousands of house- 
holds in which the children are pale, slight, un- 
wholesome-looking, and, as their parents say in 
something like a tone of remonstrance, "always 
delicate." Ignorance, no doubt, is often the 
cause. The parents do not know that, suppos- 
sing there were no other reason, their wisest 
economy is to let their growing young ones have 
their unstinted fill of milk, even though the 
dairyman's bill should come to nearly as much 
as the wine merchant's in the course of the 
week. But in many, the medical paper is of 
opinion, the stint is a simple meanness, a pitiful 
economy in respect of that which, it is supposed, 
will not be open to the criticism of observant 
friends. 



Dqimesjic 



Irish Stew. — One and a half pounds of 
canned meat, one and a half pounds of potatoes, 
half a pound of onions. Time required, about 
one hour. To make an Irish stew: — Wash one 
and a half pounds of potatoes well in cold water, 
and scrub them clean with a scrubbing brush. 
If the potatoes are not very good, or are in any 
way diseased, take a sharp knife, peel them, 
and cut out the eyes and any black specks about 
them; but it is much better to steam or boil 
them in their skins. Fill a saucepan with hot 
water, and put it on the fire to boil. Peel half 
a pound of onions. When the water is quite 
boiling put the potatoes in a steamer and sprinkle 
them over with salt. As the onions are to be 
eaten with the potatoes, put them in the sauce- 
pan of boiling water, and they can be boiled 
while the potatoes are being steamed. Place 
the steamer on the saucepan of boiling -water, 
and cover it down tight to keep the steam in. 
Let the potatoes steam and the onions boil for 
half an hour. Now open the tin of canned meat, 
take one and a half pounds of meat out of the 
tin and cut it in slices; take a fork and put it 
in the potatoes and onions to feel if they are 
quite tender; when they are sufficiently cooked 
take the potatoes out of the steamer, put them 
on a board, and cut them in slices; take the 
onions out of the saucepan, put them on a 
board, and cut them in slices; take a large 
saucepan, put in a layer of potatoes, then a 
layer of onions, then a layer of meat; sprinkle a 
little pepper and salt over each layer of meat 
for seasoning; pour half a pint of warm water 
into the saucepan, put it on the fire, and let the 
meat and vegetables simmer until they are thor- 
oughly warmed through. For serving, turn 
the Irish stew out upon a hot dish. 



Keeping Butter. — Prof. Arnold is undoubt- 
edly right in assuming that butter made from 
milk set in refrigerators will not keep so well 
as if the cream was raised in an atmosphere of 
nearly the same temperature as that in which 
the butter is kept. Such butter should be sold 
as soon as made, unless the dairyman has a 
cellar of unusual coolness, which is not the case 
with the average cellar. If a strong brine is 
put on top of the package it will help to lower 
the temperature a degree or two, and to pre- 
serve the contents. If the package is placed on 
a stone it will be cooler than if set on the ground. 
Shutting the hot air out of the cellar and keep- 
ing it free from dirt and decaying vegetables 
are most important things to be looked after. 
We had a half bushel of onions removed from 
our cellar this season because of the strong odor 
from them, which would, no doubt, have affected 
the butter. Butter is so very sensitive in these 
respects that every one of these little things 
must be considered if it is kept sweet and good. 
— F. D. Curtis, in N. Y. Tribune. 



Rice Pie. — Take cold rice, cooked in milk; 
add sufficient cream to make quite thin; mash 
it with a wooden or silver spoon till free from 
lumps. Beat up four eggs very light, yolks 
and whites separately; sweeten to suit your 
taste, and pour in the eggs, the whites last; stir 
well; cover a deep custard or pumpkin pie- 
plate with pastry, pour in the rice, and bake, 
but not long enough to make the custard wa- 
tery. Rice pie should be made thick, and eaten 
when fresh, but not till after it is cold. Child- 
ren are found of it, and may be allowed as much 
as they wish. 



Apple Sauce Pies. — Take mellow, tart 
apples, pare, core and stew till the pulp is free 
from lumps, and mash fine. To every pint of 
the sauce add a teaspoonful of butter, one tea- 
spoonful of ground cinnamon and beat all 
together. Line a pie-tin with crust and till in 
the sauce. Cut strips of pastry and decorate 
the top of the pie ; bake in a moderately hot 
oven. When the crust is done the pie will be 
ready to remove from the oven. To be eaten 
warm with a dressing of sweetened sweet cream 
dipped over it. 



Graham Muffins. — Dissolve a half cake of 
yeast in a little warm water, scald a quart of 
milk and pour it into two quarts of graham 
flour, stir well, and let it cool sufficiently, then 
put in the yeast and a spoonful of brown sugar, 
make a very thick batter, which will heap on 
the spoon; set to rise over night. In the morn- 
ing have a good hot oven, butter your rings and 
the pan well with cold butter, fill the rings two- 
thirds full, let them stand a few minutes in a 
warm place, then put into the brisk oven and 
bake half an hour. 

Apple John.— Pare, quarter and core enough 
apples to fill a three or four quart crock. Make 
a batter a little thicker than for pancakes ; put 
a layer of apples on the bottom of the crock, 
then pour over some of the batter ; then another 
layer of apples, then batter, and so on, until all 
is used ; then put a thick soda crust on the top, 
and bake for three hours. To be eaten with a 
sweet sauce. Very nice. 

Baked or Steamed Indian Pudding. —For 
one quart of sweet milk take a half-dozen large 
spoonfuls of best corn-meal: wet it with syrup, 
and pour the milk over boiling hot, stirring it 
meanwhile. Chop fine three or four larj^e sub- 
acid apples, and stir in; steam or bake three- 
quarters of an hour; than beat an egg with a 
spoonful of sugar, and add a little milk, and 
stir in, 



i. 



8 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
I A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, 102 Sarusome St., XT. IS. Corner Pine. St. 



Annual SrBscHirrioss, $4; 8ix months, $2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
rim cents will be deducted. No HI names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
AvBKTifeiNO RiTBS. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 25 .80 82 00 $ 5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 

Lar ;Je advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisemeints, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the pa|>er 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 



Tins Paper will be supplied to the trade through the 
S. F. News Co., No. 41S Washington Street, S. F. 



Our latest forms go to p7-ess Wednesday evening. 



Quack Advertising positively declined. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DBWKY. W. B. EWER. ^ 0. B. STRONG. 



SAN -FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 4, 1879. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— A New Eastern Seedling Grape; Prof. 
Gray and the Lightning-Rod Man; The Codling Moth; 
Time for Vine Pruning; A Cussed Country, This, 1. 
Patents and Inventions, 5. The Week; Our Great 
Wheat Customer; Overflow and Orange Trees, 8. The 
Great Gray Owl; Chufas for Hogs; Fresh Australian 
Fruits in the English Market; "Standard" Frames for 
the Different Localities of California, 9. Fluctuations 
of Prices for 15 Years in the San Francisco Wheat 
Market, 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. —The "Rochester," A New Seed- 
ling Grape, 1. Great Gray Owl; The "Langstroth" and 
"American" Types of Bee-Hives, 9. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— National Grange 
Meeting; Election of Officers; In Memoriam, 4. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES — Bearing the Wheat 
Market; A Cross-bred Oak; Paternoster Bean; Teosinte 
from Chile; Wheat Prices in San Francisco; Sweet and 
Cool Water, 8. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 5 and other pages. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Scenes in the High Sierra 
Back of Yosemite— Continued; Scintillations from the 
Los Angeles Fair.— No. 2, 2-3. Santa Cruz County 
Productions; Tuolumne County, 3. 

HORTICULTURE.- Almonds, Walnuts and Winter 
Fruits, 3. 

THE APIARY. - California Honey, 3. 

PISCICULTURE.— Carp Culture-No. 3. 3. 

HOME CIRCLE — Flower of Grass (poetry); Her 
Rose Garden; The Gibraltar Tunnel; Individuality; Cali- 
fornia; A Dinner of Horseflesh; Home Scenes; How to 
Smoke a Pipe, 6. English Girls Then and Now; In- 
dorsing for Friends; Book Clubs, 7- 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — The Three Billy 
Goats Gruff ; Lecture to Boys on Smoking; Nine Sub- 
jects for Thought, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Contagion in Carpets; How to 
Make and Use Beef Tea; Starvation in the Nursery, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Irish Stew; Keeping 
Butter; Rice Pie; Apple Sauce Pies; Graham Muffins; 
Apple John; Baked or Steamed Indian Pudding, 7. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

O'Boswell's Combined Heater, Cooker, Baker, Clothes 
and Fruit Drier, fcf Martin's Centennial Windmill, T. 
E. Martin, San Jose, Cal. 43TSeed Wheat Wanted, F. J. 
Russell, Chicago, 111. iSTThe Dingee & Conard Co.'s 
Ever-blooming Roses. jt^TKern Valley Colony, Kern 
County, Cal. , Horatio P. Livennore, Agent, S. F. A'STFarm 
For Sale, Wm. J. Prosser, Rocklin, Cal. i^-Dividend No- 
tice—The German Savings and Loan Society, S. F. 



The Week. 



The- clouds are generous. The New Year's 
gift of the longed-for rain will smooth many an 
anxious face and set free the heart and hand for 
holiday making. The downfall is just in time 
to cheer the desponding, strengthen the doubt- 
ful, and bring the croakers a "dish of crow" 
for New Year's dinner. The outlook is for an 
old-fashioned storm. Tht prolonged north wind, 
with its unwonted cold and arctic deeds upon 
the still waters, has met ,ts usual rebuff at the 
south and is being hurled back to its chilly 
caverns. We saw last year the truth of the 
Baying that the "south wind never dies indebted 
to the norther," and it is fair to expect some- 
what similar victory for the warm-breathed 
southern champion this year. 

It is indeed a theme for rejoicing and thanks- 
giving that the promise of bountiful production 
is again outheld to earnest laborers. During 
the weeks of waiting there has been a vast 
amount of work and Beed deposited in the soil, 
and this leaves the less for winter labor. It is 
true that there have been some losses from early 
seeding, and reseeding has been required in 
some cases, but, as a rule, early work will show 
its value if the rains be such as present signs 
indicate. Let them come, warm and heavy, and 
California will again go forward a prosperous 
year'3 journey into the brilliance of her future. 



Our Great Wheat Customer. 

In addition to the interest in British affairs, 
which many Californians have inherited as a 
birthright, there is another interest in the "old 
country" as our best customer for wheat. Re- 
ports are rife that the industrial affairs of Eng- 
land are in a bad way, in other words, that she 
is commercially unwell, and the shopkeeper 
hears with alarm of misfortunes among those 
who have the greatest capacity for his wares ; so 
we, wishing to sell England more and more 
wheat, are alarmed to hear continued reports of 
decline in her manufactures and commerce, 
which must sooner or later exert an influence 
upon the purchasing power of the nation. And 
the matter has a special interest to Americans, 
because it is plain that our manufacturers, by 
filling our own demand for their goods, and by 
sappings the foundation of England's trade in 
the same articles in other parts of the world, 
are fast crippling England's manufacturing 
progress. Thus it seems that Americans, by 
supplying unlimited wheat to England, and 
manufactures to the rest of the world, are en- 
deavoring both to stuff and to starve John Bull at 
the same moment If we should further pursue 
this phenomena of cross purposes on the part of 
Brother Jonathan, it would probably be seen 
that his boys, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, 
have their hands upon the throat of the goose 
which lays the golden eggs for Minnesota, 
California, and the other youngsters of the 
West. 

This matter of the decline of British indus- 
tries, although it possesses some features to 
gratify a pride in American progress, is indeed 
no joke to England. English papers are filled 
with both blessings and cursings when they 
write of British trade and foreign competition. 
The London Trade Journal for December comes 
to the discussion of the subject with a bristling 
batallion of statistics and diagrams, showing the 
course of the figures in case sluggish brains may 
not appreciate their startling directions. Prob- 
ably our readers can get ideas enough from a 
few unpictured figures to understand the 
features of the situation. In the first place it 
is shown that in 1872, exports of British manu- 
factures reached their highest amount, and du- 
ring the five years following, declined more 
than §250,000,000, while at the same time im- 
ports increased $200,000,000. It is also shown 
that during the same five years the value of 
British home produce and manufactures declined 
$280,000,000, and United States home produce 
and manufactures increased $175,000,000. From 
these figures it appears, first, that Great Britain 
has been steadily increasing her purchases and 
decreasing her sales at an alarming rate; second, 
that while British home industries have de- 
clined notably, United States home industries 
have advanced notably. But the most perti- 
nent showing between Great Britain and the 
United States is found in another diagram indi- 
cating that during the five years above cited, 
American exports to Great Britain increased 
$100,000,000; British exports to this country 
decreased $120,000,000. Thus it clearly ap- 
pears how largely we have pushed our produce 
upon the British, and at same time reduced our 
patronage of her industries. 

These facts of course furnish English writers 
abundant suggestion for comment. Of course, 
the United States is roundly lectured for the 
protective system of duties which are levied upon 
imported goods, and yet such lectures apply 
with equal force to many of England's colonies, 
where the same rule is maintained to the detri- 
ment of British manufacturers. John Bull can 
hardly blame us when his own children make 
him knock two or three times before opening 
the door to him. 

Although we deeply regret the decline in in- 
dustries anywhere, because it is not the spirit of 
enlightenment to build upon ruins or to gain 
happiness from others' distress, no American 
can fail to feel satisfaction at the progress which 
this country is now making in supplying the 
world's demands for products, and thus building 
up our prosperity by useful arts. We like to 
sell England wheat, and the prospect is that for 
some time at least we shall have good round 
lots to dispose of. We have certainly done 
something to bridge her over her dark period, 
for we have sold her wheat this year at a very 
trifling advance over cost of production. We 
have done this much to aid in supplying her 
cheap food while purchaser's money was low, 
and whether we did this willingly or not the I 



fact is the same. Whatever may be the out- 
come of the present course of affairs, we shall 
still have food to send her, with the wish that it 
may give her strength to struggle through a 
period of depression, the like of which comes 
at times to all nations, and which is a much 
lighter affliction than she has triumphed over in 
former years. 

Overflow and Orange Trees. — The eff ec 
of prolonged submersion on fruit trees of differ- 
ent kinds is a question of much importance in 
some parts of this State, where orchards are lo- 
cated or proposed upon the low lands adjacent 
to our rivers. There has been much local ex- 
perience doubtless with submersion of temper- 
ate fruit trees, but we do not remember to have 
heard of the behavior of the orange in such lo- 
cations. An item of Florida experience, which 
we find in the Agriculturist, of that State, is to 
the effect that in 1871 many groves on the low 
lands were overflowed, but, although the wate r 
rose while the sun still shone with summer heat, 
and remained upon the ground six weeks, the 
trees sustained but little permanent injury. 
Some trees turned yellow and others dropped 
their fruit, and in certain localities the crop for 
the ensuing season was somewhat injured; but 
so far as the writer has been able to ascertain 
few of the bearing trees were killed, and in 
most instances they speedily recovered from th 
effects of the water. In Louisiana when a ere 
vasse occurs in the spring, which event is by no 
means rare, the orange groves on the low lands 
are often inundated for several weeks, yet the 
trees do not seem to suffer materially. 



Bearing the Wheat Market. 

Editors Press: — There appeared in a lead- 
ing cotemporary journal of your city, an extract 
from a letter purporting to have been received 
from Odessa in Southern Russia, by a member 
of the Chicago Board of Trade, on the 13th of 
December. It is a strange and suspicious item 
to be published in one wheat "cornering" city, 
to be copied in another city famous for "cor- 
ners" in everything. The item in question 
states, on the authority of an unknown corre- 
spondent, that wheat was a drug there at 50 and 
5G cents per bushel, and freight to England 
had risen from 17 to 30 shillings per ton, or in 
other words to about 25 cents per bushel, thus 
making it cost laid down in England, 80 to 86 
cents per bushel. The whole thing on its face 
shows the scoundrelism of the leading journals 
all over the world, whenever falsification will 
pay. It is evident that the item is simply one 
of Keene's big lies to "bear" the wheat market, 
and create an impression among holders that 
wheat was bound to be lower and cause them 
to unload at ruinous figures for the "bears" 
to profit by. — F. M. Shaw, Los Angeles, CaL 

There is no doubt that reports current in the 
newspapers and which have a tendency to act 
upon produce prices must always be read with 
eyes open to motives which may actuate them. 
We did not see the special paragraph to which 
our querist refers. It matters little what is 
said of wheat at Odessa, with reference to imme- 
diate effect upon the English market, for the 
water-way from Southern Russia will soon be 
frozen up, if it is not closed already. It is true 
that wheat is low in Odessa, but holders of Cal- 
ifornia wheat should not gauge their product 
by Odessa prices, for the Russian wheat is of 
low grade and cannot take the place of the 
wheat from this coast. There are always many 
things to consider in connection with market 
reportB, and no report should be accepted with- 
out "going behind the returns," and getting at 
allied facts and motives. 

A Cross-Bred Oak. 

Editors Press: — I send you a twig of a sin- 
gular oak that is found on the San Francisquito 
rancho, 20 miles southeast of Monterey. There 
are three trees that are somewhat of a curiosity; 
they have all the appearance of being a hybrid 
between the black oak and the common live 
oak, the buds and twigs have the appearance of 
black oak and the outside bark of the live oak, 
while the inside bark has the fiber of the 
black oak. The wood resembles both, but is 
not exactly like either. The largest tree is 
about 30 inches in diameter, and 40 feet high; 
very thick foliage. I shall the coming year try 
to get some of the acorns and send to the State 
University. The trees are not prolific bearers; 
acorns smaU and few. I was at one of the 
trees to-day, but too late to get any acorns. — 
Mrs. Jonathan Wright, Monterey, Cal. 

Editors Press: — These leaves seem indeed 
to be intermediate between the two oaks re- 
ferred to (Quercus sonomensis and Q. agri/olia), 
although the characters of the former (black 
oak) seem to predominate greatly in most re- 



spects. The case is especially interesting be- 
cause the fructification of the live oak is annual, 
while that of the black oak is biennial; and hy- 
brids of oaks so different in this respect have 
not been observed so far. The live oak is, how- 
ever, usually accounted as one of the black oak 
division. The specimen sent has been for- 
warded to Dr. Geo. Engelmann, of St. Louis, 
who is the highest authority on this subject; 
and I hope Mrs. Wright will collect not only 
the acurns, but also the flowers of the trees in 
question, in order to determine exactly this 
very curions case. — E. W. Hiloard, Professor 
of Agriculture, University of Cal. 

Paternoster Bean. 
Editors Press:— What is enclosed seed ? To 
what part of the world is it indigenous ? Under 
what conditions would it be most likely to ger- 
minate. — Leonard Coates, Yountville, Napa 
Co. 

Editors Press : — This is the seed of Abru$ 
preca tortus, commonly called "Paternoster 
bean ;" a native of tropical Asia and Africa, 
now cultivated in all tropical countries for its 
seeds, which are used in ornamental work, and 
frequently for prayer beads, hence the common 
name. The seed needs a warm temperature for 
sprouting. Soak in tepid water, to which a 
little camphor water may profitably be added, 
for 24 to 3G hours ; then place in sandy leaf mold 
in a warm place. The plant is, of course, not 
hardy here. — E. W. Hilgard. 

The seed which Prof. Hilgard thus describes 
is a striking one, being a little larger than a 
grain of wheat, egg-shaped and brilliantly 
colored red and black, each color covering 
nearly half the seed, divided horizontally. This 
may aid others in applying the information 
given. 

Teosinte from Chile. 

Editors Press: — I send you a small sample 
of seed imported to Chile from Bolivia by 
Messrs. Barra & Ossa. This seed has been sold 
at $60 a pound. It is called "teosinte" (Reana 
luxurians). This shrub is said to grow several 
feet high (by some represented to grow 10 feet), 
with wide spreading branches, and it is proph- 
esied that it will supersede alfalfa and other 
food for horned stock. It has been but lately 
introduced into Chile, and little is known of its 
properties except those claimed for it. It is 
sown in rows 32 inches apart. It grows rap- 
idly, and is a hardy plant. Will write more 
regarding it as soon as I can get reliable infor- 
mation. — C. T. Ward, Jr., Valparaiso, Octo- 
ber 27th, 1878. 

This is the plant which, we'noted last winter, 
was exciting so much interest in the European 
botanic gardens, and had been taken thence to 
Australia and other countries. It has already 
gained entrance to this State, as Prof. Sanders, 
of Fresno county, recently reported its growth 
in a letter to the Press. We have sent Mr. 
Ward's seeds to the College of Agriculture, 
and Prof. Hilgard promises to report its growth 
ere long. We should be under obligations to 
our Chile readers if they would send us infor- 
mation as other new things come forward there. 
Chilean conditions are so similar to Calif ornian, 
that we can profit by their researches and ex- 
periments. 

Wheat Prices in San Francisco. 

Editors Press: — Please inform me through 
the Press, or otherwise, what wheat and barley 
were worth in November, 1872, and oblige an 
old subscriber. — G. Schmeiser, Davis ville, Cal. 

Inquiries concerning the history of wheat 
prices in this market can best be answered by 
the table on page 12, which is written down 
to the close of 1878. The facts given will be 
found of much value for reference, and the table 
should be kept accessible. 

The price of barley in November, 1872, ruled 
from $1. 15 to $1.45 per ctL, according to quality. 
The price advanced about 20c. per ctl. during 
the month. 

Sweet and Cool Water. 

Editors Press: — We are informed that a 
party in San Diego keeps water sweet and pure 
for drinking purposes for several weeks, during 
the warmest weather, in a jug-shaped cistern. 
Will the San Diego man, or any other man, who 
has tried to keep water sweet for two weeks or 
more in this southern country and succeeded, 
give us the benefit of his experience! — Morse 
Bros., Lowell Ranch, San Bernardino. 

We should like to hear from parties who have 
succeeded in this undertaking. 

Geranium Oil. — It is reported that the pro- 
ducers of geranium oil (from the Pelargonium 
rosatum) are much troubled by the introduction 
of a system of adulteration, which injuriously 
affects their industry. The manufacture of this 
oil is carried on on alarge scale in India, Algeria, 
and certain parts of the southern provinces of 
Italy. Has it ever been made in this State t 



January 4, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



9 



The Great Gray Owl. 

This is the largest kind of owl found in Amer- 
ica, and perhaps equals any known elsewhere, 
measuring two feet in length, wing 16 to 18 
inches (from the bend), tail 11 to 12£. The 
eyes, rather small for the size of the owl, are 
yellow, the short, strong bill and claws paler. 
The plumage is grayish-brown and grayish- 
white in alternate bars, the pale ones widest 
beneath. The back and breast have more 
irregular wide stripes of same color, and on the 
face they form rings. 

From its ashy colors, this species was named 
nearly a century ago Strix cinerea, and has re- 
tained this specific name among naturalists 
ever since. It inhabits the northern portions 
of America, rarely wandering south of latitude 
42°, though no doubt to be found on the lofty 
mountain ranges of Western America much far- 
ther south, and has been reported to occur in 
the Sacramento valley. Another kind, how. 
ever, of similar plumage, but a fourth smaller 
(the Western Barred owl), may have been mis- 
taken for this. A paler variety, known as the 
Lapland owl, is found in the most northern 
parts of Europe and Asia. Like the American 
birds they live in the thinly wooded regions 
surrounding the Arctic circle, within which, 
the Snowy owl, nearly equal in size, take their 
place, and as it wanders much farther south in 
winter, is a better known kind. 

The figure we give is the same published in 
that standard work, "The History of North 
American Birds," by Baird, Brewer & Ridgway, 
Boston, 1874. 

The Great Gray owl is found throughout the 
year along the lower Columbia river, and often 
seen hunting bitds, rabbits, etc., towards sun- 
set or early in the morning, being able to see in 
a stronger light than those kinds with larger 
eyes, such as the Great Horned owl. Nests 
have been found only in tall trees, constructed 
like those of a hawk, and perhaps were old 
hawks' nests, as other kinds of owls are known 
to use such nests when they cannot find a suit- 
able hollow tree. The eggs are described in 
the "History of North American Birds," by 
Dr. Brewer, as being about 2J by 1£ inches in 
size, oblong, oval, and dull white, the number 
in a nest 3 or 4 only. This owl is apparently a 
very quiet species, no record being given of any 
cries uttered by them, except that one, kept in 
confinement, made a tremulous note like that 
of the common little cat-owl, or screech-owl 
smaller than a pigeon. This silence, combined 
with a perfectly noiseless flight, assists them in 
surprising their prey, which might otherwise 
escape their daylight attacks. Though not 
known to prey on domestic fowls, they would 
no doubt do so in the southern part of their 
range where fowls are kept. In Alaska, the 
Indians often steal up to them when they are 
asleep and catch them by hand. Even the 
savages, however, do not often eat owls, per- 
haps more from superstitious reasons than want 
of appetite. 

Chufas for Hoos. — In a recent issue we 
asked for experience in "hogging off" the chufa 
crop. We do not receive any California testi 
mony on this point, but a North Carjlina man 
writes to the Farmer and Mechanic as follows 
"I planted last spring two gallons of the Span 
ish chufa on about one-half acre of sandy 
land. Sometimes in September I cut the 
tops, making five one-horse loads of good 
hay. In October I sowed 15 bushels of the 
chufa for seed; it being somewhat tedious to 
save them. I gave the job of saving the re 
mainder to my ten fattening hogs, they seem to 
be very busy in their undertaking, and that 
kind of work must agree with them, for they 
improve every day, and unless they should get 
help there will be plenty of chufas left to keep 
my stock hogs through the winter. 

On File. — " Finding the Corners," J. M. K. ; 
"Enterprise Grange," " Fruit and Frost," G. 
R. ; "Potted Plants," W. C. L. D. ; "Tree 
Peddlers," G. H. ; "Warehouse Law, etc," G. 
C. P. ; " Pacific Coast Cone -bearers," J. G. L. ; 
"Present and Future," J. T. ; "Fresno 
County," J. W. A. W. ; " Salmon Berry, etc.," 
J. M. ; " The Bamboo," H. L. ; " Gum trees,' 
W. A. T. S. ; "Progress in Fruit Growing,' 
H. W. H. ; "Recipes," B. E. B. 

Assistant Treasurers of the United States 
have been instructed to make no distinction be 
tween coin and legal tenders after January 1st, 
1879. 



Fresh Australian Fruits in the English 
Market. 

Verily the ends of the earth are approaching 
each other by the perfection of conditions for 
the transport of perishable materials for long 
distances. We have claimed no little credit for 
placing California green fruits in the European 
market by way of New York, but the Austra- 
lians have assumed a startling task in sending 
fresh fruits successfully by a longer voyage. 
We had an account some months ago of the 
shipment of Australian fruit to Paris, and now 
the effort seems to foreshadow a regular trade. 
The appearance at the Paris exhibition, of a 
collection of well-known European dessert 
fruits, produced in Australia, has excited a 
good deal of interest, in view of the prospect of 
these choice fruits becoming regular articles of 



"Standard" Frames for the Different 
Localities of California. 

Editors Press: — Some months ago a com- 
munication of mine on the above subject was 
published in the Press, and I promised at the 
time to continue the subject, but have neglected 
to do so. In this I will speak of the Lang- 
stroth and the American bee-hives, and also 
take your Napa City correspondent to task on 
the question. 

Fig. 1 shows the Langstroth hive, which is so 
well known that on a second thought I con- 
sider it unnecessary to give a description of it. 
This hive is better adapted to the southern dis- 
trict of the State. 

Fig. 2 shows the new style American hive> 
which is especially adapted to the northern sec- 
tion of this State. We believe it was first in- 




GREAT GRAY OWL— Strix Cinerea. 



trade between that country and England. It 
is well known that pears, apples, peaches and 
grapes are, and have been for some years grown 
to perfection in Australia. These, together 
with cherries and other stone fruits, formed a 
part of the collection shown at Paris, and were, 
it seems, forwarded from Sydney, Melbourne, 
and Adelaide. Though they were subjected to 
much delay and unnecessary risk of injury, 
they, nevertheless, arrived in good condition. 
"The success," we are told by a London con- 
temporary, "has led to the proposal that the 
produce of the orchards and the fruit gardens 
of the southern portion of the empire should be 
more generally brought wit hin reach of the less 
favored lands in the north. Already we re- 



troduced into California by Mr. A. J. King, the 
present editor of the Beekeepers' Magazine and 
author of "The New Beekeepers' Text Book,' 
about 1863. This hive takes nine frames 12 
inches square. The cut represents it as a sum- 
mer hive; making it a winter hive is easily 
effected by removing a cleat from the inside of 
the cap, which lets it slip down and reduces the 
hive to about one-half its usual size. The cap 
is constructed so that when it slips over the 
body of the hive it leaves a space of half an inch 
on all sides between the inner and outer hive, 
thus making it double-walled with an air space. 
This style of hive has been received with gen- 
eral favor by beekeepers in the Northern 
States. 

The hive for the middle section of the State 
we will notice at another time. 

Our ideas of a hive are so well defined in 





THE " LANGSTROTH " AND "AMERICAN" TYPES OP BEE-HIVES. 



ceive large quantities of delicate fruits in a 
fresh state, as well as preserved in various 
ways, from the islands of the Atlantic, and 
from the far west, and occasional packages of 
fruit come from the Cape; but Australia has 
hitherto only been able to send us her more 
delicate produce in the shape of jams and pre- 
serves, and there are obstacles to the full devel- 
opment of this branch of trade. By taking 
proper advantage, however, of the facilities of 
transport now afforded by the quick steamers 
trading between Australia and England, both 
via the Cape and the Suez canal, there is every 
probability that the choicest fruits of Australia 
and Tasmania, and Fiji, as well as of South Af- 
rica, could be brought in perfect condition to 
adorn the dessert-dishes of the old country." 

The assistant custodian of the Fidelity Safe 
Deposit vaults in Chicago is missing, and there 
are suspicions that he has absconded. 



"The New Beekeepers' Text Book," just pub- 
lished, that we have concluded to quote what 
the author says on the size and shape of hives: 
"Experience has demonstrated that, as a 
general rule, when we vary from the correct 
size, the larger the hive the fewer swarms we 
get, and the smaller the hive, the smaller the 
swarms will be, and the greater the danger of 
over-swarming. A hive should contain about 
2,000 cubic inches, in the clear. A stock in a 
hive of this size, will swarm more regularly 
than from a larger one, and store more surplus 
honey. While, if the hive be much smaller, 
the colony will often fail to lay up provisions 
enough for our long winters. All the hives 
should be made of the same size, as a very 
large swarm will usually be no larger, after a 
few months, than one of medium size, while a 
small swarm may be as large as any at the end 
of the season, much depending upon its having 
a prolific queen, good weather and abundant 
pasturage. 

"Upon the shape of the hive depends the 



economy of hea"t for breeding, and s; in 
wintering. If a hive of proper sire be too high, 
less box honey is obtained; but if too shallow, 
it not only takes more workers to cover the 
lower part of the combs, to protect them from 
the moth, and keep up the required heat for 
breeding, but the winter stores are scattered 
over so large a surface, and of so little depth, 
that although the heat arising from the swarm 
will keep the honey warm directly above the 
bees, they soon consume that to the top of the 
hive. When this happens in very cold weather, 
if there are no holes through the combs, the 
bees die of starvation, as it is certain death for 
them to venture around the edge of the frosty 
combs by which they are surrounded. Hence, 
swarms often perish with ample stores in the 
hive. For these evident reasons, we would 
recommend that frames be long and shallow in 
warm climates, and deeper and shorter accord- 
ing to climate, approximating to a square when 
it becomes very cold. 

"More box honey can be secured with shal- 
low frames, both because there is more surface 
for boxes, and because bees store more readily 
near the broodnest. But this advantage is 
counterbalanced in cold climates by the greater 
depth for wintering, the greater ease of ex- 
tracting, and the greater depth for boxes be- 
side the broodnest when shorter and deeper 
frames are used." 

It will be seen that the southern part of Cali- 
fornia being rather warm a shallow frame will 
give the best results, while in a cold climate a 
square one will secure the best results in honey 
and wintering. In the former case the Lang- 
stroth will give the greatest satisfaction, as it is 
shallow enough for that region, and the square 
or deep one will suit the wants of beekeepers in 
northern California and Oregon. But the mid- 
dle section, or that part of the State laying be- 
tween the 36° and 39° latitude, may be consid- 
ered as between the extremes of heat and cold 
and should have a hive to suit its climate. This 
we have found to be 12x10 inches. This size, as 
we have stated before, we will advocate at 
another time. 

A few words in answer to your Napa corre- 
spondent and we are done. In the Rural of 
June 15th, he says he "don't see how it can be 
possible" to use a "'Standard' frame." If he 
will refer again to our article in the Rural of 
April 6th, and then to what he wrote, as pub- 
lished in the Rural of June 15th, he will find 
that he agrees with our views, although he does 
not directly so state it. He accepts that the 
Langstroth hive is popular. So did we. He 
has used it and finds that during wet weather it 
molded badly. Having known this as well as 
other bad features, we consigned it to the south- 
ern section, where it justly belongs. 

Mr. Enos says that "the Harbison being more 
square-shaped, the bees cover it better and the 
combs did not mold. " He having found sbme 
faults (and who does not?) with the regular 
Harbison hive and frame, he remodeled it and 
brought it to as near the American as could 
well be done with such a cumbersome affair. 
He states that he has had very fair success with 
his changed hive. 

Last winter we Americanized one of our Har- 
bison hives and placed a swarm in it about the 
first of April. We obtained more honey from 
it since the change than we ever did before. In 
these two instances it is seen that the American 
is better than the Harbison. But this is not 
what we want to prove. 

Napa City is situated at about 38' 15' north 
latitude. Between the 36° and 39° we recom- 
mended the use of a frame 12x10. Mr. Enos 
being but three-fourths of a degree from the 
section in which the 12x12 frame is best adapted 
to, helps to prove not only that his style of frame, 
which is about 12x12, is useful for the north, 
but that a little further south a shallower frame 
would be better for obtaining the best results 
in wintering and producing bees to gather the 
honey at an early season. 

Perhaps if Mr. Enos would use a hive with 
nine frames 12 inches wide and 10 inches in 
depth, he would find that the bees would still 
better cover the combs in it than those in the 
hive he mentioned. If he would try this hive 
we should be pleased to hear the result. 

As this letter has reached a greater length 
than we at first intended it should, we will 
withhold a few facts bearing on the subject, but 
in the meantime should anyone, have any in- 
formation to give, let them not "hide their 
light under a bushel," but let us have "more 
light," and then we will be better able to judge 
whether or not "Standard" frames for the dif- 
ferent localities of California are practicable. 

U. K. Lyptus. 

N. Temescal, Cal. 

The Duty of the Hour. — Lest any reader 
should forget it, we mention the peculiar fitness 
of the season for renewing old subscriptions 
and making new ones to the Pacific Rural 
Press. In going forward with our journal, we 
need the help of our patrons both with mind 
and money. Do not forget to send the printer 
his due, as the aggregate of small individual 
amounts will give him a force that will make 
the types fairly dance into the lines. We trust 
that only a hint will be needed to rally the 
dollars, for with them assured we have a thou- 
sand themes to occupy our columns. Let all 
step up promptly to the Captain's office, and 
then we will go out on deck for another year's 
voyage. 



10 



THE PACIFIC BUEJLL PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



Bf\EE DEEDS' D!f\EC70E\Y. 



Purchasers of Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Ol'R Kates. —Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Durham Cattle, Spanish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale 



PAGE BROTHERS, 328 Front street, San Francisco, 
(or C'otate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 



L. D. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, 820 each; 
Lambs, $15 each. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angela, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California, 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



BURBANK & MEYERS. 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Docs, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 

W. & J. ROBINSON, Hanford, Tulare Co., Cal., Im 
porters and Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshire Swine 
and Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. Trios a specialty. 



Poultry. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 



116 Acres 

D8V0TED TO 

FANCY 

POULTRY- 




Unlimited Range. 

Healthy Stock. 

Largest Yards 
on the Coast. 



Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, Bronze Tur 
keys, Geese, Pekin Ducks, Guinea Pigs, Etc. 

<2T.$'a/e arrival of Funis and Eggs Guaranteed. "SI 

42TPamphlet on the care of fowls- hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc. , adapted especially to the 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal 



EVERYBODY KNOWS 

That Mrs. 0. H. Sprague, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland. Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sendim' orders to her. 



NEW MUSIC! NEW MUSIC! 



At Gray's No. 105 Kearny Street, 



On receipt of the amount in postage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, post-paid: 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, 35 cts 

BABY MINE, (Schottische) Stuckenholz, 35 cts. 

EMMETT'S LULLABY, (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 35 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schottische) Far West, 35 cts 

THE SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song) Harriott, 35 cts 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chauncey, 75 cU. 

GOLDEN OPHIR, (Galop). Yanke, 50 cts 



Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 




43" State where you saw this advertisement. 



TRUNKS! TRUNKS! 
Joh.n ETorgrov©, 

Manufacturer, Importer and Dealer in 

Trunks, Valises, and Traveling Bags, 

At prices to suit the times. Repairing promptly done. 

12 Geary Street, - - San Francisco 

That excellent and widely circulated journal, the Pa- 
QHM Ul-kal Press.— Ventura Signal. 



Stock Notices. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Breeder and Importer of ttie "Urown Prince, 
"Sambo," and Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk ho^s and pi^'s. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Alderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
9heep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
ffuaranteed as represented and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 



BERKSHIRE A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 

18th and A Btreets, Sacramento City, Cal. 



SPRING VALE FARM, 

Three Miles N. W. of San Bernardino, Cal. 




Thorougnbred Berksmre and Poland China 
Swine. Light Brahma and Black Cochin 
Chickens for sale. T. C. STARR. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Thirty head of handsome well-bred Pigs, aged from 
three months to one year, for sale at reasonable prices. 
Each animal pedigreed and guaranteed as represented. 

Address ALFRED PARKER, 

Bellota, San Joaquin County, California. 



HERRMANN'S HATS 

ARE THE BEST I 




Try one and you will Wear no other. 

Fall and Winter Styles All In! 

— AT — 

336 Kearny St., bet. Bush and Pine, 

— AND — 

910 Market St., above Stockton. 



NOT FAIL 

to hpimI for our 
Catalogue. It 
contains prlrcM 
and u>«< a rl»tloit 
of uioMt every 
art irle In ceil* 
rnl uNc,Hik«1 Is 



DO 

valuable to ANY' PJBRSON contcmiilat- 
tng tli4* parcltaM of any article for Per. 
ftonal. Family or AjjrlruHnral umc, Wo 
have done n lai'jcc trade the pa*tt ftcahon 
In the remote part* of the Territories, 
and have, with few rxreptions. exceed* 
*»d the expectatloiiH of the ourchaner. 
Inaii v claiming to have made a ptavliifg 
of to to GO ner cent. VVe mail thene 
CATALOG l ! KH TO A* V A U £>KKSS, 
I KKK, UPON APPLICATION. We sell 
our goods to all mankind at wholesale 
price* in quantities to suit. Reference., 
First .National Bank, Chicago. 

MONTGOMERY WARD & CO., 

Original Grange Mupply House, 
%*7 «k 2*9 WakasU Ave., Chicago, 111. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Bcok. 

By N. H. and H. A Ki.vo. The latest work on the 
Apiary, embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for $1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansomc Street, S. F. 



Seedsmen. 



R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*,*"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will be sent frkk to all CVstomkrs. It contains in 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P, 



1878-9. 

W. E. STRONG- & CO., 

FIELD, GARDEN, LAWN and TREE 

SEEDS. 



Our stock is full, fresh and reliable. In these essential 
particulars we claim to be unexcelled. 

We have largely increased our list of varieties, having 
km potted from the very best growers both in the East and 
Europe 

Garden and Flower Seeds 

Put up in small packages for the RETAIL TRADE, as 
also in bulk. All DEALERS IN SKEDS will find it for 
their interest to send their orders to us. We make 
specialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER, TIMOTHY, 

Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian 

Grass, Millet, Lawn Grassess, Etc. 
Also, FLOWERING BULBS of every description. 
A^TCatalogues furnished free on application. *SJ| 

— wi ALSO DO A — 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California Oreen and Dried Fruits, 
Nuts. Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 

Nos. 6. 8 & 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO, Cal. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES. 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers in and 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable, 
FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS. 
Also, Flowkrino Plants, Bilks, Friit and 
Ornamkntal Trees, Etc. 
JAPANESE PERSIMMON TREES for sale at iw per 
100; two to four feet in hight. 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices. All seeds warranted 
fresh, pure and rcliale. - J i ... 1 . 
price list on application. 

*.* We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable 
and Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is 
Handsomely Illustrated, and contains full descriptions of 
Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full in 
structions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO. 

P. O. Box 1023.] 607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 

Crosby's Extra Early ., 
Marblehead Mammoth I « *. n 
Stowell's Evergreen f bWeet 00111 ■ 
Mexican Sweet, New ) 

ESSES* Yellow Flint Corn. 

Long Red Mangel WurtzeH 

SSSTS? } Beet Seed. 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRAS8 AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street. San Francisco 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 
Seed Warehouse. 

409 &. 411 DAVIS STREET. 

San Francisco. 
ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

Keep constantly on hand the largest stock of FIELD 
GARDEN, CONIFER, or 

CALIFORNIA TREE SEEDS, 

On the Pacific Coast. Seeds all FRESH and GENUINE 
Our Slock is large, especially of the following varieties 

ALFALFA, BLUE GRASS, 
Red and White Clover, Red Top, Timothy, 
Australian Rye Grass. Mesqult Grass, 
Lawn Grass and Millet Seeds 

Of different Varieties. Field Seeds, Mangle Wurrel and 
Sugar Beets, Rutabagas, Carrot Seeds of all Varieties. 
Peas. Beans, etc. Our assortment of GARDEN and 
FLOWER .SEEDS are full and complete. Also, FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES at Nursery Prices. 

30.0OO Three-vear-old JAPANESE PERSIMMON 
TREES for sale at Lowest Market Rates. For Catalogue, 
Price Lists, etc., apply as above. 



EXOTIC GARDENS 

— AND — 

CONSERVATORIES. 

Mission St.. Opposite Woodwards' Gardens, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

F. A. Miller & Co., - - Proprietors. 

Have the most extensive collection of 

RARE PLANTS, TREES & SHRUBS. 

SEEDS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, BULBS AND 
BULBOUS PLANTS, AND A GENERAL VARIETY 
OF GARDEN AND HOUSE PLANTS. 

AWOur NEW CATALOGUE now ready for Mailing.. 

Send for it 

Cut Flowers, Bouquets and Funeral Work furnished on- 

short notice and in the best style. 



HAITITAY'S 

NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I wish to invite attention to my large and well assorted 
stock cf 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Consisting in Part of Apple, Pear, Cherry 
Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricot, Almond, 
Nectarine and Olive Trees. 

Also, a full assortment of 

Small Fruits, Shade and Ornamental 
Trees and Plants. 

My Trees are Healthy, Stalky and well grown. 

JOHN HANNAY, 

Successor to Hanhav Brothers), San Jose, California 



E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 



A General Assortment of 

GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS 

Neatly put up in papers and package* with description of 
variety, general directions for cultivation on each paper, 
and bearing my name, are for sale by responsible mer- 
chant* throughout the Pacific States and Territories. 
My stock of 

CLOVER, GRASS, 

VEGETABLE, and Miscellaneous SEEDS, in bulk, is also 
large and complete, 

E. J. BOWEN, 

Seed Merchant and Importer, 
815 & 817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZQUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer lm Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 



MANSION HOUSE, 

Comer of Huntkr Struct and Webhr Avua-s, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

A Strictly first-class Lodging House. Rooms neat and 
clean, by the day, week or month. 
MRS. M A. HOLDEN, Proprietress 



Cfi Chromo, perfumed. Snowftake & Lace cards, name on all 
DU 10c. Game Authors, 15c Lyman 1. Co , Clintouville, Ct, 



January 4, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Nurserymen. 



PRICES REDUCED! 
DIOSPYROS KAKI 



JAPANESE PERSIMMON. 




This new and popular fruit at prices to suit the times. 
Niuo best varieties. Also Plants of the 

VEGETABLE WAX (Rhus Succcdanea.) 

For Sale by HENRY LOOMIS, 
Nos. 419 & 421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 
Send for Circular. Good and reliable Agents wanted. 



Pacific Nurseries, 

Baker St., between Lombard and Chestnut, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

FREDERICK LUDEMANN, ■ Proprietor. 

P. O. Box 916, San Francisco, Cal. 

CAMELLIAS, PALMS, CYPRESS, PINES, CEDARS, 
RARE JAPAN AND AUSTRALIAN EVERGREENS, 
AND BLUE AND RED GUMS, (ASSORTED), 
ROSES OF ALL VARIETIES, 

Acacias, and Hardy Ornamental Plants. 

Our Specialty, PANSIES of the finest and latest German 
and French varieties. 

Orders carefully filled, packed and promptly forwarded 
at reasonable prices 

For particulars and Catalogue apply as above. 




J. Hutchison's Nurseries. 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1862. 

An immense stock of new and rare Plants, Evergreens, 
Hardy and Ornamental Shrubbery. 

Cypress, for Hedges. 

ROSES, FUCHIAS, PINKS, ETC, ETC, 
In endless Variety, 

AT BEDROCK PRICES. 
SEEDS AND BULBS OF ALL KINDS. 

42FSend for Catalogue. "SS 




TREES ! 
* Trees and Plants, 

In large or small lots, both wholesale and retail at lowest 
rates at the CAPITAL NUKSERIES, SACRAMENTO. 
We have a large and complete assortme.it not only of all the 
Deciduous Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, 
Flowering Plants, Vines, etc., also, a complete assortment of 
Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Citron, etc., both seedlings and 
grafted of the beat known varieties, ranging in price from 20 
ots. to SI. 75 each. Many of our grafted trees now have fruit 
on them, and most of them may be expected to bear fruit 
the first and second year from planting. Sample Grounds, 
U and Sixteenth Sts. Tree Department, J and 7th Streets 
(near Court House.) Branch Yard at Auburn, Cal., also at 
our New Branch Nursery, known as Orange Hill, near 
Penryn. Send for Catalogue and Price List. Address, 
Capital Nurseries, Box 4o7, Sacramento, Cal., and at 
Auburn or Penryn, Placer County, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON & Co., Proprietors. 

SHINN'S NURSERIES. 

NILES, ALAME DA C OUNTY, CAL 

We invite attention to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also, Coffee, Cork Oak, 
Olives, Guavaa, English and Black Walnuts, Magnolias, 
Loquats, Butternuts, Small Fruits, Evergreens, Etc. We 
have a choice stock of the Diospyros Kaki (Japanese Persim- 
mon, J of our own growing, and also, grafted stock imported 
direct from several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. US California St., San Francisoo, 
Or JAMES SHINN. Nilcs, Alameda Co., Cal. 

GOOD CURE FGR HARD TIMES. 

A PLANTATION OF EARLY PROLIFIC 
and RELIANCE Raspberries. 

inn nnn piants for sale; auo, 200,000 c/«- 

IUU,UUU dcrella and Continental Strawberry 
Plants. Millions of other Plants, Trees, etc. Everything 
new, novel and rarr. Prices Low, Send for Descriptive 
Circular to GIBSON & BENNETT, Nurserymen 
and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, New Jersey. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES ! TREES ! 

I offer for sale this Season a large and full stock of 
market varieties of 

Pear, Apple, Cherry, Plum, Prune, 
and Peach Trees, 

Which will be sold CHEAP to all those that buy largely. 
Japanese, American and Italian 

PERSIMMON. 
Orange and Lemon Trees. 

MONARCH OF THE WEST STRAWBERRY PLANTS, 
KITTATINNY BLACKBERRY PLANTS, GRAPE- 
VINES AND SMALL FRUITS IN VARIETY. 

SHADE and ORNAMENTAL Trees. 

EVERGREENS AND PALMS. 

FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS. 

For a full list send for a Catalogue, which will be mailed 
FREE to all applicants. 

JOHN ROCK, 

San Jose, California. 



5C0,O0O Blue Gum 

TREES, ETC., 

— For Sale by — 

BAILEY & CO., 



OFFICE and 
DEPOT, 

No. 1161 

Seventh St 



Adeline St. 

Station, 

OAKLAND, 

Cal. 




[Eucalyptus Globulus, 01 ome uum Tree.] 
Cars from San Francisco Stop at Depot 
every Half Hour. 
Also, Nursery at Berkeley, at Dwight Way Station. 



MOUNTAIN^ PLANTS. 

We offer for sale a large and fine stock of pure 

Strawberry Plants. 

"Crescent Seedling," wonderfully productive, said to 
have yielded 15,000 quarts to the acre. "Miners' Great 
Prolific," extra large, late and firm; very productive 
"Cinderella" and "Continental." Figured in Ri'ral Press 
last season. "President Lincoln," eleven inches in cir- 
cumference. "Monarch of the West," "Great American," 
"Prouty's Seedling," "Duchesse," "Capt. Jack," "Kerr's 
Prolific," ' Granger," "Star of the West," Duncan "Cum- 
berlai d Triumph," Somer's Ruby," "Seth Boyden," "Pres- 
ident Wilder," Springdale," etc. 

"Herstiue," the most productive, "Highland Hardy," 
the earliest, RASPBERRIES. "Silva's Koning Clau- 
die," the earliest and best early Blue Plum in the world. 
New early and late Peaches. Send for descriptive circu- 
lar to c. M. SILVA & SON. 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



To Fruit Growers and 

NURSERYMEN ! 



— SEND TO — 

Washburne & Reynolds, Ferndale, Hum- 
boldt County, California, 

For Roots of 

THE SALMON BERRY. 

Easily cultivated. Larger than the Blackberry, and 
equal to the Strawberry in flavor. Ripens from March to 
June, and grows in any soil. For particulars apply as 
above. 



CASTRO VALLEY NURSERY, 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
ISAAC COLLINS offers for sale at a bargain, for cash, 
3,000 or 4,000 Cherry Trees, 1 and 2 years old. Trees good 
size on Mazzard stocks, and of the best market kinds. 
Black Tartarian, Black Republican, Royal Ann, Van 
Skike, etc. Reference: E. Lewelling, Orehardist, San 
Lorenzo, Cal. 



Buy Seeds Direct 

— FROM THE — 

FRESNO SEED FARM ! 

W. A. SANDERS, Prop'r. 

Delivered on board of Cars or at Express Office, at the 
following prices: 

China Corn lOctspertb 

White Egyptian Corn, (clean seed) 5 " '* 

Brown " " " " 5 " « 

Broom Corn, com var'ty " " 4 " " 

Broom Corn, dwarf " " 6 " " 

Broom Corn, evergreen " " 15 " " 

Kenn dy's Amber Cane, (in hulls) 20 " " 

Red Imphce Cane, (clean seed ' 60" " 

Sorghum Cane, " " ., 10" " 

Penicillaria, (East India Millet), in hulls,. . 1 00 " " 

Chufas, best Spanish 40" " 

Artichokes 15 " " 

Spring Wheat, earliest, Sherman 5 " " 

By mail, 20 cents per pound additional. 

I have also some choice, thrifty, year-old Trees, which I 
will deliver on cars at 25 cents each, or §2.50 per dozen. 

Oranges, from best Tahiti Seed. 

Black Mulberry, large, sour-fruited, from Tennessee. 
Oleanders, Giant of Battles, Double Red and Single 
White. Black Walnuts, native of California, 
<afSei>d for Circular of Instructions. 
Address, W. A. SANDERS, Fresno, Cal. 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, - - - Proprietor. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants, 

Comprising everything NEW and RARE in my line. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Lemons, 

AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

I have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nativity in Europe, and having 
propagated lurge quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms 

SULTANA. — A good stock of the SEEDLESS SULTANA 
grapevines for raisins. This is an important specialty, 
and will be sold at the same rates as ordinary stock. 

tfaT 8e»d for catalogue and further information. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1858. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

An unusually fine stock of trees is offered for sale at low- 
est market rates for reliable nur.sery stock, comprising all the 
leading kinds and varieties of hardy fruits. Also a general 
assortment of evergreen trees and shrubs, blue gums, Monte- 
rey cypress, etc., in boxes for hedge and forest planting. 

My trees are grown in a sandy loam, without irrigation; 
can be DO finer rooted trees grown; wood ripens early, and can 
be safely transplanted as soon as sufficient rain falls for lift- 
ing the stock. Early planting recommended. Catalogues 
with list of prices ready for distribution October 1st. 

Address, W. II. I'l lTI K, 

Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



SEXTON'S NURSERIES, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

We offer for sale this season of cood growth a general 
assortment of Fruit Trees, Fruit Bushes, Ornamental Trees, 
Evergreen Trues and Flowering Shrubs at the lowest market 
rates. Our Trees are grown on sandy loam, without Irriga- 
tion, and matures the wood early. 

We also offer a larre stock of JAPANESE PERSIA! 
AIONS, transplanted. Monterey Cypress, for hedges. Blue 
Gum and Pines for forest planting, Japan Mandarin, Orange, 
Camellias and Camphor Trees at low figures. Address lor 
Catalogue and Price List, WM. SEXTON, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 



Burbanls's Seedling. 

This already famous Potato is now for the first time 
offered by the originator for trial on this Coast. For de- 
scription see American Agriculturist, for March, 1878. 
PRICES: 1 lb. by mail, 50 cts.; 3 lba. by mail, $1.00; 25 
lbs. by express, $5 00. 

LUTHER BURBANK, Nurseryman. 

Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal. 

LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 
S. NEWHALL .... Proprietor. 

A large and general assortment of FHU1T and ORNA- 
MENTAL TREES, Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, 
Greenhouse Plants, Grapevines, Small Fruits, etc. I offer 
for sale a large and well assorted stock. Low-topped, 
stalky Fruit Trees a specialty. Address 

S.- NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. 



Blackberry and Cranberry Plants. 

100.000 Plants of new varieties of BLACKBERRY Plants 
—the Early Cluster and Vina Seedling, Missouri Mammoth 
and Deering Seedling, the earliest and the most productive 
of all. I will give satisfactory proof that these berries have 
realized §750 per acre. It paid more than double the 
amount as the old late varieties. Price by mail, §2 per 
dozen. §8 per hundred, and $80 per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry plants for $150 per acre, 
planted, not less than 10 aces in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAND, Boulder Island, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 



FOR SALE. 
30,000 Kittatinny Blackberries, 

Strong Plants, grown by irrigation. Also, 
3,000 GENUINE ZANTE CURRANT CUTTINGS. 
I A. WILCOX, Santa Clara, Cal. 



FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO.'S 
Semi-Tropical Nurseries, 

ANGELES, 



LOS 



CAL. 



FIRST PREMIUM received for two successive years for 
Best Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. We have all the 
varieties, both Foreign and Native. Great reduction in 
Apple, Pear and Peach Tre-:„, as we wish to close them out 
the coming season, and devote our entire energies hereafter 
to the Semi-Tropical Department, ffdf Send /or Cataloaue. 
i>. O. Box 870. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO CAL. 
o 

Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President G. W. COLBY. 

Manager, and Cashier, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 
Secretary FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank wag opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rates. 



GRANGERS' 

Business Association. 

Incorporated February 10th, 1875. 

Capital Stock, - - $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS.-Daniel Inman, Pres- 
ident ; L C. Steele, Vice President; Amos Adams, Secre- 
tary; John Lewellinu, Treasurer. DIRECTORS— W G 
Colby, W. L. Overhiser, A. D. Logan, R. S. Clay, A. 
T. Hatch, O. Hubeell, Tuos. Flint. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 

GRANGERS' BUILDING, 

106 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, 
Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and Advances 
made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, 
Produce, Merchandise, Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., 
solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our 
rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through 
us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Asso- 
ciation, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 

Farmers' Union. San Jose. 

C. T. SETTLE * Prksidekt. 

H. E. HILL Manager. 

W. M. Ginty Cashier. 

Authorized Capital - - - - $200,000.00 
Paid up in Gold Coin - - - - 95,000.00 
Surplus - ------ 23,571.87 

Directors— William Erkson, L. F. Chipman, Horace 
Little, 0. T. Settle, David Campbell, James SingletdiL Thos. 
E. Snell, W. L. Manly, J. Q. A. Ballou. 

Will do a General Mercantile Business, also, receive De- 
posits, on which such Interest will he allowed as may be 
agreed upon. Cold, Silver and Currency exchanged. Will 
also, on commission, make purchases and sales (at home and 
abroad) at low rates. 

Farmers and other Citizens are invited to examine 
our constantly large and varied stock of first-class goods, 
including Teas, Coffee, Groceries, Provisions, Crockery, 
Hardware, Farming Implements, Wagons, Barbed Fence 
Wire, Household Goods, etc. 

All of our patrons can depend upon low cash prices and 
square deal in reliable articles. 

Cor. of Santa Clara and San Pedro Sts. 



A CARD 

To Grangers and Farmers. 

The undersigned is now prepared to receive and sell 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE, 

That may be consigned to him, at the HIGHEST MAR- 
KET RATES, and will open a trade direct with the con- 
sumer 

Without the Intervention of Middlemen. 

He also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock 
Buyers to co-operate with him, and thus have but one 
commission between producer and buyer. AddresB 

S. H. DEPUY, 
Nos. 11 & 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 

Grangers' Co-operative Business Ass'n 
Of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K & loth Sts., Sacramento, Cal 

Dealers in GENERAL PRODUCE, RETAIL GRO- 
CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the co-operation 
and trade of farmers in general. Pay the highest market 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smallest profit. Our 
orders are cash on delivery. Goods shipped; marked C. 
O. D. W. H. HEAVENER, Manager. 

MONEY FOOD 

For Farmers. For Hogs. 

CHEAP PORK, 

The Brazilian Artichoke. 

Is the cheapest and best food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. 000 to 1,000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No harvesting. No feeding. The 
Hcgs will help themselves if allowed to do so. I have a 
limited quantity of seed to sell. Send for Circular giving 
full information to 

J. H. F. GOFF, 

San Felipe, Santa Clara County, Cal 



A FEW DEVONS AND GRADES 

FOR SALE 
Address E. McENESPIE, Chico, California 



12 



THE PACIFIC 1U1AL PMESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



Fluctuations of prices for 15 years in the San Francisco Wheat Market— Monthly Quotations from January 1st, 1864 

January 1st, 1879. 



Jan . . . 
Feb... 
Mar... 
April- 
May. • ■ 
June.. 
July . . 
Aug.. . 
Sept... 
Oct.... 
Nov... 
Deo ... 





1864. 1865 


1866. 




1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


HIGHEST. 


1 56 


4 37* 


2 20 • 


1 


80 


2 75 


2 OS'A 


1 70 


2 60 


2 62 


2 15 


AVERAGE. 


1 45 


4 25 


2 20 


1 


77 


2 68 


2 05 


1 70 


2 27* 


2 27 


2 02* 


LOWEST.. 


1 25 


3 45 


2 06 


1 


60 


2 55 


1 52* 


1 40 


2 00 


2 20 


1 76 


HIGHEST. 


1 75 


6 30 


2 25 


1 


75 


2 91 


2 05 


1 75 


2 52 


2 25 


2 00 


AVERAGE 


1 55 


4 75 


2 17* 


1 


71 


2 90 


1 90 


1 70 


2 40 


2 17* 


1 87* 


LOWEST. . 


1 25 


3 90 


2 10 


1 


37* 


2 42* 


1 52* 


1 37* 


2 25 


1 52* 


1 60 


HIGHEST. 


2 40 


6 25 


2 25 


1 


94 


3 10 


1 95 


1 70 


2 50 


2 26 


1 98 


AVERAGE 


1 85 


6 00 


2 17* 


1 


80 


3 00 


1 80 


1 67 


2 40 


2 05 


1 86 


LOWEST. . 


1 60 


4 75 


1 88* 


1 


42 


2 50 


1 62J£ 


1 27 * 


2 22 


1 85 


1 70 


HIGHEST. 


2 60 


6 25 


2 25 


2 


22 


2 70 


1 77* 


1 95 


2 85 


2 05 


1 90 


AVERAGE 


2 25 


6 00 


2 17* 


2 


00 


2 62 


1 72 


1 62* 


2 63 


1 82* 


1 82* 


LOWEST.. 


1 70 


4 77* 


1 65 


1 


50 


2 37* 


1 32 


1 47* 


2 37* 


1 60 


1 76 


HIOHEST. 


3 00 


5 00 


1 75 


2 


15 


2 45 


1 65 


1 94 


3 16 


2 16 


2 00 


AVERAGE 


2 61 H 


4 75 


1 70 


2 


10 


2 22 


1 64 


1 66 


3 10 


2 05* 


1 91 


LOWEST. . 


2 45 


4 62* 


1 62* 


1 


65 


2 10 


1 17* 


1 47* 


2 60 


1 76 


1 75 


HIGHEST. 


2 75 


5 00 


1 77* 


2 


00 


2 60 


1 65 


1 98 


2 60 


2 16 


1 85 


AVERAGE 


2 60 


4 75 


1 70 


1 


77 


2 ro 


1 57* 


1 66 


2 4S 


2 05 


1 77* 


LOWEST.. 


2 30 


1 75 


1 47* 


1 


55 


2 00 


1 32 


1 60 


2 30 


1 8VA 


1 60 


HIGHEST. 


3 62H 


2 00 


1 60 


1 


82* 


2 30 


1 80 


2 10 


2 45 


1 82* 


1 82* 


AVERAGE 


3 10 


1 88 


1 50 


1 


72 


2 00 


1 75 


1 96 


2 22 


1 62 


1 74 


LOWEST.. 


2 75 


1 75 


1 37* 


1 


60 


1 80 


1 66 


1 70 


2 21 


1 42* 


1 60 


HIGHEST. 


3 65 


1 75 


1 60 


1 


87 


2 00 


1 85 


1 96 


2 45 


1 66 


2 12* 


AVERAGE 


3 50 


1 70 


1 50 


1 


77 


1 85 


1 80 


1 88* 


2 27 


1 60 


2 02 


LOWEST.. 


3 26 


1 60 


1 40 


1 


65 


1 52* 


1 42* 


1 67* 


2 12* 


1 26 


1 72* 


HIGHEST. 


3 65 


1 96 


1 65 


2 


15 


2 05 


1 77* 


1 80 


2 85 


1 70 


2 35 


AVERAGE 


3 52* 


1 87 


1 46 


2 


10 


1 96 


1 75 


1 75 


2 37 


1 62* 


2 25 


LOWEST.. 


3 30 


1 70 


1 25 


1 


75 


1 70 


1 42* 


1 65 


2 35 


1 40 


2 05 


HIGHEST. 


4 37M 


2 00 


1 95 


2 


64 


2 05 


1 67* 


2 05* 


2 85 


1 70 


2 37* 


AVERAGE 


3 90 


1 96 


1 60 


2 


42 


1 90 


1 66 


1 87 


2 65 


1 60 


2 26 


LOWEST.. 


3 60 


1 80 


1 36 


2 


17* 


1 27* 


1 20 


1 67* 


2 62 


1 40 


2 15 


HIGHEST. 


4 3TA 


2 12^ 


2 07 


2 


64 


1 94 


1 64 


2 17 


2 80 


1 80 


2 32* 


AVERAGE 


4 25 


2 05 


1 80 


2 


53* 


1 88 


1 GO 


2 12* 


2 75 


1 65 


2 27* 


LOWEST.. 


3 00 


1 75 


1 65 


2 


16 


1 42* 


1 05 


1 87 


2 50 


1 40 


2 20 


HIGHEST. 


S 75 


2 10 


2 00 


2 


64 


1 94 


1 64 


2 30 


2 83 


2 05 


2 35 


AVERAGE 


3 52* 


2 05 


1 87 


2 


53* 


1 85 


1 58 


2 20 


2 67 


1 93 


2 28 


LOWEST.. 


3 25 


1 94 


1 76 


2 


50 


1 62* 


1 17* 


1 87 


2 42 


1 65 


2 17* 



1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 



2 30 
2 16 
2 20 
2 25 
2 02* 

1 85 

2 00 
1 90 

1 80 

2 00 
1 90 

1 80 

2 00 
1 80 
1 70 
1 85 

1 77* 
1 70 
1 80 
1 65 
1 67* 
1 80 
1 60 
1 40 
1 66 
1 62* 
1 30 
1 67* 
1 47* 
1 37* 
1 MJf 
1 62* 
1 42* 
1 60 
1 47* 
1 36 



1 70 
1 60 
1 60 
1 65 
1 62* 
1 50 
1 62 
1 55 

1 60 

1 65 

1 f2* 

1 60 

1 70 

1 67 

1 65 

1 76 

1 70 

1 65 

2 00 
1 76 

1 67* 

2 40 
2 20 
2 15 
2 15 

2 02* 

1 90 

2 10 
1 97 

1 90 

2 02* 
1 90 

1 85 

2 00 
1 95 
1 90 



2 00 
1 92 
1 85 
1 96 
1 90 
1 86 
1 92* 
1 87* 

1 80 

2 00 
1 90 
1 75 
1 75 

1 67* 
1 60 
1 80 
1 68 
1 60 
1 65 
1 48* 
1 40 
1 67* 
1 66 
1 30 
1 67* 
1 54* 
1 30 
1 80 
1 65* 

1 30 

2 12* 
1 74 

1 40 

2 25 

1 93* 
1 90 



2 25 
2 155; 

1 85 

2 12* 
2 07* 

1 80 

2 17* 

2 08 

1 85 

3 25 

2 22 \ 

1 85 

3 05 

2 80 
2 25 
2 50 
2 30 
2 05 
2 26 
2 15 
2 10 
2 30 
2 25 
2 20 
2 40 
2 35 
2 30 
2 45 
2 40 
2 35 
2 45 
2 40 
2 35 
2 60 
2 45 
2 40 



2 35 
2 20 
2 06 
2 10 
2 02* 

1 95 

2 07* 
1 90 

1 80 

2 16 * 
2 05 

2 CO 
2 15 
2 05 

1 90 

2 00 
1 75 
1 60 
1 80 
1 70 
1 CO 
1 80 
1 70 
1 65 

1 77* 
1 67* 
1 62* 
1 70 
1 67* 
1 62* 
1 80 
1 70 
1 62* 
1 80 
1 70 
1 62* 



s. 



Notk. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, January 1st, 1S79. 
The mid-holiday season has, as usual, been 
marked by attantion rather to enjoyment 
than to trade. The Exchanges have closed 
and transactions have been only for imme- 
diate uses. Prices have not changed and 
dullness has been the rule. We omit our 
usual Market Review in the lack of anything 
calling for comment. Next week we shall 
probably have interesting summaries of the 
year's trade. 



Press 



Photography. — Readers coming to San Fran- 
cisco cannot fail of satisfaction if they go to 
Morse's for their photographs. Mr. Morse has 
been long engaged in bringing out the latent 
beauties in the human face; he is straightforward 
in his business, and everyone we have heard 
from is pleased with his work. He can do 
better with a tough subject than any artist we 
know of. We speak from experience. 



The Rural Handbook of Horti- 
culture. 

Dewey & Co. , the publishers of the Riral Pkrss, are 
now engaged upon, and will soon publish, a work under 
the above title, written for them by Charles 11. Shinn, of 
Niles. They have purchased the author's rights, and 
have stereotyped the book, so as to supply what they 
believe will be a lar^e demand. 

This book is devoted to the horticultural interests of 
the Pacific States, and treats of orchards, gardens, lawns, 
irrigation, seed-planting, vegetables, forests and shade 
trees, shrubs, and similar topics of universal interest, all 
handled in Mr. Shinu's well known vivid style. The book 
also contains a number of carefully prepared and valuable 
■'Tables of Plants Adapted to our Climate," and a most 
copious index. No work of the kind has heretofore 
appeared on this coast, and we think it will be found 
resh, practical and original ; in short, a manual of great 
value. Price, 91. 



Mining and Scientific 
Patent Agency. 



Tiik Mining and Scientific Press Patent Aqencv was 
established in 1800— the first west of the Rocky Moun 
tains. It has kept step with the rapid march of mechan- 
ical improvements. The records in its archives, its con 
stantly increasing library, the accumulation of informa- 
tion of special importance to our home inventors, and the 
experience of its proprietors- in an extensive and long 
continued personal practice in patent business, affords 
them combined advantages greater than any other agents 
can ]>ossibly offer to Pacific Coast inventors. Circulars of 
advice free. Address, DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers Mining and Scientific Press and Pacific lit - 
ral Press, 202 Sansome Street, S. F.— 1878. 



DURING 
THE 



HOLIDAY 
SEASON. 



The Best Farming Lands 

Are those that produce at least a fair crop every season. 
The demand for such property is increasing, while the 
amount offered for sale in the market constantly decreases 
and the prices advance. The most prominent tract of 
such land now being sold in subdivisions to suit purchas 
ers that we know of, is that of the Reading Ranch, in 
Shasta County, adjoining Tehama County on the south, 
in the upper Sacramento Valley. Level tillable land is 
held at from 90 to 930 per acre. The climate is healthy 
and favorable to most kinds of grains, vegetables and 
fruits, including semi-tropical growths. Wood and water 
are plentiful. A good local market always prevails. No 
drouths and no damaging floods. The tract, some twenty 
miles long by about tw<5 in width, is bordered on one side 
by the Sacramento river. The C. P. R. R. runs the en- 
tire length of the tract. Send for map and illustrated 
circular, or apply for further information to the proprie- 
tor, Mr. Edward Frisrie, on the ranch at Anderson 
Shasta County, Cal. [Title U. S. Patent ] 



Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood 
ward's Gardens, among which us Prof Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion jierfonnances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Popular Mi/sic. — Make your homes merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
can recommend this large, first-class, standard and popu- 
1 ir establishment. Examine his advertisement, appear- 
ing from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstrumeuts possessing the very highest and most perma- 
nent reputation. Call at 105 Kearny Street. The Ri ral 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 

It is to your advantage, Farmers! to send your order 
for all kinds of labor to the old Employment Agency o f 
A. Zeehandelaar (formerly with Labor Exchange) 027 Sac- 
ramento street, San Francisco. He selects your men with 
care and good judgment, with a view to give satisfaction 
to both employer and employee. 

WngN A Lady wants a cloak or suit for herself or child 
and feels in doubt where to buy it, we cheerfully recom- 
mend her to go to Sullivan's, No. 120 Kearny street, San 
Francisco, where she can always find the cheapest and 
best assortment. 



Kern Valley Colony. 

LOCATION, KERN COUNTY, CAL. 

Irrigated Lands, in 40 & 80 Acre Farms. 

The Finest Body of Land ever Opened to 
Colony Purposes. 

CLIMATE. - Semi-tropical, dry, and adapted to the 
widest range of agricultural productions. 

SOIL. — A rich friable loam, of great depth and inex- 
haustible fertility. 

LA ND — Level, free from underbrush, cultivation easy. 

WATER FOR IRRIGATION- Unfailing and 
abundant during all seasons of the year. 

FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS, of great 
volume, in the vicinity. 

TIMBER, for fire-wood and live fence posts, abundant. 

THE GROWTH OF FRUITS, both temperate 
and semi-tropical, has been fully tested on these and ad- 
joining lands, with most successful results. 

ORANGES, LEMONS aDd LIMES, free from 
the mildew attending in more humid climates, will reach 
here a state of surpassing excellence. The long dry rain- 
less season is specially adapted to the curing of Raisins 
and figs, and the Olive, Walnut and Almond flourish in 
perfection. tfafAll the elements for profitable Farming, 
successful Fruit-Raising, and delightful homes, exist here 
to an extent not excelled in any portion of the globe. 

TERMS EASY. For Pamphlets with full particu 
lars apply at the office of 

HORATIO P. LIVERMORE, 
531 Market St. , San Francisco. 
Or to C. BROWER, Local Agent, at Bakersfield, Cal. 



On receipt of the above amount I will send to any ad- 
dress nicely packed for transportation, one new 



" ID J^TIS " 
VERTICAL FEED. 

(Best Sewing Machine in the World.) 

— FOR — 

$40. 

the above amount I wi 
ked for transportation, 

"DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" 

Lock-stitch Family Sewing Machine complete, with a lot 
Uat of practical attachments and a splendidly ILLUS 
TRATED INSTRUCTION BOOK, showing unmistakably 
by wood cuts the exact position of each attachment when 
adjusted for different kinds of work. 

Make Your Wife a Present 

Of the LIGHTEST RUNNING SHUTTLE MACHINE i 
the market. Entire satisfaction guaranteed to every pur 
chaser. 

MARK SHELDON, Gen'l Agent, 

No. 130 Post Street, San Francisco 



Croat Slaughter 

IN SEWING MACHINES. 

We are now offering for sale, at $10 EACH, the fol- 
lowing machines: 

FLORENCE, 

WHEELER & WILSON, 

GROVER & BAKER. 

THESE MACHINES ARE 

Guaranteed to be in Perfect Order, 

And many of them NEW. 

Parties In the country can have them packed and 
shipped free of any extra charge. Address, 

WILCOX & GIBBS Sewing Machine Co., 

No. 124 POST STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

INSURE IN THE 

IS*® 




At 



P. S.— Remit by Express or Postal Money Order, 
least one-half cash must accompany order; balance may be 
paid upon receipt of Machine C. O. D. 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds for 1879, rich i n engravings, will be 
ready in January, and sent FREE, to all who apply. Cus- 
tomers of last season need not write for it I offer one of 
the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever gent out by 
any seed house in America, a large |K>rtiou of which were 
grown on my six Seed Farms. J'rinted direction* for 
cultivation on each package. All seed warranted to be 
both fresh ami true to name; so far, that should it prove 
otherwise, J will refill the order gratis. The original in 
troducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's Melon, Mar 
blehcad Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other Veg- 
etables. I invite the |>atronage of all who are anxious to 
have their Seed directly /rum the grower, fresh, true, and 
of the very best strain. 

NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

James J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, Mass 



Sax Jose is decidedly a very popular place of residence 
on this coast, and James A. Clayton is its leading agent 
for the sale of city and country real estate. See adv't. 

A Floubdio Mill is wanted at Reading, the head of 
railroad transportation iu Shasta County. 



□ I A Kl f| Beautiful Concert Grand Pianos, 
riMHU Cl) ,,t $1,600, only $425. Bu- 



ORGAN 



pcrh Grand Square Pianos, cost $1,100, only $255. 
Elegant Upright Pianos, cost $800, only $155. New 
Style Upright Pianos, $11250. Organs, $35. 
Organs, 12 Stops, $72 50. Church Organs, 16 stops, 
cost $390, only $115. Elegant $375 Mirror Top Or- 
gans, only $105. Tremendous sacrifice to close out 
present stock. Immense New Steam Factory soon to be 
erected. Newspaper with much information about cost 
of Pianos and Organs, SENT FREE. Please address 
DANIEL F. BEATTY, Washington, New Jersey. 




BUSINESS 

COLLEGE, 
24 l'omt Street 
Wear Kearny, 
San Francuco, CaU 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping aud Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structionis given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Dspartmsmt.— Ladies will be admitted for •>- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Department. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies arc practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Poet 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



ASSOCIATION. 

The only HOME COMPANY not 
exempting 1 its Stockholders from 
Individual Liability for 
Fire Losses. 

Cash Capital paid up, - • $200,000 
Assets, - - - - . $326,617 
Surplus to Policy Holders, - $324,000 

And Unlimited Liability of Stockholders. 
THOS. FLINT, President. F. K. RULE, Secretary 

I. G. GARDNER, Vice-Pres't and Geu'l Agent. 
OFFICE: 

209 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



ORGANIZED 1863. 
Losses Paid Sinoe Organization, 




OF CALIF □RNlAr£e>» 
Capital <fc Assets - $850,000 

,Xf I'ln- faroi-ite Home Company has won an enviable 
reputation and luw- patronage by Its methods of business, 
liberality in contracts, and prompt payment of losses— large 
as well as small. 



SAMUEL JELLY, 

Watchmaker and Importer of Jewelry, 

Watches, Diamond Work, Silverware, 

Etc., Etc. 

No. 120 J Street, between Fourth and Fifth, South Side, 
SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

Particular attention given to Manufacturing Jenelryt 
and Repairing Clocks, Watches, Jewelry, etc. 



MONEY TO LOAN 

AT LOWEST RATES, 

ON FIRST-CLASS COUNTRY REAL ESTATE AND 
OTHER APPROVED SECURITIES, 
McAFEE BROS, Real Estate aud Loan Brokers, 
202 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 



ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room. 

PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS. 
At 1031 Market St.. San Francisco. 



CORK OAKS FOR SALE. 

We call attention to our large stock of CORK OAKS 
two years old. Also, FRUIT TREES and ORNAMEN- 
TAL Trees. 

SHINN & CO., 

Niles, Alameda County, Cat 



January 4, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC 1UB1L PRES 



Commission Merchants. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Refbrenck.— Tradesmen's National Bamc, N. Y. ; EU 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
men to, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, Cal. 

C. & F. NAUMAN & CO., 

231 Washington St., San Francisco, 

Produce Commission Merchants. 

Solicit Consignments of 

POULTRY, GAME AND EGGS, 

On which the highest market rates will be returned. 



DALTON & GRAY, 
Commission Merchants, 

WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

All Kinds of Country Produce. 
404 & 406 Davis Street, San Francisco. 
tST Consignments Solicited T£i 




Farmers ! Notice ! 2 

THE BEST PLACE TO BUY 

Razors, Shears, Pocket Knives, 
Hunting Knives, Table Knives, 
Carving Knives, 

Our own manufacture, and every description of Cutlery 
is from the' manufacturers. All our Goods War- 
ranted the Best. 
fSTCouiitry orders promptly attended to. 

WILL & FINCK, 

LEADING CUTLERS, 

769 Market Street, San Francisco. 

/t3TCutlery of every description Ground and Repaired. 




LATIN 
EXTENSION SPRING BED. 

MANUFACTORY, 

1Q29 Market St., San Francisco, 
C. B. RICHMOND, PROP'R. 

Prices from $4 to $9, according to Size. 

We Challenge the World to produce a Bet- 
ter, Cheaper, Simpler, more Durable 
or Cleaner Bed than Ours. 



THE DINGEE&CONARD CO S 

BEAUTIPUt EVER- BLOOM ING 

ROSES 

THE BEST IN THE WORLD. . 

We deliver Strong Pot Plants, suitable for im- 
mediate bloom,, safely t)y mail, at all post-oflii es. 
5 splendid varieties, your choiee, all labeled, for 
$1; 13 for $2; 19f,. r $3; 2Gfor»4:; 35 forSS; 
75 for $10 ; 100 for $13. Our Great Specialty 
Is crowlnsr unci distributing tliese beauti- 
ful Roses. Smd for our NEW GUIDE TO ROSE 
CULTURE, 50 pages, elegantly illustrated, 
and choose from over 500 finest sorts. 
THE DINGEE & CONARD CO., 

Rose-Growers, West Grove, Cliester Co., Pa 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
seven and one-half (7J) per cent, per annum, and on Ordi- 
nary Deposits at the rate of six and one-fourth (6J) i>er 
cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on 
and after the 15th day of January, 1879. By order. 

GEORGE LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, December 31st, 1878. 



TO FARMERS AND SEED MEN. 

If you have an extraordinary Winter or Spring Wheat 
(for seed) send sample, name of Wheat and price, delivered 
at your nearest Railroad Station. 

P. J. RUSSELL, 
No. 508 Carroll Avenue, Chicago, Illiuois. 



FOREIGN 




'.'8 

.... Patent 

Agency, San Francisco. Send for free circular. 



50 



Perfumed, gilt edge & chromo Cards, in elegant case, name 
in gold, 10c Atlantic Co., E. Wallingford, Ct. 



WIRE 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 




FREE WATER 

— FOR — , 

ORANGE AND LEMON GROVES, 

In Placer County, Cal. 

Notice is hereby given by the owner of the BEAR 
RIVER, NORTH FORK and GOLD HILL DITCHES, that 
be will supply, 

Free of Charge, 

For five years, from June 1st, 1878, all the water needed 
to irrigate 

Orange and Lemon Plantations, 

Provided each party claiming water under this offer hai 
fifty or more trees in growing condition. 

He will also furnish free water for the first year to irri- 
gate Fruit Trees, Vines and Vegetables to all persons 
starting new places and improving the same, provided 
they make application in advance to 

S. WASHBURN, Sup't, 

Or to any local agent. Auburn, Placer Co., Cal 



CLOAKS and SUITS. 

SULLIVAN'S 
CLOAK and SUIT House, 

No. 120 Kearny Street, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



The Cheapest and Best Assortment in San 
Francisco. 



THE RANDALL 

PULVERIZING HARROW. 

Unequaled for Cross-Plowing. 




Self-Sharpening by Use. 

Local agents wanted. Descriptive Circular and Price 
List free on application. 

Address GRIFFITH & BURKE, 

Sole Agents. 

Yolo, Yolo County, California. 



DAY'S 

Automatic Incubators 

— OF— 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Very Best Incubating and 
Rearing 1 Machines Made. 

200 Eggs, requiring only 10 minutes attention per day. 
Simple, any Child can attend it. From 70 to 90 per cent 
is realized from all fertile Eggs. Address 

STYLOGRAPH CO., 

12 California St., San Francisco. 



LITTLE'S 
SHEEP IDIIF. 

—THE NEW — 

Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip, Disinfectant 
and Specific for Scab, Etc. 

It improves the growth and quality of the Wool, and 
Heals readily Sores in Sheep, Cattle and Horses. 

It is very valuable on account of its being applied in a 
cold state. For sale at 

FALKNER, BELL & CO.'s 

Wool Agency, 
No. 430 California Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Music Books for Presents! 



Price of each in 

Cloth, $3. 
Fine Gilt, $4.00. 
Boards, $2.50. 



Gems of English Song. 

New Enlarged Edition. 

Sunshine of Song. 
Cluster of Gems. 
Clarke's Reed Organ 
Melodies. 



These are samples of 50 or more fine collections of bound 
music, each containing 200 to 250 large pages of the best songs 
or pieces. The "Cluster" is filled with rather difficult Piano 
Music, and "Clarke's" with the best arranged Reed Organ 
music extant. 

Elegant Books of Musical Literature. 

Qltt edged, interesting, are the Lives of Mendelssohn, 
Schumann and Mozart (^1.7o each); and other great Masters, 
HITTER'S HISTORY OF MUSIC, (2 vols., each §1. 50) and 
Urbino's Musical Biographies, ($1.75). Also, many attrac- 
tive collections of Christmas Carols, the splendid Si nlioht 
of Bono (illustrated). The Mother Goose (illustrated), 
that will throw the little ones into ecstasies, and many others. 

Stainer's Dictionary of Musical Terms, 

($5) is a magnificent Illustrated Musical Encyclopedia, of 
great and permanent value. 

Any book mailed, post free, for Retail Price. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broadway, New York. 



JOHN ROGERS &. CO., 
General Stock and Sale Yard, 

Corner of Market and Oth Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Horses and Milch Cows Sold on 
Commission. 

ALSO, DEALERS IN HAY AND GRAIN 

Parties consigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and quick returns. 



JOE POHEIM. 

THE TAILOR. 

203 Montgomery St 

AND 

103 Third Street , S. F. 

Has just received a large as- 
sortment of the latest style 
goods. 

Suits to order from $20 

Pants to order from 5 

Overcoats to order from. . 15 

Jt3TThe leading question is 
where the best goods can he 
found at the lowest prices. 
The answer is at 

JOE POHEIM'S, 

203 Montgomery St., and 103 
Third St. , San Francisco. 
Samples and Rules for Self-measurement sent free to 
any address. Fit guaranteed. 




Chance in the Nursery Business. 

There is a good chance in Tehama County for a skilled 
man who will go to work and start a nursery. The loca 
tion is one mile from Vina station, in Tehama County, in 
a good growing region of country; the land is first-class 
and water abundant. A man is wanted, with good refer 
enccs, who will start a first-class nursery in partnership 
with the owner of the land. Address, 

S. C. DICUS, 
Vina Station, Tehama County, Cal 



J. P. Jones. J. Thompson 

JONES & THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Say, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

COUNTRY CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, and will 
receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 
above, 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 



4.000 Well-Rooted Cuttings, 

MUSCAT, TOKAY, MOROCCO, FERAS, etc., for sale 
Cheap. Address FRENCH BROS., 

Florin, Sacramento County, Cal 



GREAT MUSIC HOUSE 



— OF- 




KOHLER & CHASE, 

Nos. 137 and 139 Post Street, 
SAN F RANC ISCO. 

The Largest Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

PIANOS, ORGANS, 
Brass and Stringed Musical Instruments, 

Strings. Sheet Music, Etc. 

If you want the BEST INSTRUMENTS at LOWEST 
PRICES write to this House. 



BTJ YE R> 

—AND— 

COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

The undersigned, after an experience of forty years in the 
Grocery Business, has opened an office at No 24 CALIFOR- 
NIA STREET, corner Drumm. for buying and selling all 
kinds of Goods. Parties throughout the States and Territo- 
ries wishing an Agent in this Market for the transaction of 
their business, by entrusting the same to me, | can have 
special rates made, with full guarantee of satisfaction, or no 
charge for services. 

With twenty-five years' experience in this Market, I think 
I can suit one and all, both as a buyer and seller. All I ask 
is a trial. I will also have a Ladies' Department, under the 
management of a lady of experience and taste, who will fill 
all orders for your wives and daughters. Orders for this 
this Department should be endorsed: "For Lady Buyer." 

All parties ordering will be required to send fuuda with 
order or satisfactory reference. Respectfully, 

WHEELER MARTIN, 

24 California Street, San Francisco. 

REFERS BY PERMISSION. 

Rountree & McClure 401 Front Street 

J. M. Pike & Co 101 and 103 California Street. 

Marcus C. Hawley & Co Corner Market and lieale Sts. 

Cutting Packing Co 17 to 41 Main Street 

W. W. Montague St Co 112 to 120 Battery Street 

E. Martin & Co 408 Front Street 

Wellman, Peck & Co 416 and 418 Front Street 

Wheaton & Luhrs 219 Front Street. 

Deniing, Palmer it Co, 202 and 204 Davis Street 

Annes & Dallam 115 and 117 Front Street 



GREAT REDUCTION! 

—AT— 

MORSE'S 
PALACE OF ART, 

417 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Notwithstanding the great expense attending the pro- 
duction of the first-class and artistic Photographic work 
of our Gallery, GREAT REDUCTIONS have heen made, 
as follows: 



CARD 
PICTURES, 

$3 per dozen. 


CABINET 
PICTURES, 

Full and J length, 
£5 per dozen. 


CABINET 
PICTURES, 

Large Heads 
SB per dozen. 


SOUVENIR 
CABINETS, 

Full and \ length, 
$7 per dozen. 


SOUVENIR 
CABINETS, 

Large Heads, 
SS per doz^n. 


BOUDOIR 
PICTURES, 

S10 and $12 
Per Dozen. 



There will be no change in the excellence or perfection 
of our work. GEORGE D. MORSE. 



A NEW AND PERFECT HORSE SHOE. 

Made of welded fitcel find Iron 
with continuous calk. 




Acknowledged to bo the best 
ehoe In the world. Prevents 
interfering. Lameness usually 
caused by shoeing entirely; pro- 
vented by Its use. Horses 
having quarter-cracks, tender 
feet, and Corns travel with 
case. Trial set with nails sent 
on receipt of $1.00. 
Send lor free Illustrated pam- 



phlet to 
The 



30 



ELEGANT CARDS, ALL C1IROMOS, Name in Gold j 
and Jet, 10c. Globb Card Co., Norlbford, Ct. ' 



John D. Billings Patent Horse Shoe Co.; 
fe 161 and 163 Bank St., New York. 



14 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 4, 1879. 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

(PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures- 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strung and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearing* for the crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating, 
with no coil springor springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of oraer, as such things 
da Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON &. KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, RICE 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 




MVTTESON ft WILLIAMSON'S 




u. 

LLl 



u 
or 

LU 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
n the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the w<>rkii>g position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
|>oiut8 of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
anil most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



F. ALTMAN'S 




Foundry and Machine Shop. 

Manufacturer of all kinds of Steam and Agricultural 
Machinery. 

GANG PLOWS A SPECIALTY. 

Sheers and Mould Boards always on hand. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Peerless Corn Sheller 

It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only 96), that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
bo rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels per hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It weighs only 13 
]>ounds and is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, address 

WEISTER & CO. 

17 New Montgom- 
ery St., 8. F. 





Market. 



CALIFORNIA 

(Patent) 

WINDMILL. 

;jfe .> Self-Regulator. 

This is the cheapest and ltest 
Windmill in the country. Has 
Ob ' 78 fans. 10 felt in diameter. 

Price, $75. 

* Every mill is warranted. lie- 

. — '• " >•••>• buy. 1 f..r a circu- 

p r •"■ giviLg full description to 

' BERRY & PLACE, 

Front street. SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 



THE BOSS PRUNER. 

Patented January 8th, 1878 

ENTIRELY NEW ! 

Works on a cog principle. Smallest size cuts one inch, 
nd largest size two inches In diameter. Has been thor- 
ughly tested, and given perfect satisfaction. Sold by 

GEORGE LARKIN, 
Newcastle, Placer County, California. 



STALLION FOR SALE. 

A three-fourths bred CLYDESDALE STALLION, sound 
anil kind, will work single or double, weight, 1,000 lbs. 
is offered for sale by the undersigned. For term 
"ddresa G. J. VANDERVOORT, 

Suiiol, Alameda County, California. 



Sacramento City. 



Sacramento, the capital city of California, is centrally 
located to the great an<l rich agricultural and mining fields 
of the State. It is the second city in trade and imi>ortance 
un the western side of the continent. Sacramentaus through- 
out the history of California have honorably competed for a 
fair share of trade, and are well noted for their indomitable 
enterprise in establishing and perpetuating the growth, sub- 
stantial improvement and good reputation of their capital 
CITY. 



CAPITAL WOOLEN MILLS, 

248 J St., Sacramento, 

CARRY A LARGE STOCK OF CASSIMERES, DOE- 
SKINS, TWEEDS, FLANNELS, BLANKETS, READY 
MADE CLOTHING AND FLANNEL WEAR 
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION FOR THE 
WHOLESALE TRADE. 
Generous Discount on San Francisco Prices 

n our Tailoring Department we 
ave an attractive assortment of 
_ur own manufacture, together 
with the finest display of French. Scotch, German and Eng- 
lish goods to be seen in the City. W> make suits to measure, 
of eveiy description, from the commonest working pants to 
the finest cloth suit. 

A**?'e'ountry gentlemen, farmers and mechanics should take 
notice that our facilities are really superior for furnishing, 
standard and durable goods at LOW CASH RATES, 



TAILORING g 



QTUDEBAKEP 
WAGONS. 

E. E. Ames, General Agent. 

49 & 51 J STREET, SACRAMENTO 

S3" Send for Catalogue and Price List. "Si 



T. B. McFARLAND. 

Attomey-at-Law, late Register 
Sacramento Land Oiiice. 



G. W. FARR, 

Late Clerk of Sacra- 
mento Land Ofttce. 



Attorneys for Land Claimants. 

Offices, over Capital Bank, Southwest Comer of 
Fourth and 3 Streets, SACRAMENTO, Cal 

Oive especial attention to cases involving Titles to Public 
Lauds, fit her Agricultural of Mineral, in the Land OrtUvs in 
this State, in the (>euural Land oltice, and in the Local 
Courts. Address. MoPABLAHD & FARR, Sacramento. 



ORLEANS HOTEL, 

Second St., bet. J and K, SACRAMKNTO, Cal. 



This large, POPULAR and FIRST-CLASS Hotel (lately m- 
proved) is only one block from the depot. It has Mos- 
quito proof Rooms, hot and cold Water Maths, 
Free. Prices of room and board reduced to 
1*2, 42.50, and Si per day. Guests con- 
veyed to atrd from the Hotel, 
free of charge. 

RICHARDSON & PRESBURY, Prop's. 



F 



URNITURE, 



VAN HEUSEN & HUNTOON'S, 
204 J STREET, SACRAMENTO. 

XSTPriees always the Lowest, and the beet assortment. ^£3, 



J. Pitcher Spooner, 

PHOTOGRAPHER, 

Nos. 171, 173 and 175 Main Street, Kidd's Block, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Animals, Landscapes and Patent 
Model Photographing a Specialty. 

Special Photographer for the Pacific Rural 
Press for San Joaquin County. 



M. COOKE. R. J. COOKE. 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit & Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

X3* Communications Promptly Attended to T£t 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cook* & Ckeookt 



BENNETT, PATTERSON & CO., 

Manufacturers and Dealers in 

Furniture, Bedding, Etc. 

Walnut, Marble Top and Cottage Sets a 

Specialty. 

Salesroom, 422 and 422J 1st Street, Auzerais Building, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



SWEET 



NAVY 



Awar.l*:! liyhtnt p-ize at Centennial Exposition for 
fine charing q-ia'itie* and exf*?lenee and lasting char- 
acter nf HDtetenitQ and flavoring. The beet tobacco 
ever made. At our blue mip trade-mark f« clofely 
imitated on inferior poods, see that JruasBOM*! Brrt i* 
on evert pin*. Sold by all dealers. Send for mnk 
it ■ to 'C. A. Jacesox & Co., Mfrs., Petersburg, Va» 

L &E. WERTHHEIMER, Ag'ts, San Francieco 



San Jose. 



Thia popular City of Homes is the largest business center 
south of the Golden Gate. It is surrounded by the most 
thickly settled fanning district in the State— owinglargely to 
the combined advantages of rich soil, mild and healthy cli- 
mate aud neatness to market. Cheap and healthy living, 
with favorable facilities for transportation, favor the com- 
mercial aud manufacturing interests of the onterprfciug citi- 
zens of this early settled, appropriately termed "Garden City. ** 



THEOPHILE PINARD, 

Alameda Carriage Factory, 



San Jose 




Blacksmithing of all kinds Neatly 
and Promptly done. 

Horseshoeing a Specialty. 



H. J. HASKELL, 




MANUFACTURER OF 

CARRIAGES, 
BUGGIES, 

— AND — 

SPRING WAGONS, 

At the Lowest Rates. 
Corner of Alameda and White Streets, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Finch's Horse Medicines. 

FINCH'S CURE ALL— Warranted to cure all sores, old 
or fresh, on man or beast. 

FINCH'S CELEBRATED HORSE RENOVATING MED- 
ICINES— Used by Montgomery Qdmb for many years. 
Testimonials. 

Mr. S. Finch. — Drar Sir:- 1 have given your Horse Medi- 
cine a fair trial, and hud that it works satisfactorily, and feel 
fully warranted in recommending it to the public— Geo. B. 
McKek, San Jose, October 10th, 1878. 

I fully concur in the above testimonial, having given it a 
thorough test.- S. A. Biauor. Pres't 8. J. ft H. C. R. R. Co. 

Mr. 8. Finch.- A'iV: — I have used your Cure All on sores 
of all kinds, and can say it is the best I have ever i.ad in my 
barn for man or beast. I have also used your Renovating 
Medicine, and cau fully recommend it to the public. It 
should be kept in every stable, even to feed occasionally to 
keep horses in good condition. I keep it in my stable all the 
time, and would recommend it to all horsemen - especially to 
those keeping livery ami railroad horses. — R. K. Hah, Santa 
Clara, Cal., October lUth. 1878. 

I hereby certify that I have sold Finch's Cure All in Michi 
gan for 10 years, and it has always given good satisfaction 
And for the last three or four years nave sold it in San Jose, 
and can truly say that it is one of the best preparations for 
healing all manner of sores on man or beast I have ever sold. 
- S. H. W'AtiNER. Druggist, San Jose. October 10th. 1878. 
For sale, wholesale or retail, by 
S. FINCH. 661 Seventh St., San Jose, 

Or at WAOVBBl and Rfiodkh Drug Stores, San Jose, Cal 



KEPT ON THE EASTERN PLAN. 

LICK HOUSE, 

Comer First and San Fernando Sts., SAN JOSE, Cal. 

J. L. HILL, PROPRIETOR. 

81. 50 to 42 per day. $6 to $10 per week. Carriage at- 
tends all trains. 



OLYDESDALK AND HAMBLETONIAN 

STALLIONS. 

Mares and Colts. 

HOLSTEIN CATTLE. 

All of the finest breeding to be found in the United States 
or Europe, several of whieh were prize animals at the recen 
New York State Fair. PRICES AND TERMS EASY. 

Also, a large NURSERY STOCK of best quality. Cata- 
logues free. Special inducements offered on Hursts and 
Cattle to go west of the Rocky mountaius. 

SMITH & POWELL, 

199 West Genesee Street, Syracuse, New York 



San Francisco Shopping. 

MRS. M. B. SMITH will purchase and forward 
goods of every description at reasonable commission. For 
Circulars giving full information and unexceptionable ref- 
erences, address her, No. 200 Stockton St. , San Francisco. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 

LOMPOC 

Temperance Colony. 

45,654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF SALE-25% cash, and the remainder to eight 
eiiual annual installments with interest at 10/, per annum, or 
full payment and Deed ImmeiUately. 

Rich Soil and Healthful Climate. 

Located in the Western part of Santa Barbara County 
California, embracing 10.000 acres of the Finest Bean Land 
in the State; as high as 3,700 lbs. of Beans to the acre have 
been raised the present year, while 3.000 tbs. to the acre is not 
an uncommon yield. 

DAILY MAIL 

And Telegraphic Communication with all parts of the State 
The Telegraph Stage Co.'s Coaches now run daily, each 
way, directly through the town of 

LOMPOC. 

E. H. HEACOCK, President. 

v . L , IRVING P. HENNING. Secretary. 

November 6th. 1878. 



California Land Agency, 

NO. 276 FIRST STREET, 

San Jose, Cal. 

Has on hand aud is in constant receipt of Haps and Charts 
of 

Public Lands for Location. 

For from fm to *50 I will select and survey for you a 
good claim, giving full details of its quality and adapta- 
bility to different kinds of agriculture or stock raising. I 

locate Pre-emptions, 

Soldier or Sailor's Homesteads, 

TIMBER, WOOD OR DESERT LANDS, 

And have also numerous 

Tracts of Cheap Lands For Sale. 

For further particulars apply as above to 

C. C. RODGERS, 
Land Agent and Surveyor. 

CHOICE 

Farms and Orchards 

In Santa Clara County. 

212 Acres. 2 miles west of Santa Clara, considered one 

of the best Farms in the County, at $!X) per acre. 
41 Acres, 30 acres in Almonds and English Walnuts, 

l>art in beating, at Los Gatos, 1 mile from R. R. depot: 

no frost; Price. *i,000. 
1,040 Acres, in Santa Ana Valley, 6 miles east of Hol- 

listcr; is one of the best farms in San Benito County; 

Price, 830,000. 

164 Acres, s miles S. W. of San Jose, rolling hills, all 

fenced, small orchard, running water; very cheap. $5,000. 
2,650 Acres, slock ranch, 20 miles south from San 

.lose; good pasture, plenty wood and water; $18,000. 
832 Acres, 22 miles from San Josc;stock ranch;*5,000. 
160 Acres, in the warm belt, 1J miles above Alma, on 

R. R. ; Price, *3,000. 
337 Acres, 3 miles from San Jose, at $70 per acre; No. 

1 farm. 

73} Acres, 5 miles from San Jose; house, barn, etc.; 

at |06 per acre. 
191 Acres, 4 miles from San Jose; choice farm, at $90 

per acre. 

Several fruit orchards in vicinity of San Jose, from 3 to 
20 acres, on easy terms. Also, improved places in San 
Jose and Santa Clara. Title good in all cases, or no aale. 

JAMES A. CLAYTON, Real Estate Agent, 

288 Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 

A Good Dairy Ranch For Sale 

On Bear River. Humboldt County, Cal , 

containing 800 acres of as good grazing laud as any in the 
State. New Dairy and Dwelling House. The land is well 
watered, and plenty of timber for firewood and shelter, 
and well fenced. I will also sell with the ranch 100 head 
of choice dairy cows and five horses. Price, $13,000, one- 
half down, the remainder on easy terms for one, two or 
three years Apply either in person or by letter to Rich- 
ard Johnston, Post-office address. Myrtle Grove, Hum- 
boldt County, Cal. , or to R. J Johnston, No. 1,324 How- 
ard Street, San Francisco. 



BEE RANCH FOR SALE. 

One of the best ranges in the State. At present work- 
ing 375 stands Italian Bees. Apply for particulars to 
D. W. McLEOD. 

Riverside 



COMMERCIAL HOTEL, 

Nus. 273, 275, 277 and 279 Main Street, Smith's Brick 
Building. STOCKTON, California. 

FRED. C. HAHN, - - PROPRIETOR. 

Kates. $1 25 and $2.00 per day. This popular Hotel has 61 
wt 11 appointed rooms, has been refurnished and refitted in 
the most elegant manner, and is the most comfortable and 
commodious Hotel in the City. Large, pleasant rooms for 
amilies A Coach will be at all Trains to carry l'asbengers 
ree to the Hotel. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH 

$2 Per Gallon. 



After dipping the sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc T. W. JACKSON. 
S. P., Sole A enl for Pacific Coaat, 



January 4, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



15 



Winchester Repeating Rifle, 



MODEL 1873. 



One-third size by Dr. E. H. Pardee. 






• 



















The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, » f f 

i a v J String measuring from center of tar- 

get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, to *£ •^TfiootaSS. ' 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting 1 . 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 

26, 28, 30— extra finished, ease hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch 

extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 



Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder. 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



PACIFIC 

Bone Coal and Fertilizing Material Co. 

Office, 21 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

Pure Bone Meal, Superphosphate, Animal Fertilizers, 

Bone Meal for Chicken and Stock Feed. 

In order to introduce our fertilizers, and to prove that we are using nothing hut pure materials, and being positive 
that when properly used they will double the yields of most crops, and at the same time enrich the soil, we arc willing 
to furnish small lots, of 100 pounds and upwards, at ton prices. 

For Circulars, giving information concerning the use of the fertilizers on different crops, apply to or address the 
Company's office, No. 21 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

A. HAAS, Manager. 



MAKE NOTE OF FACTS AS NOTED BELOW. 




The great popularity of the SCUTT PATENT STAR BARBED WIRE arises from the following DecuUarities: 

1st. -Owiugto its beiug plaited (not twisted) it is stronger than any other Wire made. All other Wires, and especially 
close twisted Wires, are weakened; IT MUST BE SO. because the fiber of the metal is broken in twisting. 

2d.— Our Patent Machines are the only ones that form a Barbed Wire Cable without twisting the single strand of Wire. 

3d — We use STEEL made by the Siemaus & Martin process, for Barbs, the best in the world. Our Wire is made 
entirely by Machinery, and is perfectly uniform. 

4th — It is coated with our own weather-proof Iron Cement Coating— rust proof. It has been imitated, but never 
equalled. Weight -17 ounces per rod. 

5th — It costs from 20 to 40 per cent less than an equally good board fence. 

6t.h.— 1,440 pounds wilt make a fence one mile long four WireB high. 

7th.— The wind will not blow it down; fire will not burn it; boys will not climb it; in fact it is a four-pointed argument 
that both man and beast will heed. 

8th. —For a Hog-tight fence use one board and three Wires, posts i to 10 feet apart. For Cattle and Horses, three 
Wires, posts fr-'m 8 to 20 feet apart. 

9th.— It is lighter, will reach farther, last longer, turn stock better, and look handsomer than any other Wire on th 
market. If these are not found to be facts return to 

GRANGERS' UNION Wire Fence Department, Manufacturers, Stockton, Cal. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

•which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 

-which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA <&• PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London. 
(s"c, dfc; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



CRAPE CRAPE 

THE WATERPROOF CRAPE AND LACE REFINISHING COMPANY. 



(Shriver's Patent 

The only Process by which old Crape can be made good as new. 
taking ofl. CITY AND COUNTY RIGHTS FOR SALE. 

OFFICE, 114 TURK STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Process.) 

Crupe rcfinished on Bonnets and Dresses without 



California Furniture Manufacturing Go , 



224 & 226 BUSH STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Manufacturers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



JETTJ RNITURE, Etc. 



HBgr*LATEST STYLES AND LOWEST PRICES.-^r 



THE — 




For Crippled and Deformed Persons, 

Is the largest Institution «*f its kind on the Continent. The Medical and Surgical Staff comprises the best talent in 
the country. There have been more cases of human deformities successfully treated than by any similar Institution. 
More than 50,000 cases have been successfully treated. Diseases which are made a specialty—Curvature of the Spine, 
Hip Disease and all Diseases of the Joints, Crooked Limbs, Club Feet, Piles, Fistula, Nasal Catarrh and Paralysis. 
Send for Circulars and References to the 

Western Division. 319 Bush Street, San Francisco. 



CRBGO & BOWLEY, 

* IMPORTERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN ' 

Top and Open Phaetons, Carriages, Top and Open Rockaways, Top and Open Buggies, 
Jump Seat Buggies, Single Seat Business Wagons, Two Seat Country Wagons, 

Thorough brace Wagons, Harness, Saddlery, Whips, BlanKeis, Robes, £fc. 

JAMES R. HILL & CO.'S CONCORD HARNESS. TOMPKIN'S MANDVILLE HARNESS. 
C. B. SMITH & CO.'S HARNESS. 

No. 9 New Merchants' Exchange, California St. 
REPOSITORY AND SALE STABLES, 

Corner New Montgomery and Mission Sts. 

Our Sale Stables are the largest on the Pacific Coast, having a lar;;e Amphitheater with first-class facilities for 
the exhibition of stock. We have ample accommodations for two hundred head of horses, and are ready to receive 
consignments from all parts of the country, to he cared for at reasonable rates until day of sale. 



O 111 a ndt & Buck, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Animal Charcoal, Ivory Black, Bone Ash, 

AND NEATS FOOT OIL. 
Willow Charcoal for Rectifying Always on Hand. 
PURE BONE MEAL AND SUPERPHOSPHATES, 

For Fertilizing the Soil and insuring Good Crops. GROUND BONE, the best Feed for Poultry 
and Stock. Highest Market Price Paid for Animal Bones. For particulars apply to above 
parties, 

Second Long Bridge, Potrero, San Francisco, Cal. 



1 MUSICAL BOXES 

For Holiday, Birthday and bedding Presents. 



K 

CO 
Ul 



J". 



CO, 



o 

CO 
=9 

s 



PAILLARD &c 

Manufacturers and Importers, 

No. 120 Sutter St., San Francisco 



CT 
30 
3> 



•o 



30 

CO 



BUTTER COLOR 

Gives Ruttcr the Kilt-cdKC color the year round. Tho largest Butter Buyers recommend its use. Thousands 
«f Dairymen say IT IS PERFKCT. A I; y )Ur druggist or merchant for it : or writo to ask what it is, what it 
cost:!, who uses it. where to g-et it. AVIiLLS, JtlCI.'AKDSON <fc CO., Proprietors. Iinrlingtou, Vt. 



YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for or» Chromo and Perfumed Cards [no 3 alike], name in 
Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS.,.Nortbiord, Conn. I OU Gokl and Jet, 10c. Clinton Bros., Clintonville, Ct. 



16 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 4, 1879. 



MOLD'S IMPROVED WINTER WHEATS, 



RED AND WHITE.) 




PRINGLE'S NEW SPRING WHEATS CHAMPLAIN and DEFIANCE. 



These two varieties were first offered by us last Spring. The reports of the yield, especially on the Pacific Coast, are truly astonishing — several growers have sent in reports, duly witnessed 
and sworn to before the proper Officers, of growing from :IUO to ?(>() pounds from one jionml of the Seed. Heads of each variety have been sent to us 6 to 7 inches in length, each head containing 
from 70 to 00 kernels. They are not only highly productive, but are of the very best quality for Bread. 

Was produced in 1870 by Mr. Pringlc, in bis endeavors to unite the remarkable hardiness of the Black Sea with the fine and superior quality of the Golden Drop, 
■several varieties were the result of this hybridization, from which this one was chosen, as realizing the end in view, showing greatly increased vigor and productive- 
ness over both its parents. A careful selection from this for the past seven years has now fully established its character, and we have a Wheat bearded like the 
Black' Sea, with the white Chaff of the Golden Drop, free from rust and smut, yielding a lighter colored grain than the former, which makes a Flour of superior quality. Its strong and vigorous 
straw, growing f> to 12 inches higher than its parent varieties, stands erect, frequently bearing, even in very ordinary culture, heads from five to six inches in length, containing from 60 to 75, 
kernels each. We confidently recommend this new Wheat as amongst the earliest, promising to give the grower of this most important crop better results than are produced by the old and "run 
out" varieties now sown. 

Another variety of Spring Wheat of the highest promise, the result of a series of experiments by Mr. Pringle in 1871 to incorporate superior qualities upon the hardy 
stock of our common Club Wheat by hybridizing it with one of the finest whitest, and most extensively grown sorts of the Pacific Coast. This variety displays great 
productiveness, vigor and hardiness. It is a beardless, white chaff Wheat, with heads frequently five to six inches long, very closely set with large white kernels, fre- 
quently numbering 75 to SO to the single head. Its white, stiff, erect straw, exempt from the attack of rust, its earliness, combined with great vigor and superior qualities, should claim for it 
universal trial. liTOur Wheat Circular, giving the report of the Committee awarding the Premiums offered by us last Spring, also the method of culture adopted by the successful competitors, 
with much other useful information upon the subject of Wheat growing, will be mailed to all applicants enclosing stamp. 

PRICES of either of above four varieties: One Pound, 75 Cts. ; Three Pounds for $2, by Mail, Postpaid; $5 per Peck by Express, at Purchaser's expense. 

BLISS' ILLUSTRATED HAND BOOK for ISTOforthe Farm and Garden, and CATALOGUE of Garden, Field and Flower Seeds, Fertilizers, Agricultural and Hortiettltura 
Implements, and every requisite far the Farm, Garden and Conservatory, over 100 pages, profusely illustrated, and full of valuable information, mailed on icceipt of ten cents. Regular customers 
supplied free. Address, 



CHAMPLAIN 



DEFIANCE. 



B. K. BLISS & SONS, 



No. 34 Barclay Street, New York. P. 0. Box 4.129. 



Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Co., 



— OF- 



C^LIZFOZR.ZlnTI^. 



J. H. CARROLL, President. GEO. A. MOORE, Vice-Pres't. 

J. C. CARROLL, Secretary. 



This substantial Company, the only Life Insurance Corporation organized upon the Pacini 
Coast, is now offering to the insuring public its new 

LOW RATE POLICY, 

The Most Attractive Form of Insurance Ever Presented to the Public. 



Reliable agents wanted in every town and County. Applications for explanatory Circulars or 
for Agencies may be made to the Principal Olfice of the Company in SACRAMENTO, or to any 
of the General Agents. 



■FiR^nsrcis SMITH &c CO., 

MANC FACTUKKHS OF 

THE PATENT CHANNEL IRON WHEELBARROWS, 



UJ 
LU 
I 

CO 



III 

DL 



o 




3 

o 



m 



CO 

I 
m 
m 
H 



NEW LESTER SAW. 



The Strongest Barrow Made. These Barrows are made by Superior Workmen, and of the best material. 
All sizes kept constantly on hand. 

Lap-Welded Pipe, all Sizes, from Three to Six Inches. Artesian Well Pipe. Also, Gal- 
vanized Iron Boilers, from Twenty five to One Hundred Gallons. 

Iron Cut, Punched, and Formed for making pipe on ground, where required. All kinds of tools supplied for 
making pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all size of pipes with a composition of 
Coal Tar and Aspbaltum. 

Office and Manufactory, 130 BBALE STREET, San Francisco, Cal. 



FARM FOR SALE 
Near Newcastle, Placer Co., Cal., 

Containing 240 Acres, 

100 Acres under Good Fence, 30 Acres of Alfalfa, 
good Buildings, good Water. Title Perfect. 
TERMS EASY, and free Water from Bear 
Kivcr Ditch for five years, to irrigate ORANUE and 
LEMON Tit EES. Address 

WILLIAM J. PROSSER, 

Kocklin, Placer County, California. 



50 



Perfumed, Nnownake, Chromo, Motto. Cards, name 
iu gold*: jet, 10c. U. A. Spring, K. Walling/nrd, Ct. 



This paper ia printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold! St.,iN. Y. 



Martin's Centennial Windmill. 

Has the following jmsitive advan- 
tages: Great jwwer combined 
with grvat simplicity and dura- 
bility; jwrftrctly self-regulating 
and safe in any storm; it can be 
run at any speed from 20 to 60 
revolutions per minute iu a brisk 
wind, at will. It is comparatively 
BOlMHMi and runs at the above 
speed smoothly. It is sinjply and 
perfectly self -regulated. It is 
strong and cheap. On all these 
points it challenges comparison 
with any other wind engine in 
use. It is especially worthy the 
examination of these needing to 
use wind power. For prices and 
other information address 

T. E. MARTIN, 

Inveiitor and patentee, San Jose, 
Cal., who carefully and economi- 
cally manufactures every mill at Altman's Foundry and Ma- 
chine Shop, near the Narrow Gauge R. R. Depot. 




The Home Knitter. 

The most complete Family Knitting Machine ever in- 
vented. Something entirely new in form, construction 
and method of operation. Retail price, 825. Send for 
descriptive circulars. Agents wanted every where. 

HOME KNITTER CO., Canton, Ohio. " 




The NEW LESTER SAW ia 
made of iron, with all the working 
parts of steel, and weighs S6 lbs. 

Boxed. 

It consists of, first, a Scroll Saw, 
with TiltiDg Table for inlaid work; 
arms 18 inches in the clear; clamps 
which will hold saws of any length 
or width, and face them in four dif- 
ferent directions; cutting lumber 
from one-sixteenth to one inch in 
thickness; speed, 1,000 strokes per 
minute. 

Second, a Circular Saw, two and 
one-half inches in diameter, which 
will cut lumber one-half inch and 
less; with an iron table 4x5 inches. 

Third, a Drilling Attachment, 
with six Stubs' Steel Drills of vari- 
ous sizes for wood or iron work. 

Fourth, an Emory Wheel, with 
wide and narrow rim. 

Fifth, a Turnino Lathe, with 
iron ways and rest, steel centers, 
and three best steel Turning Tools; 
length of way, 15 inches; distance 
between centers, 9 inches; swing, 3 
inches; length of slide rest, i in- 
ches; nnmber of revolutions per 
minute, 7,000. 

Also, with each machine, six Saw 
Blades, a Wrench, Screw Driver, 
extra Belt, and two sheets of De- 
signs, with a nice box for the small 
tools and a box for the whole Ma- 
chine. It is taken apart when 
shipped and packed in a box, but 
the working parts are all left in 
place, and the frame is put together 
again by a single bolt. 



Price For Everything Above Named, $12.00. 

When desired, we furnish with the Lathe a very nice Drill Chuck for working metal, and a 

Tail stock, with Screw center, $2 extra. SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

FOR SALE BY 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Boswell Pure Air Heater Company, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 
Eugene L. Sullivan, Pres't. T. C. Winchell, Vice-Pres't. S. R. Lippincott. Sec'y. 

Authorized Capital, $100,000. Cash Capital, paid up, $32,000. 

o 

Manufacture and have for sale any size or capacity 

BOSWELL'S PATENT Combined Cooker. Heater and Drier. 

ALSO, BOSWELL'S COMMERCIAL FRUIT DRIER. 

ALSO, BOSWELL'S VENTILATING HEATER. 

Office, 606 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Volume XVII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY II, 1879. 



Number 2. 



Clydesdale Horses. 

There are a number of excellent specimens of 
this famous breed of draft horses now owned 
in this State, and the influence of Clydesdale 
sires is exhibiting itself in the improved colts 
which are being brought forward. We have 
already secured the potent blood of the Nor- 
man Percheron, and the English draft horse as 
well as the Clydesdale, and it is a matter for 
congratulation that horse-breeders and farmers 
generally, are perceiving the benefit of crossing 
these breeds upon th« ir common stock. We 
have not lately had a portrait of a pure-bred 
Clydesdale, and the one which we give on this 
page will be valued both by those who are fa- 
miliar with the Chydesdale form, and those who 
have heard of his fame, but not seen his charac- 
teristic outlines. 

Our engraving is of "King of the East," who 
has won title to the distinction of illustration 
by his record as a prize winner at the leading 
fairs of the Eastern States. He was awarded 
first premium at the New York State fair, in 
September last, and has stood first at all 
county fairs when shown. He was bred by 
Mr. Andrew Montgomery, one of the most 
noted Clydesdale breeders in Scotland. He 
was imported in 1875, at two years old, by 
an agent sent expressly for the purpose, with 
instructions to return only with one of the 
best and purest bred horses to be found in 
Scotland. He has since stood at the head 
of the Clydesdale department of the breed- 
ing establishment of Messrs. Smith & Powell, 
of Syracuse, New York, until recently sold 
to the Berlin Breeders' Association of Ohio ; 
the former owners now having several other 
young stallions of equal breeding, to take the 
place at the head of their stud. They also 
expect a new importation soon. 

"King of the East " was sired by "The 
Marquis," he by "Pride of Galloway," he by 
"Gladstone ;" all of which were noted prize 
winners at the great shows of Scotland. His |C 
dam was "Lovely," by "Lochfurgus Cham- 
pion," of which it is written by a noted 
authority : "He has left a stock that is jj 
unsurpassed in the show yards and in the 
markets of the world;" and by another, 
"he did more to improve the stock of Scot- 
land, than any other horse before or after 
him." He was by the famous "Salmon's 
Champion," a horse that sold for |4,000, to go to 
New Zealand ; and he by "Andrew's Farmer," 
he by "McKeam Glancer," and he by "Frame's 
Old Champion." This pedigree needs no com- 
ment. 

"King of the East" is a dark dapple bay, stands 
16f hands, weighing 1,900 pounds. He is long 
and round in the barrel, deep and broad in the 
chest, with immense quarters. In finish, action 
and style, he is said to be equal to a fine 1,000- 
pound horse. 

This breed of horses is very hardy, easily 
kept, free, of the kindest disposition; working 
almost from instinct. A single day is all the 
time usually required in breaking, before put- 
ting them into the regular team. They are 
able to do ordinary farm work at two years 
old, and at three years will go into regular 
teaming. They are remarkably rapid walkers 
and good roadsters. Those interested in Clydes- 
dales, will doubtless find points of value in the 
Clydesdale catalogue, just issed by Smith & 
Powell, of Syracuse, New York. 



Irrigation in Colorado. 

It seems that Colorado agriculturists have 
grappled with the irrigation problem, through 
the agency of a State Convention recently held. 
The course of the enterprise has not been with- 
out opposition and the proceedings of the Con- 
vention show the doubts and difficulties which 
beset any general scheme for watering a State. 
There were, however, certain points which 
were approved and passed to the dignity of 
resolutions. They determined that the Presi- 
dent of the State Agricultural Society should 
act as Commissioner of Irrigation, and that the 
Secretary of the State Society should compile 
information and statistics concerning irrigation 
in the State. They favor the division of the 
State into irrigation districts, according to the 
natural course of the streams, and the appoint- 
ment of a local commissioner in each district 
and county. They approve measures for ascer- |' 



Merino Mutton. — Many of our readers who 
have fine wool sheep for the butcher will sym- 
pathize with an Ohio Merino grower who takes 
up the cudgel in favor of the Merino mutton, as 
against the flesh of the coarse wooled sheep 
which have gained eminence as mutton animals. 
This man says that "it is a fact known to all 
who try to learn facts, that Merino mutton, 
and Merino grade mutton sell for the same 
price per pound, and just as quick as any of the 
eoarse-wooled mutton. I have heard drovers 
remark that good grade Merino wethers would 
go quicker in New York market than any other, 
and the home butchers make no difference in 
price. Now I am a mutton eater, have eaten 
mutton from all kinds of breeds and sheep 
raised in this country, and think that a three- 
fourth blood Merino wether makes the finest 
grained, juicy and tenderest mutton that 
grows." The issue between fine and coarse 
wooled sheep for mutton may be made by those 




IMPORTED CLYDESDALE STALLION 



In a trial of the electric light in Philadelphia, 
24 Brush lights did the work of 2,400 gas jets. 



taining and perpetuating the priority of rights 
in ditches, individuals and farms to the use of 
water in each district and measuring the ca- 
pacity of the natural streams of the State. They 
propose to divide the water among the ditches, 
individuals and farms, respectively, in accord- 
anee with prior rights, and favor the adoption 
of some uniform method for measuring the 
water entering the different ditches. They call 
for legislation in regard to simplifying the 
method of obtaining right of way for irrigation 
ditches. They also demand that stringent 
measures be adopted to prevent the pollution 
of streams and ditches, and that the water be 
kept pure for household purposes. The im- 
portance of taking measures for the storage of 
surplus water in seasons of abundance, for use 
in a time of scarcity. These propositions will 
doubtless be kept in reserve for urging upon the 
next session of the State Legislature, and then 
we shall see whether Colorado finds it easier to 
devise a general irrigation act than California 
has found it hitherto. 



Juan Moncasi would-be assassin of tb» 
Spanish king, has been executed. 



KING OP THE EAST." 

interested on either side. It is, however, a use- 
ful fact in view of the surplus of fine wooled 
sheep which are coming to the butcher in this 
State, that the quality of their flesh should be 
set forth. Mutton is very cheap in this State, 
and if meat eaters of moderate means would 
take up with this meat instead of joining the 
rich in the contest for porter-house steaks, 
they would be just as well nourished, and their 
purses would be thicker for it. We preach 
from experience on this point. 

How Fast do our Fruit Trees Grow? — 
In case some of our readers may like to com- 
pare the growth of their peach and apple trees 
with Eastern averages, we give them a stand- 
ard. Dr. E. W. Sylvester, one of the leading 
fruit growers of western New York, says that 
"if peach trees are making a growth of 17 to 
18 inches on the limbs in a season, and apple 
trees 6 to 12 inches, they are doing well enough, 
are making all the growth that is best for the 
good of the trees, and when they are making 
such growth they do not need cultivation or 
fertilizers." 



What Do Hops Cost? 

When a productive specialty has passed 
through a session of unusual depression of val- 
ues, it is natural that producers should take 
out their slates and endeavor to ascertain 
whether the price has fallen below the cost of 
produotion or not. This would be profitable 
employment for our hop-growing readers, if 
they have not yet made the computation accu- 
rately; and when they reach a conclusion from 
close figuring, we should like to know the re- 
sult. If the price gained for California hops 
has not passed below the cost of production 
this year, then it is hardly likely to ever pass 
below it; for the low prices are already turning 
producers' attention to other crops, and the 
prospect of the market for another years hop 
harvest is upward. 

We are not sure of the cost of hops in this 
State, and this information we hope our readers 
will furnish. We have, however, reports from 
other regions whick are interesting. Wash- 
ington Territory, which has many advantages 
as a hop-growing country in climate, which 
gives a long working season, in yield per acre, 
in the good quality of the product and in the 
cheapness of poles, must have produced atcost 
or below this year. We have seen the figures 
of a Washington Territory grower which 
placed the cost of producing a pound of hops 
at eight and one-half cents, or a little lower. 
This is about all the Washington hops have 
brought in themarketthis year, so the growers 
cannot have realized much for their labors. 
In the New York hop-growing regions this 
£L year, they have gone about counting the cost 
8 of hops in a careful manner. A committee 
§B appointed to make the figures had recourse to 
3|8 the books of different growers, and therefrom 
struck an average which enabled them to re- 
port in this form: "We estimate, on a basis of 
778 hills of hops to one acre, the hills being 
I?: seven feet by eight feet apart, yielding 1,000 
pounds to the acre, land being valued at $100 
per acre, and 1,556 poles to one acre at eleven 
cents each: 

Interest on land, and investment in poles, 

fertilizers and cartage 84-1.10 

Labor in cultivation 18.00 

Harvesting and all expenses of curing 64. S6 

Insurance, cartage 11.83 

Expense in boxes 2.98 

Total $141.27 

This gives the cost of a pound of hops, four- 
teen and one-tenth cents. Another committee 
reported from their canvass an average cost per 
pound of 12J cents on land valued at $80 per 
acre ; and still another committee valued land 
at $100 per acre, made hops cost twelve and one- 
fifth cents per pounds. These figures are lower 
than has been realized on an average for the 
crop, and we presume the men who paid $500 
per acre a few years ago for Waterville hop- 
yards are cogitating on the sadness of "it 
might have been." 



Cork refused to receive Gen. Grant. 



Editorial. — We notice by the last issue of 
the Ukiah City Press, that A. O. Carpenter has 
assumed the editorship of that paper. Mr. 
Carpenter is an accomplished journalist; search- 
ing on the statistio, sincere on the ethic, loud 
on the politic, sharp on the sarcastic, skillful on 
the bombastic, and a most graceful puffer with- 
al. He will be false to his name if he doesn't 
build up the paper. 

The Post Office department has reduced the 
prices of stamped envelopes on an average 20%, 
the effect of which has been to largely increase 
the requisitions for the same. 



18 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS 



[January n, 1879. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendowed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds. 



Results of Five Years' Irrigation— Fres- 
no County Ranches. 

Editors Press: — Two of the most interesting 
places to visit in Fresno county, as illustrating 
the results of irrigation for several years on its 
upland plains, live or six miles from any stream, 
are the line ranch of C. J. Hoblcr, and Eisen's 
vineyard. The former is midway between Cen- 
terville and Fresno City, the latter about two 
miles farther west; the tirst north and the 
second south of the stage road between the two 
towns. -Mr. Hobler settled his place and began 
imuroving it in November, 1873. The Eisen 
ranch was improved by Dr. Brandt and 7, M. 
Ainsa about the same time. The main ditch of 
the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company runs 
through both places, using here, and for some 
12 or 14 miles in all, the old bed of Fancher 
creek. 

Mr. Hobler began improvements on his place 
in November, 1S73. He planted then quite a 
number of shade aud fruit trees. Some of his 
neighbors laughed at the idea of putting out an 
orchard, "on the dry plains," as they said. 
But he persevered, and now he has one of the 
best improved and most attractive ranches in 
this part of the county. He has a row of wil- 
lows two years old extending for a mile on each 
side of the main canal. They are large enough 
to furnish a large amount of wood, some of them 
being 18 inches through. He has Australian 
gums 30 feet high and 30 inches around; pepper 
trees 31 inches in circumference; handsome 
Monterey cypresses, I.ombardy poplars, and 
locusts; numerous almond and walnut trees. 
From his orchard he has every year plenty of 
fine peaches, apples, pears, plums, cherries, nec- 
tarines, apricots, and tigs, and has several large 
orange and lemon trees that will soon be bear- 
ing. A peculiar fruit he has is the Chinese 
pear, not so good as fresh fruit, but excellent for 
preserves. Last January he put out 1,200 or 
1,400 shade and timber trees. Some of his 
sandier land is quite moist from seepage and his 
volunteer wheat is growing finely, though on 
unirrigated land and fields around him there is 
not a sign of green vegetation. 

Eisen's Vineyard 
Is unquestionably one of the finest in the State, 
and is of peculiar interest as the only example 
of its kind on the upland plains of San Joaquin 
valley. It proves conclusively what good suc- 
cess may be attained in wine and raisin making 
in the drier regions of this valley by irrigation. 
It is now the property of P. T. Eisen. His 
brother, (iustave Eisen, is now in charge, and 
kindly gave me all the information desired. 
Mr. John Lundstroem superintends the wine- 
making, and he is certainly producing some of 
the finest wines now made in California. The 
whole ranch comprises only one section. On 
this are 140 aares of grapevines, 70 acres of 
alfalfa, 100 acres devoted to grain hay, some 
.300 fruit trees of different kinds, one-half of an 
acre of strawberries (the plants furnished by 
Felix Cillet, and found to be the very best), one 
acre of blackberries and raspberries, fiO young 
date palms of the Mexican variety, and they 
raise several hundred turkeys annually that 
feed chieHy on grapes and caterpillars. They have 
750 vines to the acre, planted eight feet apart. 
Their vines are chiefly of four leading kinds, 
such as the Zintindel, Malvoisir, and Muscats, 
but there are in all some 200 varieties on the 
place. 

Their Wine Cellar 

Is a two-story building of adobe. It is 50x100 
feet, and its walls are 18 inches thick. All 
their machinery is run by water power from 
the main ditch. This includes a grist mill 
with one set of stone, circular saws of different 
sizes, and a pump that can raise 35 gallons of 
wine per miuute. In the lower room are IS 
wine vats, each with a capacity of about 2,000 
gallons. They can crush more than 50 tons of 
grapes a day. They now claim to have some 
30,000 gallons of wine stored, and have not yet 
finished up this year's vintage. They also have 
lome 800 gallons of brandy made this year — I 
tried some of their raisins that dried naturally 
on the vines. They are said to be as good 
loose raisins as are taken to San Francisco. 
Of these they made some five tons last year, 
and will make about the same amount this year. 
Next year they expect to make 

One Hundred and Fifty Thousand Gallons 

of Wine. 

They propose also to let out next year about 
20 or 25 acres of raisin grapes— Muscat of Alex- 
andria and Muscat of (lordo Blanco — to parties 
who may wish to make raisins. This will lie 
enough to employ 40 or 45 men. This year 
each of such vines bore about 35 pounds of 
grapes, which are equivalent to about ten pounds 
of raisins. At this rate 20 acres of 750 vines 
each, would make 150,000 pounds of raisins, 
worth about £15,tJU0. Mr. Eisen considers 
these results a very full confirmation of the 
well-known views of Prof. W. A. Sanders, aud 
believes the decision of the latter, that Fr«sno 
is the best raisiii county of the .State, to be en- 
tirely correct. 

A tine avenue 45 feet wide aud three-quarters 
of a mile h>ng leads directly from the entrance 
to the wine cellar. It is lined with Lombardy 
poplars, alternating with oleanders. Just in 



front of the cellars is a large circle of Monterey 
cypresses and shade trees. They have 

A Bow of Osier or Basket Willows, 
Imported from France, growing along the main 
canal for a mile. They are the only ones I 
have seen in the State, and are the yellow kind 
commonly seen throughout Holland. Sand- 
wich Island sugar cane has been tried on this 
ranch and does well. 

All doubts about the success and value of ir- 
rigation on Fresno lands will be dispelled by a 
visit to these ranches, or others near by that 
have been irrigated more or less for five years; 
such as the Easterby, the Weihe and the Mc- 
Neil or Gould ranches. On the latter you find 
200 acres of one of the best orchards in Califor- 
nia, including 1,800 orange tree three years old 
from the bud. J. W. A. W. 

Fresno City, Dec. 21st. 

Large Oranges. 

Editors Press: — In your paper of the 21st, 
you direct attention to notes on orange cultiva- 
tion for Butte, Napa and Colusa counties, and 
upon referring to the notes, I find the remark- 
able statement of an orange tree in Butte 
county producing oranges weighing 2j pounds. 

Now 1 wish to see the Press a standard 
authority in all horticultural matters pertaining 
to the Pacific coast, and perfectly reliable in all 
its statements; but when it announces oranyes 
growing to the size above named, we feel in- 
clined to say "Oh, what a whopper 1" 

If the fruit in question is a shaddock or yraj)t- 
fruit, then there is nothing remarkable in it; 
but an oraiiyr that will yield a quart of juice, 
for that is what an orange of that weight would 
do, is a "story for the marines," but not for a 
Southern California:*. 

Riverside, Cal. 

[The statement was made on the authority of 
theOroville Mercury, concerning some fruit sub- 
mitted to the editor by J. B. Ketchum. Will 
our contemporary review its statement in con- 
nection with the above, and fix the variety of 
the fruit?— Editors Press.] 

Cost of Artesian Wells. 

Editors Press: — I see in a late number of 
the Press an article giving the cost of artesian 
wells. It seems too high. The regular price in 
this county is as follows: Boring first 100 feet, 
$50; each additional 50 feet, 50 cents per foot 
more. Pipe, No. 14 sheet iron, joints two feet 
long and lapping half way, 85 cents each ; No. 
Hi iron, 70 cents each ; diametor, seven inches. 
A larger diameter would cost more, but not a 
great deal. The strata commonly met with are: 
Quicksand, blue clay, black clay, cement, gravel, 
boulders, etc. , alternating ; no bedrock. 

The farmer or person on whose land the well 
is bored, boards the hands that bore the well, 
and generally moves the tools from the last well 
to his place. Wells in this county are of all 
depths, from 70 feet to 400 feet, and flow from 
one inch to seven inches over the top of the 
pipe, and sometimes more. Well Borer. 

Westminster, Los Angeles Co., Dec. 24th. 



Sr{EEf \H0 Wool. 



The Wool Clip of 1878. 

The following is the wool report of E. ( irisar 
& Co., of San Francisco, for the year 1878: 

The full effect of the dry season of 1870 upon 
the wool production of California, did not be- 
come manifest until this year. By reference to 
the statistics herewith, it will be noticed that 
the clip of 1878 is one- fifth less than in 1877, 
and one-quarter less than in 1876. In this lat- 
ter year the production reached its maxiiium, 
and we think under the present system of wool 
growing, the clip will decrease rather than in- 
crease. Every year the extension of transpor- 
tation facilities, renders possible the cultivation 
of land hitherto devoted to pasturage, thereby 
making it too valuable for raising sheep; of 
course there is in the State a great extent of 
territory which is only useful for grazing pur- 
poses, and although the wool interest in the 
State will always be prominent, it will probably 
for some time fall still further behind the grain 
product, in value and amount. If farmers could 
see that it was for their interest to diversify 
their production, and besides growing grain 
have a few sheep, the clip might be increased in 
amount aud improved in other respects. The 
shriukage in values from which the whole coun- 
try has suffered, has been felt to only a moder- 
ate degree as yet in this State. Lands have 
been too high priced aud wages have also been 
more than growers could afford. Until these 
items find their value, we may expect to see a 
continuance of the 'decline in production, be- 
cause wool-raising will be unprofitable. Here- 
tofore the proceeds from the sale of fat sheep 
formed a large part of the income of the wool- 
grower, but owing to the great numlier of sheep 
which are now offered for sale, the price has 
leclined to a very low point compared with that 
formerly ruling. 

As regards the market for their product, wool- 
growers have no cause for complaint, as prices 
for California wools show less shrinkage from 
what they were in 1877, than those grown iu 
other parts of the Uuited States, and when com- 
pared with prices paid for other wools, they are 



high, and the chances are in favor of their de 
clining. Choice Colonial wools were lately sold 
in London at about 30c. average, Cape at 20c., 
and fair to inferior descriptions at lower rates; 
of course the net results to the grower are some 
what less. In comparison with Colonial wool 
at 30c., even northern spring California at 25c. 
is very dear, and between Cape wool at 20c. and 
northern lambs clip at I v., there can be only 
one opinion as to which is the most desirable. 
The production of the colonies and at the Cape 
is increasing, while growers in California say 
they cannot afford to raise wool at present rates. 
Even in the more thickly settled States, where 
growers are compelled to feed their sheep in 
winter, the production is increasing, and also in 
Colorado and the Territories Few, if any parts 
of the United States, have better natural ad van 
tages for sheep-raising, yet apparently Califor 
nia is being crowded out of the business. The 
clips of the Territories U increasing, and com 
petes severely with that of California. Judging 
from results, the system of wool-growing here 
is wrong, but the remedy we must leave to those 
who understand the business practically. 

The condition of the clip, as a whole, has 
been poor. In the spring there was a great deal 
of scabby wool, and owing to late rains a con- 
siderable quantity was received in a wet and 
damaged condition. Contrary to general expec- 
tation the fall clip has been very poor, in fact the 
poorest for many years, being dusty, heavy and 
short stapled. Southern wools had more life 
than usual, but contained more bur and seeds 
From the extreme north, some wools were re 
ceived which were as good as they have ever 
been; but as a rule the clip was very inferior. 
Still, throughout the year, wools have met with 
ready sale, owing to the presence here of many 
Eastern buyers. In the spring, prices opened 
higher than was anticipated, and were main- 
tained until after* the liegiuning of June, when a 
gradual decline on most descriptions set in, 
leaving at the opening of the fall season but 
litt'e spring wool unsold. Opening prices for 
fall wools were low, and the demand was mod- 
erate. As receipts increased, the number of 
buyers was greater, and wools have moved off 
readily throughout the season, but without any 
excitement among purchasers. Stocks of all 
descriptions at this time are smaller than they 
have been for several years, a large portion of 
which is in poor condition or defective. 

Average stapled free wools in the spring 
opened at lite, to 20c, and for light conditioned 
parcels 22c. was paid, but such lots were rare. 
The first receipts of long stapled wools, free 
from bur, were sold at 20c. to 22c, and of wools 
containing burs at 19c. to 21c. Good stapled 
wools with burs brought 17c to 19c. Northern 
wools ranged in value at the opening of the mar- 
ket for this description, from 25c. to 26c. On 
all classes towards the end of the season there 
was an average decline of about 10%. Prices of 
fall wool have been the lowest for several years 
and will average less than during any season 
since the grade of wools has been improved. 
Ordinary Southern containing burs and seeds 
brought 9c. to 10c. ; average wool from the mid- 
dle counties and free from bur has met with 
ready sale at 11c. to 13c, and heavy parcels 
have been taken at 9c. to lOJc. Northern fall 
wool free from bur brought 14c to 15c; parcels 
containing seeds or burs were sold at 11c to 13c, 
and lambs' wool in light condition, 17c. to 18Jc 

The production of Oregon wools has increased, 
the gain having been marie in Eastern, and 
will probably continue. The clip of western 
Oregon has fallen off. The early arrivals from 
eastern Oregon were poor, being coarse and con- 
taining considerable alkali and dust. Later re- 
ceipts showed a decided improvement and met 
with ready sale. Prices ranged from 16c. for 
fair to 21c. for choice. As usual most of the 
valley wools were purchased in the country, 
and sent forward without being offered here. 
For choice wool of good quality, 25c. to 26c. 
was paid, and for ordinary wools 22c. to 24c. 
Wool Production. 
Receipts 8. F. Bags. 

January 1,084 

February 787 

March 788 

April 15,631 

Mav 28,067 

June J*M8 

Total 110,818 

Of which there was spring wool, (6,808 bags. Lbs. 

weighing lo.7tii»,700 

Bprlng wool shipped direct from the interior.. . 1,392,591 

Total spring production 21,102,291 

There was fall wool received, 63,919 bags, 

weighing 18,175,700 

Fall wool shipiied direct from the interior 1,274,070 

Total fleece wool 38,012,061 

Pulled wool shipped direct from San Francisco 2,2.10,000 

Total production of California. 40,882,061 

On hand December 31, 1S77, about 1,500,000 

Received from Oregon, 21,518 bags.. 9,055,400 

Foreign wool received, 1,044 bales 334,080 

Grand total 48,751,541 

Exports. 

Domestic, Foreign, Pulled and Scoured. Lbs. 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from the interior 36,507,(125 
Per steamer, inclusive of shipments from coast 495,885 
Per sail 5,273,107 

Total shipments 42,308,017 

Value of cx|>ort8 *7,0OO,000 

On hand December 31st, 1878 1,400,000 

Difference between receipts and exports has 
been taken by local mills and scouring compa- 
nies. There is also more wool than usual here, 
awaiting shipment by sailing vessel. 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. 
The usual tare of bags received is about 3 ttie. 
each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 lbs. 
each. 



July 6,472 

August 4,154 

September 16,021 

October 25,028 

November 7.820 

December. 1,444 



Churn Slowly. 



"Don't ply the dasher so fast, my dear, 

It's not so good for the butter. 
And will make your arms ache, too, I fear; 

And put you all in a nutter — 
For this is a rule, wherever we turn, 
Don't be in haste whenever you chum — 
Churn slowly! 

"If you'd see your butter come nice and sweet 

Don't churn with a nervous jerking, 
But ply the dasher slowly and neat— 

You'll hardly know that you're working; 
And when the butter has come, you'll say, 
"tea, this is surely the very best way*— 
Churn slowly!" 

—Sarah SeabUt Hunt. 



Dairy Farming in California. 

The following are the leading portions of a 
paper prepared by Robert Ashburner, of Baden 
Farm, San Mateo county, in compliance with 
the request of the California Dairymens' Asso- 
ciation, and read at their recent meeting: 

The dairy farmer, like all other farmers, will 
have his troubles and difficulties; the season 
will be too dry, or too wet, bo dry sometimes 
that the grass will scarcely grow at all, and at 
other times his undrained land — as most of it is 
in this country — will be so wet that he cannot 
put his cattle upon it without injury to both 
land and grass, and unless food is otherwise 
provided, his cattle will starve, so to speak, 
in the midst of plenty. 

Then, too, he will have losses amongst his 
cattle by disease, often losing some of his most 
valuable animals just at the time they are likely 
to become most profitable; for amongst all the 
diseases the dairyman Buffers from, that of milk 
fever, or puerperal fever is most to be dreaded. 
It is a disease, too, the successful management 
of which, as far as all experience proves, de- 
pends more upon the preventive measures, than 
curative ones. A pound and a half of epsom 
salts, and two ounces of saltpeter given two or 
three days before calving, and half the dose re- 
peated if necessary, with a moderately short 
allowance of nourishing focd, both before and 
after calving, and protection from cold winds, 
or any sudden change of weather, has been 
with me a never failing preventive in the 
spring of the year when grass is abundant, 
rich and succulent; say during the months of 
February, March, April and Slay, a season of 
the year when we are most subject to those 
cold biting northerly winds, which affect to 
some extent almost every living thing they 
come in contact with. 

When cows have been living upon good hay, 
and mangel wurzel for a while before calving, I 
have found them less liable to milk fever than 
when kept upon any other food. 

As regards the curative treatment, I have 
been about equally successful w ith the aconite, 
and the brandy treatments, but not entirely 
with either; I have more faith in the latter in 
very severe cases, but at the same time I have 
found that it requires a great deal of persever- 
ance to follow up a severe case from beginning 
to end, having first to give half hour doses, 
then hourly, and so on, gradually lengthening 
the time, and regulating the dose aecording 
to the condition of the beast. 

Garget. 

I frequently hoar dairymen complain of gar- 
get, or caked bag, giving a good deal of trouble, 
though it is seldom so in dairies that are well 
and carefully managed. In a dairy averaging 
over 50 milking cows, every day in the year for 
the last eight years, I have not had a cow lose 
a single quarter, or teat from that oause. As 
all the world knows, good and clean milking is 
a sure preventive as far as milking is concerned; 
but a cow frequently gets cold in one or two 
quarters of her udder from lying on cold wet 
ground, and the part becomes inflamed— some- 
times from a bruise, perhaps. 

If taken in time, salts and saltpeter again 
come to the rescue, with a good dry bed for the 
cow for a day or two; meanwhile the inflamed 
teats must be carefully drawn, and the bag well 
hand-rubbed downwards towards the teats, 
which helps to break the curdled milk that is 
inside the udder; care must also be taken not 
to strip too long at one time, so as to draw 
blood— though sometimes in case of a bruise, 
the milk will be bloody —it is better to rub 
and strip once in three or four hours till hard- 
ness and inflammation is got rid of. I will here 
say, in reference to giving salts to cattle, that 
it is a great fault to give them in too little wa- 
ter, at least four quarts should be used, but six 

better when one aud a half pounds of salt is 
used for a large animal. 

Starting: a Dairy. 

The nature of the soil and climate will in a 
great measure, help to determine the kind of 
husbandry any part of a country is best adapted 
for; and thus it is that we find the greater part 
of the coast counties of California, devoted to 
dairy husbandry, on account of the nature of 
the land and the comparative coolness of the 
climate, compared with other parts of tho 
State. 

When a dairy farmer has got together a suf- 
ficient number of cows, to suit the requirements 
of his farm, his next main consideration will be 
to produce all the food he can for them upon 
the farm ; for the more a farm produces, the 



January n, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



19 



more stock it will keep; and the more stock 
there is kept, the more manure there will be 
made ; which will, in turn, help the farmer to 
still further increase the produce of his farm, 
all of which being consumed upon the farm, will 
help to keep it up, or improve upon its natural 
state of fertility. 

Dairying and Fertility. 
Of course much depends upon what is sold off 
the farm, as the product of the dairy ; whether 
butter, cheese, or the whole milk. To sell the 
first, is least exhausting to a farm, because it 
contains, comparatively speaking, no mineral 
matter, and the skim milk being fed to calves 
or hogs, which leave their manure on the farm, 
the land is robbed of what is Bold off in the 
carcasses of the animals only ; which deficiency, 
if the herd is properly fed and attended to in 
the winter months, will be in a great measure 
made up by the purchase of nitrogenous foods, 
such as bran, oilcake, etc., for the production 
of milk, and to increase the growth of young 
animals. 

To make and sell cheese, from all the milk, is 
almost as exhaustive as selling the whole milk, 
because the curd of the milk contains the bulk 
of the mineral matter originally contained in the 
milk ; certainly, there is the whey left as food 
for fattening hogs ; but to counterbalance this 
in a milk selling dairy farm, there will be a 
larger amount of feed purchased, in order to keep 
up the regular daily supply of milk throughout 
the year, which it is not absolutely necessary to 
do in making butter or cheese. 

The ashes of milk, and the bones of animals, 
each contain about 50% of phosphate of lime, 
one of the most valuable compounds of all our 
manures. Prof. Johnston estimates that for 
every cow a dairy farm maintains, it will lose 
in earthy phosphates alone, as much as is con- 
tained in 56 pounds of bone dust. Then, should 
we find that our pastures are wearing out, and 
our land being robbed of its phosphates, by the 
constant sale of dairy products, and the grow- 
ing animals fed wholly, or in part upon the 
same, we must make good the deficiency by 
some means or other, or through the lack of 
phosphate in the land, our crops will be defi- 
cient in one of their most valuable constituents, 
and our cattle will suffer in consequence. 

Whenever you see cows chewing old bones, 
pieces of old leather, or anything of that sort, 
that is not of their natural food, you may be 
sure there is an unsatisfied want in the system 
which ought to be supplied. It shows plainly 
that the quality of the pasture or other food 
does not contain all the elements of nutrition 
that it ought to, and what is wanting "there, 
must be made up to the animal, either by 
applying phosphatic manures to the pasture, 
and thus improving the quantity and quality oi 
the grass, or by the purchase of food, rich in 
nitrogenous and phosphatic constituents. 

By so doing, you will supply the wants of 
your cattle in that respect, and they in turn 
will make a more than ordinarily rich manure, 
that will, when judiciously applied to the land, 
increase both the quantity and quality of the 
herbage. 

Many people have an idea that when land is 
constantly depastured, it must be growing better 
all the time; that will entirely depend upon the 
kind of stock that is kept upon it, and to what 
extent it is stocked under or over its support- 
ing capabilities. I am inclined to the opinion 
that the continued overstocking of pasture 
land — other things being equal — will impoverish 
it as much, if not more, than the most persistent 
course of cropping. 

Now, it so happens, that the pastures of Cali- 
fornia have been growing cattle on a rather 
extensive scale for the last 40 or more years — 
growing bones and hoofs, and horns and hides, 
nearly all to be exported for the benefit of other 
countries. 

Therefore it would be unreasonable to expect 
any ordinary land in any country to go on pro- 
ducing these things for generation after genera- 
tion of cattle, without some return being made 
to the land to compensate for that of which it 
has been robbed. Who will contend tnat the 
pastures of California are what they were 20 
years ago? I mean those pastures that have 
had no chance to recuperate by an occasional 
forced rest, such as a year of drouth when no 
growth of grass is made, or nearly none, or 
what is better, the land being left with very 
little or no stock at all upon it in a good grass 
season, when the bulk of the grass would be 
left to dry and eventually rot upon the ground. 

What observant person has not observed the 
earlier and superior growth of young grass 
where a good covering of old has been left upon 
the ground, over that which has been eaten off 
bare by overstocking ? I consider all land over- 
stocked that is pastured till it is bare of grass 
every year. 

Improving Pastures. 

From what I have said it will be inferred that 
I am of opinion that a great portion of the old 
pasture land of this country is deficient in the 
phosphates, and I must say that I am strongly 
inclined to think so, but it is only an opinion. 
I know nothing of any analyses of soils that 
have been made to show what they are deficient 
in (perhaps Prof. Hilgard can give us some in- 
formation on that point), but at the same time 
I cannot but think that a genuine article of 
bone meal, or pure bone superphosphate applied 
to our pastures either directly or indirectly, 
would have a telling effect. What I mean by 
indirectly in this case is the application of 
mauures to some other crop grown upon the 
laud before it becomes permanent pasture land. 

My own practice is to apply all the best of 
the manure made upon the farm to the mangold 



(beet) crop, at the rate of about 25 wagonloads 
per acre, and after that the land is fit for either 
hay, grain or grass, and will of itself become 
an improved pasture containing the choicest of 
our natural cloVers, which spring up as if by 
magic on highly manured land — land which 
before manuring would hardly grow anything 
but weeds. I can imagine the effect to be almost 
as wonderful as bone dust is said to have been 
on the old dairy pastures of the county of 
Cheshire, England, when it was first applied 
more than half a century ago, and is said to 
have caused white clover to spring up where it 
had not been seen before, even by that ever 
memorable creature, "the oldest inhabitant;" 
consequently many of the old farmers would 
have it that the white clover seed came over 
from Holland in the bone dust, a good deal of 
which came from that country to Eugland about 
50 years ago. 

How to Make Good Hay. 

Next to grass, hay is the most important 
article to be taken into consideration in the 
management of dairy cattle, young and old ; 
and to be sure of having this of good quality, 
as much as possible of what we use should be 
grown upon the farm. 

The great fault with the bulk of the hay of 
the country is, that it is allowed to grow too 
long before it is cut; to have good hay we_must 
cut it before it comes to seed. We want the 
nutriment in the stalk or straw, which, if cut 
and properly cured whilst full of sap, will be 
much more digestible and consequently more 
nutritious, than when a large proportion of 
woody fiber is allowed to be developed before 
it is cut. 

Our wheat, barley and oats, when intended 
for hay, ought to be cut when in bloom, before 
the heads have begun to fill, for if the grain is 
allowed to form at all the ears will fill out 
almost enough whilst curing, and sometimes 
quite, to make a good head of grain, a portion 
of which will be wasted in handling; especially 
is this the case with oats. For some years I 
followed the practice of feeding green oats or 
barley to my cows on Jhe day it was cut, m long 
as any part of my crop was green ; but upon 
changing from that to the cured hay I never 
could notice the slightest difference in the quan- 
tity of milk the cows gave, consequently I gave 
up the practice of handling so much heavy fod- 
der, and that is not all, the cows prefer the 
cured, or partially cured hay to the uncured. 

I don't mean by curing to leave it lying about 
till most of the sap is dried out of it ; curing in 
the cock is the plan I adopt with advantage, 
hardly ever allowing a piece of cut grass to lie 
unraked a whole half day, much less over night, 
unless our weather is something unusual. 

Soiling, Irrigation and Root Crops. 

This naturally leads me to think of soiling 
cattle, connected with irrigation for the pro- 
duction of food for the carrying out of the first 
part; a practice which, when much expense is 
connected with raising the water, I do not think 
will pay to carry on in an extensive way in this 
country, where land is comparatively plentiful 
and cheap; where the greater part of the food 
that we have to purchase for cattle can be 
bought for less money than in almost any coun- 
try, and above all, where labor is dearer. We 
all know that a greater number of cattle can be 
kept on a given amount of land by adopting the 
soiling system than by allowing them to run at 
large; but cattle kept for breeding purposes can 
hardly be kept too much out of doors in our 
mild climate, with free air and exercise in a 
good pasture, provided they are sufficiently 
sheltered in wet and stormy weather during the 
rainy season, and have some shade from the 
heat of the summer's sun — the latter being a 
provision hardly necessary in the coast coun- 
ties, on the contrary, a little more sunshine 
would sometimes be beneficial. 

I do not mean to say that it is unprofitable to 
irrigate at all times, for we well know that there 
are parts of the country where they have to 
depend on it for the production of their crops, 
more or less every year. What I mean, in re- 
gard to our northern coast counties, is that it 
is only valuable as an adjunct to help out the 
quantity of our fodder, or root and vegetable 
crops in the latter part of the dry season. To 
provide an abundance of succulent food for our 
dairy cows during the dry season, is oue of the 
most important things connected with dairy 
farming. Hoot crops, generally considered so 
expensive to grow in other countries, where 
thev have rain during the summer months, and 
consequently weeds ever starting up afresh, are 
much easier managed here in our rainless sum- 
mers, where it is only necessary to be up and at 
the weeds as soon as, or a little before they are 
up; for depend upon it, if they once get the 
start they will cause a great deal of labor that 
might have been avoided, besides doing a great 
deal of injury to the young crop. Most of our 
weeds being annuals, it requires only a few stir- 
rings of the ground with the proper implement, 
or horse hoe, to eradicate them completely; and 
when the ground has been properly prepared, 
and the seed sown in drills of equal width, there 
will not be more than about two inches in 
width on each row to hoe, or weed out by hand 
when the plants are thinned out; an active man 
with a handy horse will leave even less than 
that to do by hand. Then again we have, the 
advantage of being able to leave the crop grow- 
ing till we use it, and haul the roots direct from 
the field to the cattle, thus sparing handling, 
once over at least, several hundred tons weight, 
in case they had to be stored for winter. When 
one can grow enough to feed daily to the milch 



cows some 00 to 80 pounds per head as long as 
it is necessary, gradually diminishing the quan- 
tity as the new grass eomes, it not only gives 
a large increase of milk, but a sparing of hay 
and other food, while it adds greatly to the 
general health and condition of the cattle. 

Thirty tons an acre, of mangolds, is a good 
crop on ordinary land, but on rich loamy land 
much heavier crops can be grown. I have fre- 
quently measured off and weighed portions of 
crops ; the best piece I ever weighed came off at 
the rate of 68 tons per acre, with the leaves on, 
and without the leavesSStons, thusshowingthat 
the leaves weighed a trifle over one-seventh of 
the whole crop. The cleaned roots, without the 
leaves, averaged a fraction over 16 pounds each, 
and were grown about two feet apart on rows 
three feet in width. 

I find that I have now extended this paper to 
a greater length than I intended to have done, 
yet I have only touched upon a tithe of the 
things connected with dairy husbandry. On 
the breeding, feeding and rearing of dairy cattle, 
I have said something on former occasions; yet 
there is left the management of milk, butter and 
cheese to be treated upon, which I will leave 
for more experienced hands than mine. What- 
ever may be the disposition made of the pro- 
duce of the dairy cow, I look upon a well man- 
aged farm, with an abundant supply of water, 
and good cows well-fed and carefully handled, 
as the foundation of all good dairying — without 
these we cannot be good dairy farmers. 



F[Qr\JIcJLyJr\E. 



Frost and Fruit. 

Los Angeles County. 

Editors Press : — An opinion has become 
prevalent of late, that semi-tropical fruits could 
be grown sucessfully, not only in southern Cali- 
fornia, but also, in many places in the northern 
part of the State. The late remarkably cold 
weather has probably settled this question for a 
time at least— and if the cold was as severe in 
proportion in the northern part of the State, as 
it was here in the south, we won't hear much 
about orange plantations in the northern 
counties, until the effects of this frost have been 
forgotten. In Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
counties, large portions of which have hitherto 
been considered perfectly safe for plantations, 
great damage has been done, particularly to the 
nursery trees and the young orchards not yet 
bearing. The bearing trees, which are not so 
full of sap, and which do not have much new 
succulent growth as a general thing, are not 
much damaged. But the young trees that have 
made a very vigorous growth and which were 
full of sap, have in all localities, with but one 
single exception, been very severely treated. In 
most instances the top is destroyed, and will 
have to be cut off. In others, the trees will 
have to be cut off near the ground, to save the 
root, and in others, the trees are entirely killed. 
This has been the rule in southern California, 
the localities which have escaped are the excep- 
tions. The places which have suffered, are : 
Kiverside, San Bernardino and Cucamonga, in 
San Bernardino county ; and Pomona, Spadra, 
Puente, Azusa, Duarte, Santa Anita, San 
Gabriel, Elmonte, Los Angeles, Florence, Comp- 
ton, Wilmington, Los Nietos, Artesia, West- 
minster, Santa Ana and Tnstin, in Los Angeles 
county. In Orange, the young trees were a 
little damaged, but not much ; but within the 
limits of a circle, with a radius of five miles 
about Anaheim, not a tree has been frosted, not 
a leaf injured on orange, lemon or lime, large 
or small. In Anaheim delicate plants, such as 
potato and tomato vines, are untouched. 

There is a reason why this locality is exempt, 
for this is not the first time. I have noticed it 
repeatedly during my nine years' residence here. 
There is a cold current of wind draws down into 
the valleys at night from the Sierra Madre range 
of mountains, which in cold weather, is apt to 
make frost in those localities where this wind 
finds its way, and all the damage and destruc- 
tion that has been caused by the frost this year, 
was produced by this wind. Wherever it went, 
the frost was bad, and only those places pro- 
tected from it escaped. Auaheim and the 
country immediately around it, is protected from 
this wind by a range of hills, that intervene 
between the town and the Sierra Madre moun- 
tains. The current of air is turned away, and 
follows the course of the valleys, running 
parallel to the base of the range and the river 
San Grabriel, that flows from it. I proved this 
to my entire satisfaction five years ago, but 
hesitated to speak until I had further evidence, 
which the last cold weather furnished. Now 
the evidence cannot be disputed. The frozen 
orange plantations are confined to the localities 
unprotected from the wind, except in the locali- 
ties on low lands near the sea, which are subject 
to frost any year. I think it quite possible that 
there may be similar protected localities in other 
parts of the State, but they will not be found in 
extensive tracts anywhere ; and as these cold 
snaps are liable to occur in any winter, those 
disposed to plant oranges extensively, will be 
wise to seek those localities where the risk will 
be the least. The soil about Anaheim is a light, 
warm sandy loam, which is in itself, a good pro- 
tection from frost; and tlie recent completion of 



the large ditch from the Santa Ana 
furnishes an ample and unfailing supply of 
water for these frostless lauds. So that the 
locality can offer every inducement to parties 
seeking homes that they can desire. Orange 
orchards, where they are possible, will continue 
to be as profitable as they have been. There is 
no danger of the business being overdone. The 
risks attending a young orchard, before it 
arrives at the bearing age, when it is compara- 
tively safe, will confine planting to the safe 
localities. 

In writing this article, I have simply stated 
facts as they exist, and I do it for the benefit of 
those who are enquiring and seeking for the 
best place to locate. I would like to hear a 
report as to the condition of semi-tropical trees 
in the northern part of the State, if there are 
any localities that have escaped, the fact should 
be noted, and the reason ascertained. 

Wm. R. Olden. 

Anaheim, Cal., Dec. 29th. 

[We trust that the damage by frost, in the 
places named, may be found less than our 
correspondent is now informed they are. Early 
reports are apt to exaggerate evils. All readers 
are invited to send us the facts for their locali- 
ties. — Eds. Press.] 

Sacramento County. 

Editors Press: — Your idea in regard to local 
fruit fairs would be most suitable, as in various 
districts in the State the time of its ripening 
and in prime order is changeable. That is as to 
small and leading classes in general. In regard 
to the "citrus family," December is a good 
month to exhibit the fruit of this valley. 

A point caused by the iate frost in the budded 
fruit raised in southern California, has shown a 
characteristic in regard to location, etc. The 
"Mediterranean sweet" variety, as far as I have 
learned, has suffered far more than the others. 
Standard trees in some instanoes have died, and 
others look in a sorry plight. I cannot tell yet 
whether they will survive. Those along the 
river suffer most. The standard orange and 
lemon trees suffer the least. Thus in each 
locality standard fruit that is raised from dif- 
ferent seed varieties may be found to bud with 
that which is hardened to meet the conditions 
of climate; as throughout California semi- 
tropical fruits grow readily in various latitudes 
to a more or less extent. This cold snap is 
unusual for length of time, and all have suf- 
fered. Standards seem, in my opinion, the 
best for longevity, durability, and arc able to 
stand the drawbacks that a budded fruit might 
succumb to. It takes longer for the fruit to 
mature; but as this is an open question, others 
may differ in experit-ncM and ideas, and may 
knock my points endways. 

The difference in time of ripening fruit be- 
tween the northern and southern portions of 
the State must be conceited to the former, as it 
has more of a uniformity of temperature through 
the summer days, and, if well taken care of, 
fruit is ready for market use from a month to 
six weeks earlier, while the southern portion 
has to contend with ocean winds, cooling the 
atmosphere. A fruit fair is a good place to 
open these questions, and I hope the idea may 
be worked on some basis to let our light shine, 
and good be drawn out thereby. 

George Rich. 

Sacramento, Cal. 

Sonoma County. 

G. P Rixford, engaged in growing semi-tropical 
fruits in Sonoma county, writes to the Bulletin 
as follows: Some fears have been felt lest the 
recent unusually severe weather should have 
killed many orange and lemon trees in the 
northern part of the State. A personal inspec- 
tion of semi-tropical fruit trees in Sonoma valley 
develops the fact that the damage is not at all 
serious, at least in that locality. Residents of 
the valley report the hardest frosts of the late 
cold term on last Wednesday, Thursday and 
Saturday nights. Sunday morning, at daylight, 
the thermometer, when placed among the orange 
trees on a knoll near the house on one ranch, 
marked 30 degrees, but when carried to a grove 
planted on ground about 20 feet lower elevation, 
immediately dropped to 25 degrees. These 
trees have repeatedly endured the latter temper- 
ature without damage. Neither- orange nor 
lemon trees in that vicinity have suffered any 
permanent injury. The succulent growth at 
the ends of the branches has been frozen; and 
in some instances the twigs are killed for a 
length of five or six inches; but not even the 
smallest tree is more seriously affected. Many 
of them are tilled with ripening fruit, and a few 
of the sour or bigarade variety with blossoms. 
Enough was seen to satisfy the most skeptical 
that orange culture is a success in the central 
and northern portions of the State, notwith- 
standing the occasional frosts. 

Colusa County. 
The Sun of Jan. 4th, says: " The past four 
weeks have been the coldest we have had for 
years, the thermometer ranging sometimes down 
as low as 18°, and this has been particularly 
hard on our young orange trees, the young wood 
of which seems to be completely killed; but ex- 
perts assure us that, although they will be set 
back, the damage will not be permanent. If 
the trees stand the test of this season, it will be 
safe to say that the Sacramento valley is the 
best place in the State for oranges. They grow 
much larger, and ripen much earlier than in the 
lower countries." 



20 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS 



[January ix, 1879. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



Enterprise Grange. 

Editors Press:— Saturday, December 21st, 
opened clear and sharp, but it gave evidence 
that an enjoyable day was at hand. The work 
of the above (irange included a variety of duties. 
There was a class of eight young men to pass 
and be made husbandmen, a harvest feast to 
enjoy, and an election of officers for the ensu- 
ing year; all within the shortest day of the 
year. 

The (irange is situated near Walsh's station, 
about 1 1 miles from the city. Their hall is of 
good dimensions, two stories, and property of 
their own. The lower story has a store-room, 
dining hall, kitchen and pantry. Up stairs 
there is a tine open hall for business and Grange 
work, which every Order should have, and 
own. At an early hour of the day, it was 
noticed, many conveyances from various points 
centered towards the hall laden with boxes, 
baskets, etc. ; judging from the weight the ma- 
tron's department and chicken roosts were 
minus of some of their consents. A small dele- 
gation from Sacramento Grange happened to 
meet; perhaps they lost theiy way and con- 
cluded, at a risk, not to pass, but to enter and 
see for themselves— for the kitchen department 
sent out a savory essence that invited passers- 
by. 

W. M. l'lummer called the Grange to order. 
The workers were on hand. Ceres, Pomona and 
Flora had been gleaning, and returned ladeD 
with each of their insignia of office spread open 
before them. This is a lesson which all Giaug- 
ers should remember, for the impressions from 
the symbols are never erased. Passing through 
the routine of general business, the class of 
eight young men saw and worked their way in 
the field. After the labor all passed down to 
the dining hall, and found there well -laden 
tables, warm and smoking, waiting for our call. 
Without much oeremony the seats were spoken 
and tilled and the feast began. 

It is well enough to remark that all got 
through safe and sound, much refreshed and 
ready to go up stairs, waiting for further orders 
from the W. M. There is one feature connected 
with the Order everywhere, and shown most 
forcibly here, viz: its sociality; making every 
one happy is a condition which the Grange has 
worked in among the great class of fanners. 
May it always spread and ever flourish. The 
remainder of the day was taken up in the elec- 
tion of officers, and it was hinted there was to be 
some music and a (! rangers' social at eve. 

Sacramento, Cal. Geo. Rich. 

Grain Shipping and the Warehouse Law. 

Editors Press: — The law of j>oM tenebris lux 
does not apply in California, judging from the 
manner in which the agricultural products have 
always been handled. We refer especially to 
grain at the present writing. For more than 10 
years this State has ranked among the foremost 
in the production of cereals. Both wheat and 
barley, from their excellence, have always been 
in active demand in the great consuming mar- 
kets of the world. No provisions have ever 
been made, however, for economically and safely 
aggregating grain. The old, extravagant and 
wasteful sack system, with its attendant evils, 
continued under the plea of its being "an inex- 
orable custom," when the truth of the matter 
is, it has been forced upon the people by im 
porters and speculators in bags, grain buyers 
and others interested in monopolizing and con- 
trolling business and prices — who have by its 
agency realized profits which legitimately be- 
long to producers, who have been impoverished 
and ruined. This furnishing sacks by producers, 
free of cost to grain buyers, is wholly excep- 
tional, not being practiced anywhere except on 
this coast — where thecustom originated through 
necessity aud want of competition by purchasers. 
A moment's consideration cannot fail of con- 
vincing the most ultra advocates of the sack 
system, of its disadvantage to producers, when 
compared with the system in use throughout 
the great grain growing States of the Mississippi 
valley, which have been rendered prosperous 
and wealthy from the ability of using their 
products as money capital immediately upon 
being secured or harvested; without compelling 
producers to sell or dispose of their property at 
prices dictated by speculators, or that urgent 
demands at the time might otherwise have 
forced them to do. 

A few figures will be submitted for illustra- 
tion, showing to what extent the grain grow- 
ers of California have paid tribute to this justly 
termed "inexorable custom." During the past 
12 years, 1 .1,000,000 grain bags has been the 
annual average requirement, which with twine, 
etc. , have cost consumers not less than 1 "> oents 
each, equal to S'2,2")0,0O0 each year, and for the 
12 years, the snug little sum of $27,000,000: 
#'.1,000 each if equally divided among the 3,000 
large and small grain growers of the State. An 
exaction which means a lirst-clags piano, good 



library, fine horses and carriage, numberless 
fancy fixings and conveniences in and around 
li.OOO unincumbered homesteads worth $3,000 
each. In number exceeding the land holders of 
the State. 

A heavy tribute for those to pay who have 
risked time, labor and money in developing the 
resources of the country; being compelled by 
"inexorable custom" (monopolists), to furnish 
sacks in addition to an article of recognifed 
value, and in universal demand. 

Anticipating inquiries as to the manner of 
correction, would suggest the adoption as soon 
as possible of a system that has been thoroughly 
tested and proved emiuently advantageous in 
States laboring under disadvantages unknown 
in California; a system which has enabled the 
people to handle and control their products, to 
become independent and wealthy, ergo, happy. 

The first step towards effecting a change in 
this State as desirable as this, was to secure 
legislative action. After 10 years of vexatious 
delay, the following bill, drafted by your corre- 
pondent, became a law by action of the last 
Legislature, having been presented, acted upon 
and defeated in four previous Assemblies. Sen- 
ator Howe, of San Francisco, introduced and 
interested himself in the passage of the bill, 
which will be of more practical benefit to the 
farmers of California than a code filled with 
enactments respecting railroad faresand freights, 
or a score of hydra-headed constitutional con- 
ventions. 

The Warehouse Xjaw. 

An act in relation to Warehouse and Wharfinger Re- 
ceipts, and other matters pertaining thereto. Approved 
April 1st, 1878. 

The i>eoplc of the State of California, rcpiescntcd in 
Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: 

Suction 1. That no warehouseman, wharfinger, or other 
person, doing a storage business, shall issue any re- 
ceipt or voucher for any goods, wares, merchandise, 
grain, or other produce or commodity, to any person or 
persons purporting to be the owner or owners thereof, 
unless such goods, wares, merchandise or grain, or other 
commodity, shall have been bona jiite received into store 
bv such warehousemen, wharfinger, or other |»crson, and 
shall be in store and under his control at the lime of is- 
suing such receipt. 

Skc. 2. That no warehouseman, wharfinger, or other per- 
son engaged in the storage business, shall issue auj receipt 
or voucher upon any goods, wares, merchandise, grain, or 
other produce or commodity, to any person or persons as 
Security for any money loaned or other indebtedness, un- 
less such goods, wares, merchandise, grain or other prod- 
uce or commodity, shall be, at the time of issuing 
such receipt, the property of such warehouseman, wharf- 
inger, or other person, shall be in store aud under control 
at the time of issuing such receiptor voucher as aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. That no warehouseman, wharfinger, or other 
person as aforesaid, shall issue any second receipt for any 
goods, wares, merchandise, grain, or other produce or 
commodity, while any former receipt for any such goods 
or chatties as aforesaid, or any |>art thereof, shall be out- 
standing or uncancelled. 

Sec. 4. That no warehouseman, wharfinger, or other 
person as aforesaid, shall sell or incumber, ship, or trans- 
fer, or in any manner remove beyond his immediate con- 
trol, any goods, wares, merchandise, grain, or other prod- 
uce or commodity for which a receipt shall have been 
given as aforesaid, without the written assent of the per- 
son or persons holding such receipt or receipts plainly 
indorsed thereon in ink 

Skc 5. Warehouse receipts for property stored shall 
be of two classes: First, transferable and negotiable; and 
second, non-transferable or non-negotiable. Under the 
first of these classes, all property shall be transferable by 
the indorsement of the party to whose order such receipt 
may be issued, and such indorsement of the same shall be 
deemed a valid transfer of the property represented by 
such receipt, and may be in blank or to the order of an- 
other. All warehouse receipts for property stored shall 
distinctly state on their face for what they arc issued, as 
also the brands and distinguishing marks; and in case of 
grain, the number of sacks, ami number of pounds, and 
kind of grain; also, the rate of storage per month or 
season charged for storing tin same. 

SEC. b'. No warehouseman, or other person or persons, 
giving or issuing negotiable receipts for goods, grain or 
other property on storage, shall deliver said pro| erty, or 
any part thereof, w ithout indorsing upon the back of said 
receipt or receipts, in ink, the amount and date of the de- 
liveries. Nor shall he or they be allowed to make any 
offset, claim or demand, other than as expressed on the 
face of the receipt or receipts issued for the same, w hen 
called upon to deliver said goods, merchandise, grain or 
other property. 

Src 7. No warehouseman, or person or persons, doing 
a general storage business, giving or issuing non-nego- 
tiable or non-transferable receipts for goods, grain, or 
other projierty on storage, shall deliver said property, or 
any part thereof, except on the written order of the per- 
son to whom the receiptor receipts were issued. 

Sec 8. All receipts issued by any warehouseman or 
other person under this act, other than negotiable, shall 
have printed across their face, in bold distinct letters in 
red ink, the words non-negotiable. . 

Sec. 9. No warehouseman, person or persons, doing a 
general storage business, shall be responsible for any loss 
or damage to pro|ierty by fire while in his or their cus- 
tody, provided reasonable care and vigilance be exercised 
to protect and preserve the same. 

Sec 10. Any warehouseman, wharfinger, person or per- 
sons, who shall violate any of the foregoing provisions of 
this act, is guilty of felony, shall be subjected to indict- 
ment, and, upon conviction, shall be fined in a sum not 
exceeding five thousand dollars ($5,000), or imprisonment 
in the State Prison of this State, not exceeding five .'ears, 
or both. And all anil every person aggrieved by the vio- 
lation of any of the provisions of this act, may have and 
maintain an action against ttie person or persons violating 
any of the foregoing provisions of this act, to recover all 
damages, immediate or consentient, which he or they may 
have sustained by reason of any such violation as afore- 
said, before any court of competent jurisdiction, whether 
such person shall have been convicted under the act or 
not. 

.lames A. Johnson, President of the Senate; C. P. Berry, 
Speakor of the Assembly. Approved April 1st, 1878. 
William Irwin, Governor. 

Before grain growers can expect to fully real- 
ize the benefits of this law, business must be 
systematized. Grain should be classified and 
graded according to its excellence and condition 
after each harvest. Inspections, by sample, 
thus furnished, should govern arbitrarily the 
product of that year or until a change became 
necessary. Samples of the several grades thus 
established should be kept at the Produce Ex- 
change in San Francisco, distributed to the 
several grain markets throughout the State, 
sent abroad, and obtainable at all times by those 
desiring or interested. 

Warehouse receipts issued, calling for 
" number one shipping wheat," "extra milling 



wheat," ordinary smutty, weevilly, etc., or for 
brewing barley, "dark coast" do., etc., would 
become, as they are elsewhere, the favorite 
collaterals with capitalists and bankers. Mr 
Montpellier would pass the golden twenties 
across the counter of the Grangers' Bank, to 
those wishing accommodations, and could offer 
receipts for tons and centals of "extra milling" 
and "shipping" wheat, with areadiness and suav- 
ity, that would astonish a marginal stock opera- 
tor, at the Nevada's laurel panels. Without 
uniformity, there can l>e no system in business. 
Pro forma* for warehouse receipts, are given to 
show what is required for negotiable reteiptt, 
such as are in universal use throughout the 
northwestern States. Warehousemen, and 
those giving receipts for goods, etc., on storage, 
should have their receipts handsomely litho- 
graphed or printed upon what is known as 
bank note paper (a strong thin linen paper), 
bound in book form. The receipts to be eight 
inches long, by three and a half inches wide, 
attached to stubs of half their length, from 
which the receipts are cut when issued. The 
stubs anil receipts attached to them, should be 
numbered alike and consecutively. The stubs 
briefly give what is recited at length in the 
receipts detached from them, serving as a refer- 
ence at all times. Similar, in many respects to 
stock certificate books, etc. Great care is taken 
in having receipts returned before deliveries are 
made, as confidence is all-important in busi- 
ness, every precaution and safe-guard is taken 
with these evidences of value. 

The following are forms of receipts : 



m 5- a oo 



3 S.B 3 ? 
' i> ± - 



z t » 

! I*M 3 



~ - »> / - : 
h — ~ — - -? n 2.* 



o n n '■ 



]aSlcT*r.* _ tf 



a re J o -2 



£*i£llri 



i-rt. % % = HZ a 

Zrwt 2 s i =■ 

:=■•;■ = -**§ I, 
c s rr -el* 
£25* z 9 S. oo 



It is hardly possible to more than outline 
the inodu* operandi of business, in a letter such 
as this. Many of your readers will no doubt be 



> p 

I fs 

g ?= 

I X 

i § 

« a 

S S 

=• to 



g %: 



c I d 



>• » — a 7- 



3-52 = § ^ 1 i 

S.SSB'S ~Z 

£ s.s-3-2 Igg 



Hi 

~*< 

I 2, 1- 

r ~i ' 
'r= i '-: 2 
r 

Ill 



c (Pa 



n _ p 

9 



i r. * 

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m a w 

E 1 a 

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-z ■ 



able to understand from the foregoing, what is 
required -and carry out the principles success- 
fully. G. C. Pearson. 

South Vallejo, Dec. 26th. 

[This discussion and information, will be of 
much interest to grain growers. It must be 
noted that, though the writer protests against 
the present system of growers supplying sacks, 
he does not advocate shipping in bulk. That 
is another question. — Ens. Press.] 

Bi'siness Association Meeting.— Editor* 
Press: — Please give notice that the fourth 
quarterly meeting of the stockholders of the 
Grangers' C. P. A., will be held at the office of 
the association, corner of Tenth and K streets, 
Sacramento, on Tuesday, January 14th, 187'J, 
at 10 a. m. — Geo roe Rich, Sec'y. 



Election of Officers.* 

Coi.LKc.Kvii.LE Grange No. 184, San Joa- 
quin Co., Cal. — George W. Brown, M.; A. S. 
W oodbridge, O. ; L. R. Chalmers, L. ; James 
Ritchie, S. ; Eustache Meroux, A. S. ; A. M. D. 
Mcintosh, C; P. P. Ward, T.; George P. 
Hurd, Sec'y.; W. H. Snow, G. K.; Mrs. 
Ritchie, Ceres; Mrs. Ward, Pomona; Mrs. 
Snow, Flora, ; Mrs. Mcintosh, L. A. S. Instal- 
lation, third Wednesday in January. 

Cottonwood Grange, No. 116, Stanislaus 
Co. — Election, Dec. 21st. Andrew Ewing, M. ; 
Wm. Stockton, 0. ; Sister W. F. Clark, L. ; J. 
Li Hale, S. ; J. Dunnagun, A. S. ; W. F. Clark, 
C. ; C. S. Johnson, T. ; I. J. True, Sec'y ; Wm. 
Leak, G. K. ; Sister M. P. Gardner, Ceres ; 
Sister M. Sparks, Pomona ; Sister L Tinnin, 
Flora ; Sister E. Hale, L A. S. 

Healdsburg Grange, No 18, Sonoma Co.-— 
Election Dec. 28th. Bro. Warner, M. ; Charles 
Alexander, O. ; James McLish, 8. ; Bro. Bou- 
ton, A. S.; W. N. Gladden, L. ; W. Allen, C; 
Bro. Kraft, Sec'y; W. Ellis, T. ; George Jacobs, 
G. K. ; Mrs. Warner, Ceres; Mrs. Alexander, 
Pomona; Miss Wolcott, Flora; Mrs. Beeson, 
L. A. S. 

Pilot Hill Grange, No. 1, El Dorado Co., 
Cal. — P. D. Brown, M.; N. Wentworth, 0.; 
J. A. Robb, L. ; A. W. Gregg, S.; C. S. Rogers, 
A. S. ; J. W. Davis, C. ; W. H. Matherly, T. ; 
Sister M. F. Stoddard, Sec'y ; D. Russell, G. 
K. ; Sister M. Jones, Ceres; Sister S. C. Robb, 
Pomona; Sister I. Bayley, Flora; Sister A. Per- 
kins, L. A. S.; I. E. Terry, TruBtee. 

Santa Cruz Grange, No. 46 — Election Dec. 
28th, 1778: G. C. Wardwell, M.; Wm. Oliver, 
O. ; John Morgan, L. ; Peter Peters, S. ; Thos. 
Pilkineton, A. S.; Mrs. A. Smith, L. A. S. ; 
Thos. "Crooks, C; A. Noble, T.; Mrs. Belle 
Kooser, Sec'y.; L. Breginzer, G. K.; Mrs. E. 
E. Cahoon, Ceres; Miss C. Wardwell, Flora; 
Mrs. Pilkington, Porno. Trustees, John Mor- 
gan, Thos. Crooks, B. Pilkington. 

Walnut Creek Grange, No. 119, Contra 
Chista Co. — Walter Henwick, M.; M. L. Gray, 
O.; A. W. Hammitt, L. ; John Baker, C. ; W. 
Clark, S. ; W. L. Jones, A. S. ; John Carkey, 
T. ; A. E. Hodges, Sec'y; George Boss, G. K. ; 
Miss Lizzie Hodges, Ceres; Miss Jennie Boss, 
Flora; Miss Mary Baker, Pomona; Miss Ida 
I'etcrson, L. A. S. 

Watsonville Gramje, Santa Cruz Co. — ■ 
Wm. G. Hudson, M.; Geo. Pace, O. ; Mrs. O. 
Tuttle, L; II. Burland, S. ; N. A. Wren, A. 8.; 
E. Hinman, C; R. Gallagher, T.; Wm. T. 
Harvey, Sec'y; Mrs. M. Tuttle, G. K.; Mrs. 
K. Fiuriand, Ceres; Miss M. Cox, Pomona; Miss 
L. Roadhouse, Flora. 

•Secretaries of Subordinate Granges are invited to send 
us for publication, lists of officers as soon as they are 
elected ; also dates of installation. 



Pleasant Memories of the Grange. — Edi- 
tors Press: Enclosed is amount of our sub- 
scription for the Press for the coming year, and 
we tell with pleasure how delighted we are with 
the pa[>er. We gain much useful information 
from its pages. It brings us good news from 
the Granges, and our thoughts go back to those 
pleasant hours that we enjoyed when we were 
Grangers. I think the (irange has worked 
wonders. Husband and I cannot give up the 
paper. It is a welcome visitor here. Success 
to the paper ; may it increase in numbers.- — 
Mary Ann Rodgkrs, Calaveras Co., Cal. 



Walnut Creek Grange. — Bro. A. E. 
Hodges, Seoretary, writes as follows: "Our 
(irange met January 4th, for installation of 
officers. Grange was called to order, and then 
closed, for the purpose of partaking of a boun- 
tifully spread feast, which was enjoyed by all. 
Harvest Feast over, the installation of officers 
was proceeded with by N. Jones, District 
Deputy, assisted by Bro. James Daily." 

Boswell Fruit Drier. — We call attention 
to the advertisement of the Boswell heater 
company on page Hi of this iBsne. The princi- 
ple of deflected heat as applied to drying fruit 
seems to be worthy the attention of all inter- 
ested in that branch of industry. The com- 
bined apparatus for cooking, baking, heating, 
drying, etc., is a great auxilliary to the econ- 
omy of housekeeping, and the apparatus is also 
claimed to be the most economical as well as 
the best arrangement for drying fruit, etc., 
that is now before the public. Mr. E. L Sulli- 
van, an old and well-known citizen of the State, 
is at the head of the company. 

Ladies and Gentlemen are both alike 
provided for by Palmer Bros., in all things fit- 
ted to give satisfaction and comfort in the way 
of clothing, furnishing goods, laces, millinery, 
and 1,000 articles needed in fitting up the 
" human form divine. " You can supply your 
whole family at little expense, by consulting 
Palmer Bros., at 726 to 734 Market street, 
S. F. 

Spanish brigands have been troubling France. 

Ex-Governor Bravo, Mexican revolutionary 
leader, has been killed. 

It is semi-officially reported in Vienna that 
Russia has promised to evacuate Bulgaria and 
Roumelia th e first of April. 

The plague in Astrakhan has lately increased 
in virulence^ 

Strikes among English coachmen and ship- 
wrights are reported. 



January n, 1&79.I 



TIE PACIFIC BUBAL PB1SS. 



21 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

The Cold. — Oakland Times, Jan. 4: Mr. 
Hutchison, florist, on Fourteenth street, re- 
ports the mercury down to 20° at 7 o'clock last 
Sunday morning. On December 14th it touched 
the same point. These two extreme nights of 
12° of frost are the coldest recorded in this part 
of Alameda county during the last 26 years. 
The record of the rainfall during the autumn 
and winter of 1878, is as follows: September, 
.57; October, 1.85; November, .65; December, 
.36; total, 3.43 inches. The record in 1877 
was: September, .36; October, 4.25; Novem- 
ber, .25; December, none; total, 4.85 — being 
1.42 inches more than in 1878. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Heavy Hogs. — Gazette, Jan. 4: Two hogs, a 
sow and barrow, of the Irish Grazier and Berk- 
shire cross, raised by Dr. E. F. Hough, of Mar- 
tinez, and killed on Wednesday last, are prob- 
ably the finest and heaviest hogs of the age ever 
butchered in the county, being less than 10 
mouths old and estimated, as hung up dressed, 
to weigh from 350 to 400 pounds each. The 
actual weight will be ascertained when they 
are taken down for cutting up, but is not likely to 
fall much, if anything below the estimate. One 
peculiarity of this cross-breed is the remark- 
ably delicate and thin skin, which does not ex- 
ceed the thickness of a 10-cent coin. 

Rain. — Gazette, Jan. 4: The fall at Martinez 
on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday reached 
the measure of .32 inches, and was considerably 
greater than the fall in the San Ramon section, 
where it is usually greater than here. 

FRESNO. 

Settlers' League. — Expositor : On Wednes- 
day evening last the settlers on railroad lands 
in the vicinity of Mendocino District school- 
house, held a meeting for the purpose of 
leaguing themselves together for self-protec- 
tion. The meeting was addressed by a number 
of persons, who had thoroughly posted them- 
selves upon the subject. After due delibera- 
tion it was resolved that the railroad company 
has no just claim to these lands, and 18 per- 
sons formed themselves into a league, obliga- 
ting themselves to stand by each other as one 
man, and retain possession of their homes until 
the matter is finally settled by the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Rain and Results. — Herald, Jan. 4: As we 
write, early in the afternoon of the last day of 
the year, four and a half inches of rain have 
fallen. It is quite on the cards that the record 
of the year may close with live inches or more, 
almost the whole falling within a period of four 
days. It is scarcely an exaggeration to say 
that one more good rain will guarantee crops 
to those who have planted and sowed early. 
It must be borne in mind that the soil is un- 
usually moist this year, and that the rain has 
only to penetrate to a depth of six or seven 
inches to encounter the wet deposit from last 
year, when the rains were extended to a re- 
markably late date in the spring. Another 
pleasant feature of the situation is that the 
stock of grass and clover seeds now on the 
ground is notably heavy from two causes, the 
luxuriant growth of last year and the largely 
diminished number of flocks of sheep and herds 
of cattle which depastured it — the latter owing 
to the terrible drouth of the preceding season. 
It is therefore not unreasonable to look for 
tremendous grass crops and for an era of excep- 
tional prosperity for our grazing interests. 
Sheep have to-day in Los Angeles county a 
value far higher than a week ago. So hare 
horses and cattle, while the agricultural and 
pomological and viticultural outlook is specially 
inspiriting. We know enough now of our 
looal situation to predict, with entire safety, a 
year of unprecedented prosperity is opeuii'g be- 
fore our people. 
MENDOCINO. 

The Rainfall. — Editors Press: Rainfall 
at this plase (Porno), to January is as follows: 
Aug., .05 inches; Sept., 1.75 inches; Oct., 1.97 
inches; Nov., 1.95 inches; Dec, 1.00 inches; 
total. 6.72 inches. Last month was dry and 
frosty; the thermometer ran down to 15° several 
mornings. — Z. W. Bransford, Porno, Cal. 

Early Potatoes. — Ukiah Press, Jan. 4: S. 
W. Knowles, of Anderson, advances a new idea 
for raising early potatoes earlier. He turns 
them under good and deep as soon as they are 
fairly through the ground, and makes them 
come up again, and says he has more and bet- 
ter* potatoes, and earlier ones by this treatment 
than by any method before tried by him. 
MONTEREY. 

December Rain.— Salinas Democrat, Jan. 4: 
At the last hour, just as the year 1878 was ex- 
piring, rain came, to revive the drooping hopes 
of our farmers and to set in motion the thou- 
sand springs of industry. In this immediate 
locality the quantity, 34-100 inches, was not so 
much, though it gave assurance, at least, that 
the drouth was broken, so that their plans for 
future work might be resumed by our people, 
with hope of a prosperous issue. At Soledad 
and on the Arroyo Seco, as we are reliably in- 
formed, two inches of rain fell, so that the 
ground was thoroughly wetted and prepared for 
the plows, which were at once set in motion. 
From Gonzalez we have an equally favorably re- 
port, the rainfall having been 1.54-100. Farm- 



ers in that quarter say their ground was never 
in better condition than this rain has placed it 
in, and all are now actively engaged in the work 
of plowing and seeding. As a fact, we may re- 
port that, from the northern line of Chualar 
rancho, the new year opens with a cheery sight 
of busy industry afield, and renewed energy 
and hope on the part of the inhabitants. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

The Rain. — Lodi Valley Review, Jan. 4 : We 
have had the oddest weather the past two 
weeks that has ever before been experienced in 
this valley. The pumps have frozen up, in 
many cases bursting the water pipes, and vessels 
oontaining water set outdoors have been found 
in the morning covered with a joat of ice an 
inch thick. Rain began to fall Monday night 
and managed to keep up a quiet drizzle all day 
Tuesday. The weather has changed since then 
to be much warmer. The rainfall for the season 
has only been 1.07, while last year up to this 
date it was 2.39 inches. "Give us more rain" 
is the prayer throughout the valley. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

A Pouring Rain. — Santa Barbara Press, 
Jan. 4 : It recommenced raining in earnest last 
night about 10 o'clock, and rained without 
oessation until this morning at 10, when it eased 
up, and was showery the remainder of the fore- 
noon. About 12 o'clock it turned loose again, 
and has kept it up to the hour of going to press. 
The telegraph lines are down in both directions, 
and the storm is general. Between 8:15 this 
morning and 9 o'clock, .42 inches fell. More 
than four inches have fallen since dark last 
night, making the total fall for the season 
approximate six inches. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

The Rain. — Watson ville Pajaronion, Jan. 2: 
Rain commenced falling Monday night and did 
continue, in showers, up to last night. The 



farmers have been waiting for this rain for a 
long time, and hope and patience were nigh ex- 
hausted. Incalculable good has been done by 
the present rainfall, and as Swart, our weather 
prophet, who predicted this rain, says we are 
to have lots more of the same kind, we feel 
more hopeful for a good winter's rainfall and 
an excellent spring. 

Santa Cruz Kain. — Courier, Jan. 3: Last 
Sunday night came the first shower of rain and 
hail. On Monday the wind shifted round to 
the southeast, and rain fell in sufficient quan- 
tity to moisten the earth, continuing through- 
out Tuesday in copious showers. The total 
rainfall during the storm was 0.77 of an inch, 
making 5.34 inches for the season. 

SONOMA. 

Editors Press: The farmers in this county 
are about through sowing, the rains in the fall 
having made the ground plow well until a short 
time back. We have had but little rain in this 
section, but it now has the appearance of rain, 
and if it conies now, it will be soon enough to 
prevent any damage to crops or pastures. — T. 
J. Barnes, Windsor, Dec. 31st. 
VENTURA. 

Heavy Rains. — Telegraphic dispatch, Dec. 
31: Since six o'clock last evening heavy rain 
has been falling without a moment's cessation. 
The storm so far has yielded a trifle over two 
inches of rain, and there are no signs of clearing 
up. A warm southeasterly wind is blowing stead- 
ily. About one-half the barley crop of thecouuty 
is safely sown, and will be up ift a week if the 
warm weather continues. In addition, quite a 
large area of volunteer barley will also be start- 
ed by the timely rain. As feed was plenty all 
summer, the stock is all in good order, and 
there will be no losses, as there generally are at 
the first rain. Farmers say that with an equal 
amount of moisture in February a full crop is 
assured. 

On January 6th, a gang of tramps attempted 
to gain possession of a freight train near Stock- 
ton, 



An Enterprising Firm. 

An engraving on this page shows the new 
store and bag manufacturing establishment of 
Neville & Co., at the corner of California and 
Davis streets. Their new store is one of the 
most commodious and conveniently arranged 
places of business in this city, and it has been 
fitted up with unusual taste. The large space 
is required for the large stock which is held for 
the inspection of purchasers and for the im- 
mense business which this long-established firm 
has built up. And the store is but the begin- 
ning of the establishment, for the manufactur- 
ing rooms are not less spacious and well-fitted 
with machinery and materials. We believe the 
establishment as now constituted is not only 
the leading one on this coast, but compares 
favorably with the best Eastern houses, and in 
some respects surpasses them. 

Neville & Co. deal in all descriptions of bags 
and bagging materials; also in all the manufac- 
tures of canvas from a large tent to a yard of 
hose, or an oil-cloth hat for a sailor, or a nose 
bag for a horse. They furnish sacks for flour, 
meal, salt, and other articles, handsomely 
printed with manufacturer's designs and trade- 
marks. In short, their business covers every- 
thing which properly pertains to bags and bag- 
ging, to duck and canvas, to cotton and to 
linen goods of lighter weight. For several 
years we have gained from Mr. Neville data 
for making our weekly market review on the 
course of bag prices and movements, and we 
have found him well posted and honest in the 
giving of information for the public good. We 
doubt not that many of our readers in need of 
bags and the like will do well to consult Neville 



I 



& Co. before engaging their supplies elsewhere, 
and thus form their own opinion of the best 
plaoe to make purchases. 

Personal Adornment. — The number of 
people who have drawn upon the stock of 
Palmer Bros., for their handsome clothing, 
underwear, toilet articles, etc., during the last 
few weeks, is beyond count. The firm, at their 
establishment 726 to 734 Market street, have a 
splendid variety of goods to choose from, and 
one can hardly go amiss in seeking everything 
necessary for personal adornment and comfort 
at their store. 



Brooklyn's debt has increased $1,235,566 
during the year. 

The Duty of the Hour. — Lest any reader should forget 
it, we mention the peculiar fitness of the season for re- 
newing old subscriptions and making new oacs to the 
Press. In going forward with our journal, we need the 
help of our patrons both with mind and money. Do not 
forget to send the printer his due, as the aggregate of 
small individual amounts will give him a force that wilj 
make the types fairly dance into the lines. Wc trust that 
only a hint will be ne«dcd to rally the dollars, for with 
them assured we have a thousand themes to occupy our 
columns Let all step up promptly to the Captain's office 
and then we will go out on deck for another year's voyage 
—January 1st, 1S79. 

Frksii attractions' are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zongraphicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 

Settlers and others wishing good farming lands for 
sure crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Friable, of Ander- 
son ,' Shasta County, Cal., who has some 15,000 acres for 
sale in the Upper Sacramento valley. His advertisement 
appears from time tu time in this paper, 



Orange Hill Nursery. 

Among the many peculiarities in regard to climate, as 
well as other points of interest situated within the radius 
of our Golden State, there are various semi-tropical belts 
differing in length and width, not only through our pic- 
turesque valleys, but ranging throughout our foothills, 
mountain sides and vales beneath, that are suitable to 
raise and perfect themselves in beauty, symmetry and form. 
Of late yeurs a great deal has been written and notices 
circulated in various presses calling attention to the suit- 
able and desirableness of locating semi-tropioal fruits as 
well as adaptation of some of our finest peaches, apples 
pears, plums and grapes; also, varieties of small fruit. 
These notices do not arise merely from the fancy ideas of 
the writers, but have been shown by practical test by 
novices that have the facts to corroborate the statement, 
and now producing annually fruits of general kinds, dis- 
bursing them throughout the State as well as Territories. 

Robert Williamson, sole founder of the Capital Nur- 
sery, situated on U and Sixteenth street, Sacramento, 
having engaged in the nursery business for many years, 
shipping largely through the middle as well as the entire 
northern part of the State, has lately increased his 
grounds as the growth and business demands. James A. 
Anderson, who has bought out the interest of W. R. 
Strong, has united with Mr. Williamson, and the com- 
pany has lately bought a tract of land in Placer county, 
between Penryn and Newcastle, and propose at once to 
plant an extensive orchard and nursery, sparing neither 
money nor pains to make it attractive and raise a large 
assortment of'trees for general market. The proprietor 
are sending to France and Italy for the very best varieties 
of olive, both for pickling and oil. Also to China and 
Japan for rare trees and plants. Among the immense 
stock of nursery line will include the orange, lemon, lime, 
citron, banana, pine apple, guava, date palms, Diospyros 
Kaki or Japanese persimmon, with many deciduous fruits. 
The favored belt of country including this site commences 
in Butte county, and extends southeast along the foot- 
hills at an altitude of from 700 to 1,200 feet, and in some 
looalities as high as 1,500 feet above the sea level. As an 
inducement for those who wish to locate in that region 
for a home or otherwise, the Bear River and North Fork 
Ditch Co., in Placer county, and the Natoma Ditch Co., in 
El Dorado and Sacramento counties, generously offer 
water free for five years from June 1st, 1S7S, to any per 
son planting 50 or more tropical fruit trees within reach 
of their ditches. I might mention the names of a few 
growers among the foothill ranges who have permanent 
hollies there: C. M. Silva & Son, Newcastle, who rais 
the San Gabriel variety of orange; John F. Curtz, Ophir, 
Placer county, seedlings; D. A. Uice, Newcastle, seedlings; 
VV. Hathaway, Ophir; Dr. J. R. Crandall, Auburn, seed- 
lings; Rev. N. R. Peck; Dr. J. M. Fray, St. Michael vari- 
ety, with many others. The fruit ripens from four to six 
weeks earlier than those located in Southern California. 

For the convenience of those in Placer and adjoining 
counties, Williamson & Co. will keep a branch department 
at Auburn. Their new home near Newcastle will be 
known as the Orange Hill Nursery, while their office and 
tree department also can be found on Seventh and J Sts. , 
Sacramento. See advertisement in another column. 

Geo. Ricu. 

Sacramento, Cal. 



Pacific Rural Handbook. 

This book is devoted to the horticultural interests of 
the Pacific States, and treats of orchards, gardens, lawns, 
irrigation, seed-planting, vegetables, forests and shade 
trees, shrubs, and similar topics of interest, all handled 
in Chas. H. Sbinn's well-known vivid style. The book 
also contains a number of carefully prepared and valuable 
"Tables of Plants Adapted to our Climate," and a most 
copious index. No work of the kind has heretofore 
appeared on this coast, and we think it will be found 
fresh, practical and original ; in short, a manual of great 
value. It will be issued shortly, containing 120 or more 
pages. Published and sold by Dewey & Co., S. F. Send 
stamp for full table of contents, or $1 for the book in 
limp cloth cover, post paid. 

Popular Music— Make your homes merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
can recommend this large, first-class, standard and popu- 
lar establishment. Examine his advertisement, appear- 
ing from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstruments possessing the very highest and most perma- 
nent reputation. Call at 105 Kearny Street. The Rural 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 



When a Lady wants a cloak or suit, for herself or child 
and fee Is in doubt where to buy it, we cheerfully recom- 
mend her to go to Sullivan's, No. 120 Kearny street, San 
Francisco, where she can always find the cheapest and 
best assortment. 

For the best servant girls send to lady Clerk at A. 
Zeehandelaar's Employment Agency, 627 Sacramento St., 
San Francisco. In ordering female help it is always cus- 
tomary to advance the fare. Please remit the traveling 
expenses, for which will be purchased ticket and the girl's 
receipt taken. 

It is to your advantage, Fanners! to send your orders 
for all kinds of labor to the old Employment Agency of 
A. Zechandelaar (formerly with Labor Exchange) 627 Sac- 
ramento street, San Francisco. He selects your men with 
care and good judgment, with a view to give satisfaction 
to both employer and employee. 

Tim celebrated Troy (N. Y.) shirts can be found at Pal 
mer Bros. , No. 726 Market street, San Francisco. They 
keep a full and complete stock, laundricd and unlaundried, 
of men's and boys' sizes of the above make. 

San Jose is decidedly a very papular place of residence 
on this coast, and James A. Clayton is its leading agent 
for the sale of city and country real estate. See adv't. 

A Flouring Mill is wanted at Reading, the head of 
railroad transportation iu Shasta County. 




22 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS 



[January n, 1879. 




Our Obligations to the Dumb Animals. 

A Prize Essay by Mr» Edith Degan. 
Some months ago the publishers of the Pa- 
cific Rural Press offered a prize for the beBt 
essay on "Our Obligations to the Dumb Ani- 
mals," to be competed for under the auspices of 
the Oakland Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals. A number of essays were 
duly prepared and submitted for adjudication 
to a committee composed of Rev. J. K. McLean, 
Hon. James A. Johnson and Marcus P. Wiggin, 
Esq. This committee has been obliged to delay 
its report because pressing engagements would 
not permit its members to review the essays 
sooner. Their report is now submitted. There 
were eight competitors. The prize, a handsome 
framed chromo, "The Wounded Hound," is 
awarded to Mrs. Edith Degan, wife of l'rof. 
Degan, of the Classical Institute, Oakland. 
We have received from the committee the 
essays which were submitted to them, and 
hereafter we may make good selections from 
them. The following is Mrs. Degan's prize 
essay : 

Nine persons out of ten will agree in giving 
tenderness as high a place among the essentials 
of womanly character as they assign to courage 
among manly qualities. The quiet path in 
which the lives of most women lie — the one 
which leads to the greatest bight, and from 
which we see most widely and most clearly; the 
path of home and wifehood and motherhood — 
tends to develop tlii i characteristic. Woman's 
tenderness is not weakness, but strength. Its 
charm lies in the foot thst it Hows towards 
those who are iiioro ur less dependent upon the 
giver, and it is cliereloro most charming when 
bestowed on little children. Nor is tenderness 
wanting in those women to whom this sweet 
home life is denie I. We often see it lavished 
on what we call unworthy objects, for with 
most women the desire to bestow affection is ir- 
resistible and the love which would, under 
different circumstances, be given to husband 
and children is still forced to How, though in 
these uarrow channels. Tenderness is a natu- 
ral quality, though one capable of and demand- 
ing development. Courage may be either phys- 
ical or moral. In either case it will meet evil 
bravely, oppose it mightily, or, if need be, en- 
dure it patiently. Man's life and work de- 
velop this quality as woman's surroundings de- 
velop her tenderness. His work lies outside of 
home. He goes into the world to make his 
mark there; to tight tor existence. He needs, 
for bis daily task, all the courage he can com- 



mand — courage to resist the temptation and the 
wrong which meet him on every side — to fight 
for the oppressed, and to keep cheerfully at 
work when the days look dark. Home is his 
resting place, and in its change and quiet, and 
tenderness he finds his strength renewed for to- 
morrow's battle. 

The highest development of character, either 
in man or in woman, depends upon the combi- 
nation of these qualities in one and the same 
person. The man who can best lead an array 
into battle, who can stand in the thickest of the 
fight with a courage which is sublime, is the 
same man who, in the calm which succeeds con- 
test, can stoop to look into dying eyes to re- 
ceive last words from dying lips. And the 
woman who most teuderly fondles her little 
ones is often the same, who, in great and sud- 
den crisis, can summon to her aid a courage 
which is simply marvelous. Our tenderness is 
commonly measured by the helplessness of the 
recipient. The ordinary tones in which we ad- 
dress our fellowmen are wonderfully softened 
when we speak to little children, and baby ears 
should hear only the cooing whispers which 
lessen the distance between heaven's music and 
earth's discords. 

So with courage. Friend fights for friend, 
and fights nobly. But compare this friend with 
a father defending his children. Who stands 
the stronger? The helplessness of those we 
benefit spurs us on to mighty efforts; it keeps 
us patient and tender when we are tempted to 
be harsh and irritable; it sustains us in resisting 
evils and dangers which we eoul/l not conquer 
were we fighting for ourselves alone. Must it 
all end here? Are there no calls for the exercise 
of these qualities save from our fellowmen and 
from our children? 

All around us is constantly ascending the cry 
of the oppressed against the oppressor — the old, 
old cry uttered when the world was young. Again 
and again it sounds in our ears and moves our 
hearts to pity. But there are other oppressed 
ones from whom no cry ascends — who have no 
words to tell their sufferings— the great army 
of dumb creatures. Few eyes shed tears for 
them; few hearts are heavy with the thought 
of their distress; few hands are stretched forth 
to relieve them. For very thoughtlessness our 
sympathies cease with humanity. Beyond 
tlat line we think there is no call for active 
pity. And yet among that silent throng are the 
most helpless ef God's creatures. To us, the 
stronger, the more gifted ones, belongs the duty 
of caring for these. 

With most of us the attention given them is 
proportionate to the benefits we receive from 
them. A horse or a cow is well sheltered and 
well fed because this care brings to the owner 
just so much comfort or just so many dollars 
and cents; because we cannot afford to neglect 
them. This is hardly fulfilling the obligations 
placed upon us by Him who gave man dominion 
over all His other works. That gift brought its 
responsibilities — responsibilities which we dare 
not shirk. Because we have a certain power of 
making life yield good or evil we are bound to 
call forth all the good we can, not only for our- 
selves, but for all creatures. And besides food 
andjshelter, a proper amount of rest is as neces- 
sary to the well-being of a working beast as to 
that of a working man. The night's rest and 
the seventh day belong to all. Statistics prove 
that the horse or ox who works seven days in 
the week breaks down sooner than the one that 
receives his due share of rest. In short, practi- 
cal fellowmen, it does not jxiy to be unmerciful 
to one's beast. Now and then, when we can 
spare him, let us give an animal a holiday out- 
side of stable doors. He will thank us, in his 
own way, doubtless, and such thank sare not to 
be despised. So much for the three essentials — 
food, shelter, and rest. Besides these there are 
a hundred little ways in which we can minister 
to an animal's comfort. We can do infinitely 
more in preventing pain than in making repara- 
tion after we have inflicted it. Small words 
and deeds of kindness will soon win an animal's 
friendship. These kindnesses are owed. And 
they are owed not only to those animals who 
work for us, but to every creature endowed 
with the power to suffer and to enjoy. By a 
universal law, made not hy men, but for them, 
we are bound to relieve misery; to bestow good 
wherever we can. 

Then let us summon all our courage and take 
up arms for the oppressed; fight for the weak — 
against the strong: plead for those who cannot 
plead for themselves. Let us call up all our 
tenderness and bestow it where it is surely 
needed — on the suffering, the helpless, and the 
silent. 



Woman's Love. — A man, who had struggled 
with a malignant disease, approached that crisis 
iu its stage on which his life seemed to depend. 
Sleep, uninterrupted sleep, might insure his 
recovery. His anxious wife, scarcely daring 
to breathe, was sitting by his bed; her servants 
exhausted by constant watching, had all left 
her. It was midnight, a door was left open for 
air; she heard, in the stillness of the night, a 
window open below stairs, and soon after ap- 
proaching footsteps. A moment more a man 
with his face disguised entered the room. She 
instantly saw her husband's danger, and anticipa- 
ting the desigu of the unwelcome intruder, she 
pointed to her husband, and pressing her finger 
upon her lips to implore silence, held out to the 
robber her purse and her keys. To her great 
surprise, he took neither. Whether he was 
terrified or charmed by the courage of her affec- 
tion cannot be known. He left the room, and, 
without robbing a house sanctified by such 
strength of affection, he departed. 



Her Rose Garden. 

Being a Tale of Two Young Married People, 
and their Gardening Mishaps. 

[Written (or tlic Rural Pbess by Ciiaruis H. Suinn.J 

CHAPTER T. 

John Bailey, thus left to manage the affair, 
walked over and shook hands with Mr. Leigh, 
whom he knew slightly as a large landowner 
and a man of more than ordinary liberality and 
good sense. Renters were always glad to be 
his tenants, and he was one of those few men 
who use great powers and opportunities with 
great wisdom and honesty. 

" Your wife must not feel so about it, Mr. 
Bailey," said Mr. Leigh. "I heard of the 
damage done, and came to see if I might be 
permitted to send Mrs. Bailey a box of plants 
to replace those ruined by the carelessness of 
my vaqueros. She has done a good and a beau- 
tiful work in this neighborhood. I find a few 
carefully treasured flowers everywhere, in ten- 
ant's cabins, on the porches of the farmers, yes ! 
even iu the school-yard; and all her gift, simple, 
kindly, unassuming. You do not know how 
universal a respect is felt for your sunny wife; I 
would rather anything else had happened than 
this ruining of her garden." 

" The real damage is not so very much," said 
Mr. Bailey. "We know it was an accident, 
and it does not seem right to take any money. 
We thank you for your kindly words, but — " 

"Now," said Mr. Leigh, "this won't do." 
And so they talked on till persuasive Mr. Leigh 
was invited to dinner, and brought his arts of 
persuasion to bear upon both husband and wife. 
He was a man of much adaptability and grace 
of manner ; his sallies and tine sense of humor 
were unapproachable. He had been a great 
traveler, and he could tell a story without spoil- 
ing it. By dint of these and similar accomplish- 
ments he won the forgiveness of Mrs. Bailey, 
and departed without, however, saying a word 
about the trampled garden. 

Our gardening folks repaired, so far as they 
were able, the results of their one mishap. The 
roses, heavily watered, soon sprouted again near 
the ground, and being on their own roots, were 
of course all right again. Had they been budded 
the choice kinds would have been lost, which is 
the danger of budded roses. 

Two weeks jiast, and, one Friday afternoon, 
there was an inroad like that of the historic 
Goths. Across the fields from the schoolhouse 
came the children and their teacher for a visit. 
They came mysteriously, with boxes and bas- 
kets, with some attempt at banners, mostly 
calico, and a labored evergreen motto, carried by 
two little boys who appeared much impressed 
with the solemnity of the occasion. 

"Why, there are not half enough cookies to 
go around," said beaming Mrs. Bailey, as she 
began to deal out hospitalities. Thereupon 
arose a chorus: They didn't come to eat cookies; 
Mr. Leigh sent them ; they came to see the 
garden; they knew of something nice, they did, 
and so on. 

So the children trooped into, and clustered 
around the garden. They overflowed with in- 
nocent mirth, such as lies in the hearts of all 
healthy children. They made Mrs. Bailey stand 
still, and the big girls folded theiraprons over her 
laughing eyes. Soon she breathed the fragrance 
of flowers not in her garden; heliotropes, jas- 
mines, tuberoses rained down upon her. 

"Don't you move an inch," said the merry 
children. 

"0, I'm just dying to see the fun, girls," she 
replied, with a comical inflection, and they 
tossed off their aprons, as they gathered around 
her, a host of smiling faces. Each one of the 
older children had a small potted plant, and 
each of the lesser ones had a bouquet — all the 
gift of Mr. Leigh, and of the school. Nothing 
was costly, but the uniqueness of a flower sur- 
prise-party took Mrs. Bailey's fancy, and her 
pleasure was very great. 

That night when her husband came home 
from the harvest field, he found a very happy 
little wife to greet him with a thrilling narra- 
tive of the day's events. They enlarged the 
garden, mulching heavily, pouring a bucket- 
ful of water where each plant was put. 
Every one grew, and flourished, through the 
waning summer and the long autumn months, 
and to the very gates of winter. Then a few 
were nipped by frost, but received protection 
in time to save them. The garden was dug 
and manured again; the rose bushes were heav- 
ily pruned; their happy year had reached a 
conclusion. 

Through the summer nothing wonderful had 
happened to advance their tide of fortune. They 
did not in anywise find one of those wonderful 
bonanzas in which ambitious novelists are apt 
to deal. No rich relative, or old miser, smit- 
ten by Mrs. Bailey's lovableuess, died, leaving 
her heir of his mortal gold. Mr. Bailey never 
found a Spanish silver mine, or did the point of 
his plow uncover any buried treasure, encased 
in rawhide. No heartless landlord had his 
life saved by Mr. Bailey, and thereupon gave 
him a farm, or at least the rent of one. 

It may be that I am defrauding the public by 
not inventing a sudden Oliver Optic fortune 
for the Bailey's. But my excuse is, that no 
such thing happened. They lived as cheaply 
as they could; they worked hard, but they 
made no fortune. Though there was a good 



yield, prices were very low. None of the rent- 
ers did very well, and some lost money. The 
Baileys, however, cleared something, and 
rented the same place again for one year, with a 
privilege of having it for five years. 

One evening in early winter, whilst the rain 
poured steadily outside, the Baileys drew their 
little table close in front of the roaring, open 
tire, and began to review the past, and plan for 
the future. 

"John," said she, "it has been a happy, yes, 
a beautiful summer. We have been so bnsy, 
and have we not accomplished so much? I 
think, though we are only renters, we have the 
most home-like place for miles around. Then 
we have grown so much stronger in this coun- 
try air. The experiment is a success. Here- 
after we are country people; we have shaken 
off the dust and worry of the cities; we are free 
and happy. " Mrs. Bailey emphasized this lit- 
tle speech with such a thump with her tiny 
hand on the table, that the tortoise-shell cat, 
sobeily stretched on the rug, arose and looked 
wide-eyed astonishment, appeared to smile, 
purred approval, and returned to his dreams. 

"O! it is so nice, John," continued she. "Last 
fall, when we came here, all was so barren and 
forlorn, and really I was homesick, so lonesome 
for the lack of city sounds and sights, that, if 
you had not been so good, I should have cried 
my eyes out. But now, there are onr dozen 
plants on the shelf, to cheer us this winter — 
smilax, fuchsias, carnations, begonias, gerani- 
ums, which Mr. Leigh sent after he made poor 
me jump so! And, John, what a splendid idea 
it was for you to buy Bancroft's aix-rolume his- 
tory of the United States for us to take turns 
reading aloud this winter! We will buy some 
standard work every winter and not trouble the 
book agents, will we ?" 

"No, indeed," said Mr. Bailey. "I tell you 
what it is, Marian, so long as I san send to San 
Francisco and buy the works of Macauley, Ad- 
dison, Carlyle, Emerson, Irving, Bancroft, and 
such people, I am not going to invest our hard 
earnings in the 'Bible Looking Glass,' or the 
'Sazerac Lying Club,' or 'New York Exploded.' 
Of course, valuable books like Stanley's Africa, 
are sometimes published by subscription; but 
most of the books they bring around are poorly 
gotten up, and very high priced." 

"Then," said Mrs. Bailey, "sometime, when 
we can afford it. I should like one good maga- 
zine, besides our weekly Rural. I don't want 
a silly one, but, well, I always did enjoy Scrib- 
ner's though Harjmr's is nearly as good." 

Now, Mr. Bailey's Christmas present to his 
wife was a year of iScribner, and the first num- 
l-i was at that moment safe in the inside pocket 
of his coat, so it was with much latent amuse- 
ment that he began to test her good nature. 

"I am afraid we can't afford it," he said. "At 
least not until the crops are put in. You won't 
mind ?" 

"O! we can get along, I guess," she answered. 
"Of course we must be economical," and so dis- 
missed the subject, to be duly surprised a week 
later, by the arrival of the coveted monthly. 

"And, John," said she, yet again, " do yon 
know that the children at school formed a club 
last week, and sent some money for flower seeds, 
to plant at home ?" 

"That is pleasant," said he. "Nothing could 
be better news. The good work shall go on 
next year, it is evident. No, Marian, we have 
not wasted our year. We are a little better off 
than we were, and we have made many friends. 
It is a good, kindly neighborhood, and we must 
do still more next year. Some time, if we are 
prospered, we shall own our own home. That 
is the goal we have set before us. " 

"Yes, John, always," said his earnest wife, 
"we must own our own home." 

So we leave them sitting there, these friends 
of ours. Let us look a moment at the lesson of 
their summer. 

The fact is that life is made up of threads 
wonderfully complex, seemingly, and yet sim- 
plicity itself if we follow each our own, not 
selfishly, but generously. If we do what is 
really and eternally best for ourselves, we shall 
be pretty apt to do what is best for others, too. 
These two people, a page from whose life I 
have given you, were not wealthy folks, or very 
wise, or in any way supernatural. For that 
very reason I like them better. John and 
Marian Bailey are representatives of thousands 
and tens of thousands, slowly toiling to win 
homes of their own, having aesthetic impulses 
and a love of rural adornment, but with most 
scanty means. As a hasty suggestion, as a flash 
upon a too often desolate life — that of the no- 
madic renter — as a glimpse of a happy home life, 
mirthful, but not shallow, this story of "Her 
Rose Garden" has wandered to a peaceful 
close. 



Pleasant Evenings. — Make the evenings 
pleasant, mothers, if you wish to keep your 
husbands and children at home. A lively game, 
an interesting book read aloud, or, in musical 
families, a new song to be practiced, will fur- 
nish pastime that will make an evening pass 
pleasantly. A little forethought during the 
day, a little pulling of wires that need not 
appear, will make the whole thing easy; and 
different ways and means may be provided for 
making the evening hours pass pleasantly, and 
a time to look forward to with pleasant anticipa- 
tions. We visited once in a large family where 
it was the duty of each sister in turn to provide 
the evening's occupation, and there was a pleas- 
ant rivalry between them as to whose evenings 
should he the most enjoyable. As a natural 
consequence, the brothers were rarely absent 
from home. 



The Evening Hearthstone. 

Gladly now we lather round It, 

For the toiling day is do. e. 
And the gray and solemn twilight, 

Follows down the golden sun; 
Shadows lengthen on the pavement, 

Stalk like giants through the gloom. 
Wander past the dusky casement, 
Creep around the tire-lit room. 
Draw the curtains!- close the shutters! 

Place the slippers by the Are! 
Though the nide wind loudly mutters, 
What care we for wind-sprite's ire? 

What care we for outward seeming? 

Fickle Fortune's frown or smile ? 
If around us love is beaming- 
Love can human ills beguile! 
'Neath the cottage roof and palace, 

From the peasant to the king, 
All are qualting from life's chalice, 
Bubbles that enchantment bring. 
Grates are glowing— music flowing 
From the lips we love the best; m 
O, the joy. the bliss of knowing 
There are hearts whereon to rest! 

Hearts that throb with eager gladness- 
Hearts that echo to our own- 
While grim care and haunting sadness 

Mingle ne'er in look or tone. 
Care may tread the hills of daylight — 
Sadness haunt the midnight hour — 
But the weird and witching twilight 
Brings the glowing Hearthstone's dower. 
Altar of our holiest feelings! 

Childhood's well-remembered shrine! 
Spirit-yearnings -soul revealings. 
Wreaths immortal round thee twine! 

—Grace Appleton. 



Pomegranate Blossom, 

Pomegranate blossoms! heart of fire, 

I dare to be thy death, 
To slay thee while the summer sun 

Is quickening thy breath, 
To rob the autumn of thy wine, 
Next year of all ripe seeds of thine, 
That thou mayst bear one kiss of mine 

To my dear love before my death, 
For, heart of Are! I. too, am robbed, 

Like thee, like thee, I die; 
While yet mv summer sun of love 

Is near and warm and high, 
The autumn will run red with wine, 
The autumn fruits will swing and shine, 
But in that little grave of mine 

I shall not see them where I lie. 

— Sale Holm. 



Jafttiary ii, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



23 



The Influence of Home. — Each new home, 
genuine home rooted in our soil, adds hope and 
security to our Republic. We are told that 
there is in our land an army of one million and 
a half of "tramps." At any rate, recent years 
have greatly swelled that list. Men who have 
no interest, no anchorage anywhere, are not 
merely useless; are a constant menace to soci- 
ety, to any government. Everywhere it is 
the irresponsible that are the dangerous 
characters. It is good for a man 
to be set into society; to feel that he has a re- 
sponsibility in it and to it. It is good for him 
to feel that something depends on his diligence 
and faithfulness; good for his character, good 
for his happiness. This develops, disciplines, 
utilizes, stabilitates him. The manwho has no one 
spot where his hopes, his thoughts, his affec- 
tions nestles, in short who has no home, lacks 
that important element of success — persever- 
euce. The attachments of country and so- 
ciety and consanguinity, and indeed of 
the chuich, have their root in the home. 
For the security of progress and self-govern- 
ment gives us the ties of proprietorship in a 
local habitation. Property is a great social 
conservator. The floating, irresponsible, penni- 
less throng are social destructives, are travel- 
ing dynamite. As you love your country, foster 
every influence, social and civil, which shall 
tend to parcel out its broad domain into little 
homes— American homes. A real home, J 
mean. Not a lodging room in some third or 
fourth story ; not a boarding house. Such 
places are a great convenience — a necessity, but 
they fall far short of being a home. A nation 
living in hotels and boarding houses is in an 
unhealthy state — inflammable — ready for any 
fool-hardy venture. A nation of householders 
is no tinder box, is slow to ignite, cautious of 
blazing up, but is terrible when ablaze. What 
a rallying cry that would be — strike for your 
boarding house ; fight for your lodging room ! 
No ! fight for your home — for the land you have 
a right to call your own — for the spot which 
has an interior history, twined iu bridal and 
funereal wreaths, sacred and read by you and 
yours ! — Rev. Martin Post. 



High Life. — Few persons have seen so much 
of the various aspects of life as myself ; few, 
therefore, can be better judges of the difference 
between great poverty and great wealth ; but 
after all, this does not by any means constitute 
the chief distinction between the high and low 
states. No ; the signal contrast is not in the 
external circumstances, but in the totally op- 
posite minds of the two classes as to their re- 
spective enjoyment. The society in which I 
formerly moved was all cheerfulness, fun, frolic 
and vivacity. They cared for nothing, thought 
of nothing beyond the pleasure of the present 
hour ; and to these they gave themselves up 
with the keenest relish. Look at the circles in 
which I now move. Can anything be more 
"weary, stale, flat and unprofitable" than their 
whole course of life ? Why, one might as well 
be in the tread-mill as toiling in the stupid, 
monotonous round of what they call pleasure. 
Pleasure, indeed 1 when all merriment, all in- 
dulgence of our natural emotions, if they be of 
a joyous nature, are declared to be vulgar. 
There can be no cordiality where there is so 
much exclusiveness. No ; all is coldness, re- 
serve and universal ennui, even when this starch- 
ness of manner is unaccompanied by any very 
strict rigor in matters of conduct. Look, now, 
at these quadrille dancers in another room ; 
they have been supping, they have been drink- 
ing as much champagne as they liked, the band 
is capital, the men are young and the girls are 
pretty; and yet, did you ever see such crawling 
movements — such solemn looks ? as if they were 
dragging themselves through the most irksome 
task in the world I O, what a different thing 
was a country dance in my younger days I — 
Memoirs of the Duchess of St. Albans. 



Woman's Devotion.— Another striking evi- 
dence has been furnished of a wife's undying 
and unconquerable love. Away out in Charle- 
voix, Michigan, recently, one Edward Ward 
whipped his wife so outrageously that his neigh- 
bors tarred and feathered the monster. But 
what 'did the supposed indignant wife do ? 
Apply a match to the inflammable material, and 
thus cremate the villian who had so shockingly 
maltreated her whom he had solemnly promised 
to love, serve, protect and cherish 1 Noth- 
ing of the kind. On the contrary, she removed 
the tar and feathers from so unnatural a hus- 
band, poured oil on his wounds, bound up his 
sores, and then accompanied him in his flight 
from a community of which he had proved so 
unworthy a member. Woman ! woman ! who 
can appropriately extol thy virtues, or properly 
sing thy praises ? 

A Child Carried Off by a Hog.— On Sat- 
urday evening last a Mexican called at Dr. 
Walker's office to have him look at a little 
child, but the doctor was out and the man re- 
turned the following day with the child. The 
Mexican stated that he and his family went out 
"pecan" gathering, and that while the child 
was lying on the ground a large hog seized it by 
the ankle and ran off with it. The shrieks of 
the child attracted the attention of all, and soon 
the child was rescued, but not until its little 
limb had been fearfully bitten by the hog. 
Dr. Walker called to his aid Dr. Wooten, and 
after thorough examination they decided upon 
amputation, which was done.— Austin (Texas) 
Statesman. 



A Bear-Baok Ride. 

(Written for the Rural Press by W. B. Post.) 

About 15 years ago there was a very big she 
bear and her three cubs, one a yearling and two 
small ones, which traveled up and down the 
coast and oft-times would kill my cattle. She 
was very cunning and would only come around 
in very dark nights. I hunted for her from 
time to time, but failed to find her. One day I 
tracked her to the beach where I found that 
she came to eat a dead seal. She bad to pass 
through some willows and a small creek. So I 
made up my mind to get up one of the willows 
that night, and as she came by to try and shoot 
her. I asked a man by the name of Jonathan 
Wright to go with me. We went at sun-down 
and got up one of the willows and waited un- 
til two o'clock in the morning before she came. 
It being very dark under the willows we could 
not see well. The three cubs came first and 
commenced to drink water. We mistook the 
yearling cub for the she bear, and as well as 
we could aim, fired. The cubs gave a howl 
and ran back, and at the same time the she 
bear came down through the willows, tearing 
everything right and left. She came under 
the tree where we were, and sat up and was 
trying to find us when I shot her. She com- 
menced to cough and went off in the brush and 
died. Wright wanted to go home. So we got 
down from the tree and started for the house. 
In going around a point we met the cubs. The 
yearling cub made a jump at Wright and he 
shot at it, but missed it. The cub jumped 
back and then jumped at me, and at the same 
time I fired and missed it. The smoke from 
my gun blinded me, and at the same time the 
cub ran between my legs and upset me, and as 
I fell, I put out ray hands to catch myself, and 
as the cub's head was between my legs, I fell on 
to the cub's back and my hands catched him 
by the hair on his rump, and down the hill we 
went. The cub bucked pretty well and I fell 
off. Wright hallooed and asked me where I 
was going. I told him as soon as I could that 
I was going home, and I did. I don't know 
which was the more scared, I or the cub. A 
few days after I shot the three cubs. 

Monterey, Cal. 

Squire Boastful. 

A king had a squire called "Squire Boast- 
ful," because he promised a great deal and per- 
formed little. The king's jester thought he 
would teach "Squire Boastful" a lesson, and he 
did so. 

One day the king wanted some verjfrnice roast 
birds for dinner. He called his squire and 
said: 

"Hans, go to the woods and shoot ten birds 
for my supper." 

"Not ten only," answered the Squire, "but 
a hundred will I shoot for you." 

"Good," replied the king; "if you can shoot 
as well as that, you may bring me a hundred; 
you shall have a dollar for each." 

The jester heard this and went before the 
squire to the woods where the birds were most 
plentiful, and said: 

"Little birds, fly ! fly apace ! 

Hans the Boaster comes to this place, 

Now for your lives pray run a race !" 

So when Hans reached the woods there 
wasn't a bird to be seen; all had hidden iu their 
nests. When he went back to the king empty : 
handed, he was sent to prison for a hundred 
days because he had not kept his word. 

When he was free again the king said to him 
one day, "I must have five fish for my dinner." 

Hans remembered the hundred birds, and 
tried to rein in his boastful tongue. "I will 
bring you 50 fish instead of five." 

"If your are such a good fisherman, you may 
bring me 50," said the king, "and you shall 
have five dollars for each one. " 

So the jester ran to the sea and cried: 
"Little fishes, swim apace ! 
Hans the Boaster comes to this place, 
Now for your lives pray run a race !" 

And when Hans reached the seashore, not a 
fish could he catch. They had all gone to the 
other shore. When he returned to the king 
again empty-handed, he was put in prison for 
50 days because he had not kept his word. 

When he was once more at liberty, the king 
said to him, "I must have a rabbit.'" 

Hans remembered his imprisonment and 
replied: 

"Sir, I will bring you at least 10." 

"If you are such a good hunter, bring me 
10; you shall have §10 for each one," answered 
the king. 

And the jester hastened to the forest and 
cried: 

"Little rabbits, run apace ! 

Hans the Boaster comes to this place, 

Now for your lives pray run a race !" 

And Hans hunted all day and never shot a 
single rabbit; so he had ten days more in prison 
because he had not kept his word. 

When he was at liberty the king said, "I 
must have a stag for my dinner. " 

Hans remembered the sufferings his previous 
boastings had brought upon him, and replied 
modestly: 

"I will go to the woods and try and find one 
for you, sir." 
Scarcely had he got to the woods when he 



shot a very fine stag. He took it joyfully to 
the king, who exclaimed, "See, when you do 
not promise impossibilities, you are able to keep 
your word." 

And the jester laughed in his sleeve, for 
"Squire Boastful" never boasted after that. 



Milk in Medicine. 

Milk and lime-water are now frequently pre- 
scribed by physicians in cases of dyspepsia and 
weakness of the stomach, and in some cases are 
said to prove beneficial. Many persons who 
think good bread^ and milk a great luxury fre- 
quently hesitate to eat it, for the reason that 
milk will not digest readily; sourness of the 
stomach will often follow. But experience 
proves that lime-water and milk are not only 
food and medicine at an early period of life, 
but also at a later, when, as in the case of in- 
fants, the functions of digestion and assimula- 
tion have been seriously impaired. A stomach 
taxed by gluttony, irritated by improper food, 
iufiamed by alcohol, enfeebled by disease, or 
otherwise unfitted for its duties, will resume its 
work, and do it energetically, on an exclusive 
diet of bread and milk and lime-water. A gob- 
let of cow's milk may have four tablespoonfuls 
of lime-water added to it with good effect. The 
way to make lime-water is simply to procure a 
few lumps of unslaked lime, put the lime in a 
stone jar, add water until the lime is slaked and 
of about the consistency of thin cream; the lime 
settles, leaving the pure and clear lime-water 
at the top. Great care should be taken not to 
get the lime-water too strong. Keep to the 
direction as to the consistency, and when the 
water rises pour it off without obtaining any of 
the lime. — Herald of Health. 



Sugar. — Is not sugar an objectionable article 
of food? Ans. — No. Sugar is a carbo-hydrate, 
and bears a close relationship to fat, only the 
latter contains about two and a half times as 
much force-giving quality. It is objected to 
sugar that it deranges digestion, obstructs the 
liver, spoils the teeth, and in many ways does 
harm — no doubt of it. Taken on an empty 
stomach, and in great quantities, sugar is in juri- 
ous; but as a part of our food, and used in 
moderation, sugar is not only harmless but very 
beneficial. Children should be allowed a 
reasonable amount of sugar as a part of their 
meals, but candies, as generally sold, made 
partly of sugar or glucose, and many poisonous 
irjgredients, should never find their way into 
the stomachs of our little ones. So, too, the 
syrups made by the action of sulphuric acid on 
corn-starch, or the refuse in corn-starch fac- 
tories, making a beautiful golden-drip syrup, is 
a very dangerous article, spoiling both stomach 
and teeth. In using sugar or syrups, choose 
only the purest and best sorts, otherwise much 
harm will come from them. As you value teeth, 
stomach, and health, never use those articles of 
food manufactured in the chemist's shop; if you 
do, you must expect to suffer the Consequences. 
Half the ills of life would be avoided by careful 
attention to the wise choice and adaptation of 
food to daily needs. — Dr. Holbrook. 



Brain Poisoned by Tobacco. — A peculiar 
case of metal hallucination has just>appeared in 
Battle Creek, Mich., in the person of a young 
man about 18 or 20 years old. He is a cigar- 
maker by trade, and has been in the habit of 
smoking from 10 to 30 "green" cigars daily. 
He has not drank liquor sufficient to produce 
delirium, and yet he is a raving lunatic, and 
suffers all the horrible phantasmagoria that per- 
tain to the fully developed tremens. He has 
worked in and used tobacco ever since early 
boyhood. Of late years he had used it exten- 
sively, principally iu strong cigars ; and it is 
supposed that the nicotine has so poisoned and 
shattered his mind as to partly paralyze it, thus 
producing the disorder. He has been taken to 
the insane asylum at Kalamazoo for treatment. 

Deprivation of Solar Light. — It has been 
repeatedly claimed that depriving miners of 
solar light injuriously affects their health. This 
point has recently engrossed the attention of 
Dr. Favre at the Commentry collieries. He 
does not think that the mortality of miners must 
be attributed to the action of the deprivation of 
solar light upon the blood, and cites by way of 
confirmation that he examined the blood of 
certain of the horses which were kept under- 
ground all the year, and he found the normal 
number of corpuscles in the blood. 



Weak Eyes. — Bathe in soft water that is 
sufficiently impregnated with spirits of camphor 
to be discernible to the smell — teaspoonful of 
spirits of camphor to tumbler of water. For 
inflamed eyes use milk and camphor, adding a 
little more of the camphor than above. — Herald 
of Health. 



Raw Oysters are more digestible than cook- 
ed ones. It is believed by some that there is a 
true gastric juice in an oyster's stomach, which 
assists in digesting them. This, however, is 
not known with certainty. 



TuRNirs and carrots contain about 90% of 
water. Their chief value is as a divisor of more 
nutritious food, to allow the gastric juice to act 
on it more readily, and as a relish. 



Mush, Etc. 

Editors Press: — Mush is a healthy diet, and 
when properly made is a luxury. Is it not won- 
derfully strange that so few persons know how 
to make good mush ? Some say 30 minutes is 
sufficient time for it to cook, others allow an 
hour. The army regulations require mush to 
boil four hours; that length of time in cooking 
would certainly require close attention to keep 
it from burning. Nearly always hurried with 
my work, necessity compelled me to adopt the 
following rules in making mush, and I find it 
superior to any other way. Let the water come 
to a boil in an iron vessel, add salt to taste, 
stir in meal to the consistency of stiff' batter, 
with a wood mush stick, boil slowly 30 or 40 
minutes. Empty in deep pan or earthen dish, 
set in stove, bake slowly two hours. 

A Point on Yeast. 

Can any reader explain to me what effect, if 
any, high altitudes have upon salt-yeast-raising 
for bread. The first summer I was in the 
mountains I tried it repeatedly with best of 
flour, and never could get the yeast to rise, 
while hop-yeast does well. I am fully convinced 
it was owing to the high altitude, 6,000 feet. 
To Make Canaries Lay. 

Feed them on burned bone. My little bird 
laid 25 eggs last summer; can any one show a 
better record? She is a French canary, 18 
months old. Mrs. B. E. Burns. 

Smartsville, Yuba Co., Cal. 

Filter. 

Editors Press: — Will you give through your 
columns the best method for making a filter. — 
A Subscriber, Poway Valley Dec. i2th. 

Directions for making different styles of filters 
were given in the Rural Press of September 
7th, 1878. If our querist does not keep the 
Press on file a copy may be had from this office. 
Let us remind readers to send their full names 
and post office addresses when asking questions. 
Many things can be better answered by mail 
than in print. 

How to Do Up Shirt Bosoms. — Take two 
tablespoons best starch, add a very little water 
to it, rub and stir with a spoon into a thick 
paste, carefully breaking all the lumps and par- 
ticles. Add a pint of boiling water, stirring at 
the same time; boil half an hour, stirring occa- 
sionally to keep it from burning. Add a piece 
of "enamel" the size of a pea; if this is not at 
hand use a tablespoonful gum arabic solution, 
(made by pouring boiling water upon gum ara- 
bic and standing until clear and transparent), 
or a piece of clean mutton tallow half the size 
of a nutmeg, and a teaspoon of salt will do, but 
it is not as good. Strain the starch through a 
strainer or a piece of thin muslin. Have the 
shirt turned wrong side out; dip the bosoms 
carefully in the starch and squeeze out, repeat- 
ing the operations until the bosoms are thor- 
oughly and evenly saturated with the starch; 
proceed to dry. Three hours before ironing dip 
the bosoms in clean water; wring out and roll 
up tightly. First iron the back by folding it 
lengthwise through the center; next, iron the 
wristbands and both sides of the sleeves; then 
the collar- band; now place the bosomboard un- 
der the bosom, and with a dampened napkin 
rub the bosom from the top towards the bottom, 
smoothing and arranging each plait neatly. 
With a smooth, moderately hot iron, begin at 
top and iron downward, and continue the oper- 
ation until the bosom is perfectly dry and shin- 
ing. Remove the bosomboard and iron the 
front of the shirts. The bosoms and cuffs of 
shirts, indeed of all nice, fine work, will look 
clearer and better if they are first ironed under 
a piece of thin old muslin. It takes off the 
first heat of the iron and removes any lumps of 
starch. 

Potatoes. — Those grown on virgin soil, of a 
middle size, and floury, are to be preferred. 
They should be as nearly as possible of one size, 
well washed, but not pared. They should be 
put into a vessel of cold water for an hour, then 
put into fresh water, and boiled in a kettle or 
saucepan, closely covered, in the most expedi- 
tious manner possible; or they should be steam- 
ed, which would be still better. If boiled, no 
more water should be used than merely to 
cover them, as they produce a considerable 
quantity^ of fluid. When they are done, the 
water should be instantly poured off, and the 
kettle containing the cooked potatoes placed 
on the side of the fire with a cover on, and a 
cloth over them, until the steam is absorbed, 
and rendered quite dry and mealy before they 
are sent to the table. 



To Remove Ink from Carpets. — When 
freshly-spilled, ink can be removed from car- 
pets by wetting in milk. Take cotton batting 
and soak up all the ink that it will receive, 
being careful not to let it spread. Then take 
fresh cotton wet in milk, and sop it up carefully. 
Repeat this operation, changing cotton and milk 
each time. After most of the ink has been 
taken up in this way, with fresh cotton and 
clean, rub the spot. Continue until all disap- 
psars; then wash the spot in clean, warm water 
and a little soap, rinse in clear water, aud rub 
until nearly dry. For ink spots on marble, 
wood or paper, apply ammonia clear; just wet- 
ting the spot repeatedly till the ink disappears. 



24 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January u, 1879. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Annual Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, $1 25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
Firry cunts will be deducted. No nkw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by reps 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Avsrt181.no R1.TB8. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos 

Per line 25 .80 $2.00 $ 5.00 

Half inch (1 square). *1. 00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 



Quack Advertising positively declined. 



The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

W. B. KWBR. 1 O. n. STR( 



A. T. DKWBT. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January n, 1879. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS. — CI ydesdale Horses; Irrigation in Col- 
orado; What do Hops Cost? 17, The Week; Agricul 
tural Review, 24. Daih Growth i f Fat Cattle; A 
frestibal TricUon Engirt Eittirg Honc\ \icld and 
of Olives, 25. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Imported Clydesdale Stallion 
"Kiny of the East," 17- Neville & Co 's Bag Factory 
21. An Improved Road Locomotive or Traction En 
(fine, 25. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY. - Enterprise 
Grange; Grain Shipping and the Warehouse Law; Elec- 
tion of Officers; Pleasant Memories of the Grange; Wal- 
nut Creek Grange, 20. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES — Red, but not Rust; 
Sea bland Cotton, 24. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 21. 

CORRESPONDENCE — Results of Five Years' Irri- 
gation— Fresno County Ranches; Large Oranges; Cost 
of Artesian Wells, 18." 

SHEEP AND WOOL.-Tne Wool Clip of 1878, 18. 

THE DAIRY. —Churn Slowly (poetry); Dairy Fann- 
ing in California. 18-19. 

HORTICULTURE.- Frost and Fruit, 19. 

HOME CIRCLE — The Evening Hearthstone; Pom- 
granate Blossom (poetry); Our Obligations to the Dumb 
Animals; Woman's Love; Her Rose Garden; Pleasant 
Evenings, 22. The Influence of Home; High Life; 
Woman's Devotion; A Child Carried Off by a Hog, 23. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -A Bear-back Ride; 
Squire Boastful, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH — Milk in Medicine; Sugar; Brain 
Poisoned by Tobacco; Deprivation of Solar Light; Weak 
Eves, 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Mush, Et«. ; Filter; How 
to do Bp Shirt Bosoms; Potatoes; To Remove Ink from 
Carpels, 23. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

iSTThos. Meherin. S. F. , Agent for B. S. Fox's Nurse- 
ries. 4dTFor Sale— Berkshire Boar "Blackbird," Alfred 
Parker, Hellota, Cal. £3*Oakland Poultry Yards, Geo. B. 
Baylcy, Prop'r. £S"Celebrated Fischer Piano, Kohler Si 
Chase, S. K. f&The Lawrence Engine, Armington & 
Sims, Lawrence, Mass. aaTErtel Economy Hay Press 
it3T"Sharp!ess" Seedling Strawberry £2TBenson, Maule 
& Co., Philadelphia, dealers in Seeds. £-jFBlack Ham- 
burg Fowls For Sale, M. Collingridge, San Lcandro. Cal. 
itaTTrees, Plants, Shrubs, Etc., Santa Clara Valley Nur- 
series, San Jose, Cal, Bernard S Fox, Prop'r. ik>"Glid- 
den's Patent Steel Barb Fence Wire, Jones k Givens, Gen- 
oral Agents, Sacramento, Cal. 4-irFlower and Garden 
Seeds, Trees, Etc., Geo. F. Silvester, S. F. 0"Dividend 
Notice— Hibernia Savings and Loen Society, S. F. ^"Div- 
idend Notice — San Francisco Savings Union. 



Agricultural Review. 

As we go rapidly forward into another year of 
California agriculture, it is proper to pause for 
a moment for a review of the season just closed. 
It has proved a season of alternate favor and 
disfavor, to the agriculturist. Losses, speaking 
generally, have been few and profits small. Ou 
the average, the year was one of general com- 
fort and plenty without profusion, either in 
growth or money receipts. In many respects 
the year has given gratifying signs of heath - 
ful growth and progress in our leading industrial 
interest, and advancement of our people toward 
a better standard, both in public and private 
affairs. The mistakes which have been made 
in farm practice, and the gross evils which have 
been disclosed in public service, will both serve 
as correctives for the future ; dearly bought, per- 
haps, but valuable if duly applied as lessons, 
both for individual and public life. 

The course of the leading cereal during the 
year, has been a vexed one. Injured in many 
parts by excess of water, torn up by overflow 
and the wash from hillsides, and then attacked 
by the scourge of rust, in districts where the 
plague has not been known before for years, the 
wheat which finally reached the market has 
met a sorry depression of prices from harvest, 
until the present moment. Notwithstanding 
these drawbacks, the aggregate of wheat ship- 
ped to this city during the year has reached a 
very respectable figure, although somewhat 
inferior to the receipts during 1870. It must, 
however, be remembered that the low prices 
have induced many growers to hold their wheat 
for better prices, and the improvement of the 
warehouse facilities in the interior, has enabled 
them to do so to better advantage than formerly. 
These facts make it appear that the receipts at 
this port do more than partially represent the 
year's crop, when compared with the earlier 
marketed crop of 1876. The receipts and 
exports of wheat in this city for several years, 
have been as follows : 



Exports. 
7,546,207 ctls. 
9.920,117 " 
4,901,756 " 
8,069,131 " 



The Week. 

For another week the confident "norther" 
lias gone along rolling up charges against the 
south wind, and all are watching with deep in- 
terest to see how the southern debtor will 
liquidate these protracted credits. If, indeed, 
a law of compensation prevails, there will be 
mighty downpours before the winter gales oan 
give plaoe to summer trade winds. It is a nota- 
ble fact that while the north of the State awaits 
its accustomed drenching, the southern counties 
are enjoying bountiful gifts from the clouds. 
Storms which usually fly northward and do 
their heaviest work around the bay and in the 
upper oounties, have halted this year and filled 
the whole ooast tier of counties from San Diego 
to Monterey with rejoicings and anticipations 
of abundant crops. At this complexion of af- 
fairs the whole State will rejoice, for, generally 
speaking, the north can take care of itself me- 
teorologically, and when the south is favored, 
the round of plenty and comfort is complete. 
It is true that the great San Joaquin country is 
not yet provided for, and the hopes of all are for 
the early wetting of her lands, for moderately 
early water is essential to her full production. 
But in the great valley there has been an un- 
usual amouut of dry work done, and the first 
rains will give life to a wide acreage of grain. 
There will be a rush with late work when 
the rain does come, but the record of the val- 
ley for the year just closed, shows that heavy 
products can follow, even when rain is delayed 
beyond the middle of January. 



Receipts. 

1875 7,676,007 ctls. 

1876 10.516.913 " 

1877 5,169,494 " 

1878 o,357,203 " 

To arrive at the total value of our wheat ex- 
ports, it is proper to add the value of the flour 
shipments abroad. The following are the 

figures: 

Valuation of wheat and flour. 
1876 $16,484,642 

1876 18,564,525 

1877 13,609,304 

1878 17,103,905 

The course of barley thus far has hardly 
been as bright as Eastern short-crop led Cali- 
fornia growers to anticipate. The considerable 
yield of feed barley, the increase in the oat 
crop and the cheapness of hay have kept the 
mangers well filled, and low prices have been 
unavoidable. Bright brewing samples have as 
usual lifted themselves well above average rates 
and will doubtless appreciate until another har- 
vest is gathered. The following table gives the 
receipts at this port of the minor grains and 
other products for the closing halves (July to 
December) of the last three years: 

1876. 1877. 1878. 

Barley, ctls 1,100,216 664,667 1,160,235 

Oats, ctls 167,563 87,878 210,809 

Wool, bis 79,930 69,156 58,752 

Corn, sks 99,525 86,822 123,697 

Hay, bis 371,493 *46,414 *46,615 

Potatoes, sks 600,^11 424,742 378,557 

Beans, sks 85,831 52,135 163,030 

Hops, bis 6,369 6,245 4,826 

•Tons. 

The year has been a notable one in the flow 
of both milk and honey, but in both products 
producers have had to mourn the low prices 
which were attainable. Butter and cheese were 
never lower nor held a low mark so long. The 
price was depressed more than the increased 
yield from the cows could compensate. No out- 
let was available because of the still cheaper 
rates which prevailed in other producing re- 
gions, and the imports of cheap packed butter 
from Utah, and the East, acted as an additional 
lever to push down the price on our pickled 
roll. The consumption has, however, stood up 
well, and the deferred rains have given oppor- 
tunity for clearing the cellars. Thus, forget- 
ting the low remuneration which the producer 
experienced during the last year, he begins a 
new year with a promising market, and good 
rates will probably be gained for all the fresh 
roll which can be brought in early. Cheese has 
held a most monotonous course for months, and 
stocks held back in the curing rooms have pre- 
vented any advance. We need above all things 
a field for the export of cheese, as we have fre- 
quently declared in these columns. The local 



consumption doea not meet the facts and possi 
bilities of production. 

No industry of our State has more clearly 
Bhown the spirit of perseverance and enterprise 
than our honey interest. Struggling with th< 
disasters of the drouth of 1S77, quickly restor 
ing the decimated apiaries, the producers hav 
sent forward already a surplus of the finest 
honey in the world, which, by its very abnn 
dance, has crowded itself almost down to nomi 
nal value. Vigorous assault has been made uj 
on the markets abroad both by special represen 
tatives and by shipments' of fine samples, butth 
chief result thus farieached has been a wealth 
of slander. This, however, cannot endure. Th 
peerless honey will win its own victory ere 
long, and words of abuse will be as beeswax in 
the mouths of those who uttered them. It 
not the nature of such enterprise as our bee 
keepers display to fail. 

It is a matter of congratulation that the vine 
yard interests of the State are looking up most 
hopefully. There is testimony of the excellence 
of the raisins made in widely diverse regions 
and the progress in placing the product in new 
markets is gratifying. There is much fragrant 
and blooming evidence coming forward from 
many vineyards that the United States has no 
need of the European product. Perhaps the 
more notable improvement may be found in th 
increased demand and price for native wines 
The interior cellars have been searched an. 
emptied. The shipments by water during 1878 
were one-third more than in 1877, and the 
movemeut is believed to be just beginning. It 
will give new life to the productive interests of 
the grape counties and give ready money for 
much stock which has been held in hope for 
the victory of pure native juice over the refuse 
from Europe and the vile decoctions of the eel 
lar chemist. But now as the vineyard interest 
•mproves, there should be renewed efforts 
against its insiduous foes — the phylloxera. Let 
not this obscure destroyer sap the foundations 
of an industry which have been laid with so 
much pains and with such protracted waiting 
for recognition of merit. 

Of wool growing and stock feeding there is 
little to say, save that the change in these in- 
dustries from the system of limitless ranges to 
the system of greater care and higher feeding is 
still in pr<4gress. The cultivated area is still 
rapidly encroaching upon the open plains and 
hillsides. The receipts of wool given above and 
the review in another column show that the 
year has been one of small things, rather than 
large. The outlook now is in favor of those who 
labor for quality and high price in their wool, 
rather than in quantity, and we are gratified to 
see that the inquiry for means and agencies to 
accomplish the improvement of our sheep is 
active. 

In general prosperty, our State has advanced 
full point during the year. Never before 
have the bonds which hold large areas been found 
so willing to unloose, and never before have 
small lots of land been held so near purchasers 
or given to them on such favorable terms. The 
colony enterprises have established many homes, 
and sales by individuals have somewhat 
reduced the area of the large holdings. This ii 
a hopeful movement, and we trust it will go 
until the land is all reduced to manageable 
farms, and dotted with farm houses containing 
happy families. In this way our State will at- 
tain its development, and there will be at hand 
the force and opportunity for the establishment 
of many useful industries which are now 
impossible here. The Pacific coast States are 
going forward. Their progress is not at the hot 
and headlong haste which ruled a few years 
ago, and which had much of instability in its 
character. We are now on a better basis, of 
content with moderate but enduring rewards, 
of economy which ends in comfort and compe- 
tence. And yet, though we are going slow and 
safely, the progress is after all most notable. 
Already the vast country of our southeast is 
opening up markets for California productions. 
The railroad builder is awake and promises 
within another year or two to bolt his rails 
beside the Gulf of Mexico and thus give Cali- 
fornia another route to the East, — another high- 
way to the nations around the Atlantic ocean. 
Thus, in both individual and public enterprises, 
due progress is being made, and this is the 
surety that those who are now wisely investing 
in California farm lands for use, and not to hold 
for speculation, are equipping themselves for an 
active and promising industrial future. 



Queries \hd Relies. 



Red, but not Rust 

Editors Press :— While putting in my sum- 
mer-fallow grain, I found the ground covered in 
places with a substance resembling rust. When 
I first noticed it, I thought it was caused by 
fire in burning off etuble, but on closer examina- 
tion I found it not to be the case. Since the 
late rains, 1 have been plowing ground that was 
in grain this last summer, that was very badly 
injured by the rust, and in places where the 
grain was injured the most, I found the most of 
this substance in the soil. I think it is the 
general opinion, at least, among farmers, that 
rust is caused by damp and hot weather. John- 
son's Cyclopedia says, it injures the stalk and 
leaf, but says nothing about the roots being 
effected. 

I think we must look for some other cause 
and effect. A great deal of the grain this last 
season turned from a dark green to nearly ripe 
in a few weeks' time, and so badly injured as to 
be hardly worth cutting ; but the rust was hard- 
ly perceptible on the stalk and leaf, and to ac- 
count for the injury to the grain, I have heard 
persons say it was caused by a small worm in 
the joint. Since then I have examined a good 
many joints, but can find no evidence that there 
have ever been any worms in them. I find that 
this rust, or whatever it may be, penetrates 
the ground as deep as I plow, about four inches ; 
how much deeper I do not know, as that is as 
deep as the ground has been wet. The old roots 
are so thickly coated, that by drawing them 
through the fingers it leaves the color. 1 think 
the roots are affected first, then the rust 
gradually ascends the stalk. I have had over 
'20 years experience in farming here, and have 
never had my wheat injured by rust until this 
season. I have never known this substance in 
the soil before, and I cannot but think that it 
has caused the wide-spread injury to the grain 
crops of Yolo and other counties. I will send 
you a sample for your inspection. I hope that 
if you think my views are incorrect, you wiU be 
able to give some satisfactory explanation. — S. 
B. Holton, Madison, Yolo Co., Dec. 25th. 

We received this specimen and entered upon 
the examination with much interest, because, 
as our correspondent states, in the descriptions 
of the rust fungus no mention ia made, as far as 
we have read, of its occurrence upon the root 
of the grain plant. The first glance was in 
approval of our correspondent's inference 
because, as he says, the roots were seen to be 
thickly coated with the red substance. A few 
tests, however, soon dispelled the idea. The 
microecope showed the red substance to have 
no marks of the red s]>orea of the rust fungus, 
and the application of heat showed that the 
material was indeed not vegetable but mineral. 
We had no time to apply chemical tests, and 
cannot speak certainly of its ultimate composi- 
tion, but it is probably an earthy deposit gain- 
ing its red color from the oxide of iron. At all 
events, it is not the rust of wheat, because 
that is known to be a parasitic plant and this 
is a mineral or inorganic substanoe. Inorganic 
are distinguished from organic by the applica- 
tion of strong heat, which chars the latter, re- 
ducing it to charcoal. If our correspondent 
desires to test the point for himself, he may 
separate some of the red substance, with the 
aid of a hand magnifier, put it in a glass tube, 
closed at one end, and hold the tube in the 
flame of an alcohol lamp. He will find that it 
is unchanged by the heat, even though heated 
to redness. If he then picks out a piece of 
a grain root and heats it in the same way, he 
will see it turn to charcoal quickly. If he has 
not the convenience for such a test, he may 
heat some of the earth on a fire-shovel over the 
coals; the grain roots will be charred and the 
red substance unchanged. By thus putting it 
out of the vegetable kingdom the possibility of 
its being grain rust is decided in the negative, 
and our reader's deductions from his observa- 
tion are incorrect. 

Grain is sometimes turned prematurely ripe 
and ruined by a worm operating in the stem, and 
by other insects. There might also be other 
causes. Where grain is destroyed by rust, 
there is abundant manifestation of the rusty 
plague on the leaves and stems. 

Concerning the occurrence of the red sub- 
stance in our correspondent's field, and his not 
having noticed it before, we can but conjecture, 
and the conclusion might not be of much im- 
portance. The inference would be that it has 
been there always and its existence overlooked. 
Sea Island Cotton. 
Editors Press:— I promised to report to you 
about the Sea Island cotton you sent me. It at- 
tained a hight of »bout three feet, when an 
early frost caught it in fuU bloom and killed it 
have some of the seed left; will try again earlier 
and report to you.— R. M. Dunoan, Santa Ana, 
Los Angeles county. 



January n, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC 1U1IL PRESS. 



Breed. 


Lbs. 


Days 


Daily 




Weight. 


Old. 


Gain. 


Short Hon) 


2,085 


1,880 


1.10 




2,440 


1,902 


1.28 




2,115 


1,280 


1.65 




2,060 


1,220 


1.68 




1,706 


969 


1.76 




1,600 


978 


1.63 




1,480 


650 


2.28 




1,275 


607 


1.90 




2,075 


1,721 


1.26 




1,285 


1,188 


1.08 


Hereford 


2,000 


2,692 


.75 




1,705 


1,336 


1.20 




1,760 


1,356 


1.29 




1,470 


1,080 


1.36 




1,715 


2,092 


.82 


Devon 


1,645 


1,658 


.98 




1,870 


1,652 


1.13 




1,655 


1,371 


1.20 




1,475 


1,267 


1.16 


Grade 


2,750 


2,058 


1.69 




2,830 


2,033 


1.79 




2,185 


1,307 


1.66 




2,305 


1,277 


1.80 




1,885 


958 


1.96 




1,500 


958 


1.62 




1,420 


596 


2.38 



Daily Growth of Fat Cattle, 

During last month there was a fat stock 
show at Chicago, at which animals were shown 
by a number of the leading stock breeders and 
feeders of the Mississippi valley. In connec- 
tion with the premiums awarded, are state- 
ments of the days of age of each animal and 
the weight at the show. From these may be 
determined the average daily gain in weight 
upon a fattening diet. We compile therefrom 
facts which will interest all stock feeders. 
These facts will be the more convenient for 
comparison if thrown in tabular form : 
Animal. 

4-yr-old stoer 

4-yr " " 

3-yr " " 

3-yr *' " 

2-yr " " 

2- yr " " 
1-yr - « 

1- yr " " 

3- yr " cow 

3- yr " " 

4- yr " steer 
3-yr " " 

3- yr " " 

2- yr " " 
3 yr " oow 

4- yr " steer 
4-yr " " 

3- yr » " 

3- yr " " 

4- yr " " 
4-yr " " 
3-yr " " 
3-yr " " 
2-yr " " 
2-yr " " 
1-yr " * 

The deductions from the table which we have 
prepared are several. On its face it is a vic- 
tory for the Short Horns among 
the thoroughbreds, for the 
Short Horn animals shown 
made an average daily of 1.6G 
lbs., against 1.15 lbs. for the 
Herefords and 1.11 for the 
Devons. How many consider- 
ations not in the figures must 
be taken into account we do 
not know, but we suppose 
there are several. For ex- 
ample, Mr. Miller, of Beucher, 
111., eomes to the rescue of 
his Herefords with the state- 
ment that he took the animals 
off rough pasture and only fed 
them high since June 1st, 
while the Short Horns had 
been kept up from birth on a 
high feeding system. Next 
year Mr. Miller will have op- 
portunity to test the strength 
of his claim by putting his 
animals through a longer 
course of preparation. 

From the table plainly ap- 
pears that which experienced 
animal feeders know well, but 
which others are apt to over- 
look, and that is the pecuniary 
advantage of fitting animals for marketing 
young. Throughout the list it will be seen 
that as a rule the daily gain of the animals 
increases as the age decreases. This rule 
applies in fattening all kinds of domestic ani- 
mals. It was the last pound which broke the 
camel's back, and it is the later pounds which 
reduce the profit on fattening animals. Push 
an animal from birth if possible, never let it get 
a setback, and then market it as soon as it is 
large enough to reach the top price per pound. 
Then there will be feed left to put another 
young animal on its quickly growing course. 

It is noticeable that the greatest weight for a 
■ingle animal and the largest gain per day fall 
into the line of the graded animals and not the 
thoroughbreds. As this was a show of indi- 
vidual animals, there might have been some 
hidden influence to work out their especial size; 
but the deduction is, at all events, toward the 
encouragement of those who have graded stack 
to prepare for the market, and perhaps for the 
promotion of the growing idea of the advantage 
of bringing the thoroughbred form and disposi- 
tion upon the vigor of the native stock, by 
using thoroughbred bulls of proper quality to 
meet the desired ends in breeding. 

We trust the study of these figures will in- 
duce some of our breeders and feeders to apply 
the soale test more generally to their own en- 
deaTors, and thus gain a truer idea of the profit 
to be gained by different methods and policies. 
It may make all the difference between profit 
and loss, whether an animal we are feeding is 
making fourteen or five cents' worth of meat, 
per day. Study up this point in your herds, 
and let us krAw your conclusions. 



Eating Honey. — "Your folks must like 
honey pretty well," said our grocer to us the 
other day as we called for the fourth comb 
within a few days from the first. Our grocer is 
right. We do like honey, and the editor's wife 
finds that a dish of handsome delicious bee- 
work is always ready to be set out at lunch or 
other times, and thus answers one great need 
of the housekeeper. The fact plainly is, that 
honey is not properly appreciated by the mass 
of housekeepers and trenchermen. It is true 
that some systems do not take kindly to it, 
but the many can find in it delicious and noui- 
ishing food. We vote for the rapid extension 
of the use of honey upon our tables. Let it 
follow the butter in its prevalence. If this 
were done our beekeeping friends would laugh 
for joy. We are doing what we can with a 
small family to increase the consumption. Let 
others bring their longer tables to the task. 



Lectures at the College of Agriculture. 
— The class in practical agriculture at the State 
University, Berkeley, met for the first exercise 
of the new term, on Thursday, Jan. 9th, at 11 
o'clock, and a lecture was delivered by Prof. 
Hilgard. During the weeks to come there 
will be a continuance of Mr. Dwinelle's 
lectures on practical agriculture, on Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday of each week at 11 a. 
m. The subject for Monday, Jan. 13th, will 
be "the objects of soil cultivation from a me- 
chanical point of view." After that will fol- 
low a series of lectures on irrigation and drain- 

■ 



A Practical Traction Engine. 

[Written for the Press by C. W. M.] 
The subject of transportation by means of 
the road-locomotive, or traction-engine as it is 
called, has occupied the attention of engineers 
in all parts of the world. It is believed that 
California has produced a machine that stands 
among the best forms of the road-locomotive ; 
from late tests it appears to be one of the most 
practicable engines of this class that has ever 
been introduced. 

The accompanying engraving represents one 
of these machines, on three wheels, all of which 
are propelled by beveled gearing. 

The following are the principal dimensions : 
Boiler — length over all, 10 feet ; boiler, diame- 
ter of shell, 48 inches ; boiler, thickness of 
shell, \ inch ; boiler, fire box sheets, § inch; 
load on driving wheels, 2,300 pounds; steam 
cylinders, diameter, 8 inches; stroke of pis- 
tons, 12 inches ; revolutions of crank to one 
of driving wheels, 10; driving wheels, diameter 
72 inches ; driving wheels, breadth of tire, 12 
inches. 

The boiler is a new and peculiar multitubular 
arrangement, which makes steam as fast as re- 
quired, from a comparatively small amount of 
water, doing away with considerable bulk and 
weight. There are two engines mounted on top 
of the boiler ; the crank-shafts are coupled and 
the cranks are set quartering to avoid the pos- 
sibility of ever stopping on the center; the bed 
plates have the cross-head guides cast solid with 
the bed; and the cylinders are secured in sliding 
bearings fastened by flanges to boiler-brackets ; 
by this means the expansion and contraction of 
the boiler is accommodated, avoiding a consider- 
able strain on the engines. The driving-gears 



der- 
da, 




AN IMPROVED ROAD LOCOMOTIVE, OR TRACTION ENGINE. 



age. The times of lectures may be changed if 
the wishes of the class demand it, but due no- 
tice will be given of any change which may be 
made. These lectures are open to all, and all 
are invited to be present. 



On File. — "Pacific Coast Cone Bearers," J. 
G. L. ; "Tree Peddlers," G. H. ; "Finding the 
Corners," J. M. K. ; "Capillary Attraction," 
B. D. H. ; "English Sparrow," C. V. R. ; 
"Suckerless Plum Stock," R. ; " The Plaint of 
the Thresher," G. W. T. C. ; "Burning out 
Chimneys," G. B. ; "Poultry Yard," C. A. P. ; 
"Citrus Family Fair," G. K. M. ; "Thoughts 
when at Work," J. B. A. ; "Fresno Couuty 
Notes," J. W. A. W. ; "Healdsburg Grange,'^ 
E. H. K. 



Seeds and Plants. — George F. Silvester, the 
long established Washington-street seedsman and 
florist, comes before our readers with a new 
card in our advertising columns this week. Mr. 
Silvester has a good name in his business, and 
his old friends among the Rural readers will 
be interested in his new announcement. His 
store and plant benches on Washington street 
near Battery, San Francisco, are worth a visit. 



Cold Bleach on Hops. — We believe some of 
our readers tried the "cold bleach" on their 
hops last summer. What sucoess did they gain 
with it? It seems to have fallen into disfavor 
in New York. Emmet Wells, in his circular 
says : "As for the cold bleach process, we never 
took any stock in it. All hops we have seen 
cured under this process present a dull, deadly 
appearance. " 



or angle-shafts, are on each side of the machine 
as shown, and are driven by the beveled pinions 
on each end of the engine shaft. The angle- 
shafts run in angle bracket-boxes, so that one 
pair of shafts having beveled pinions run the 
forward wheel -gears, and the other pair of angle- 
shafts also have beveled pinions that drive 
beveled wheels secured to the rear traction 
wheels. The forward driving gears are keyed 
to the outer ends of the forward axle, or 
driving shaft, more properly speaking, 
as the latter drives the forward or steering 
wheel, but at the same time allowing it to be 
moved in an arc of a circle sideways at any 
angle desired for steering the machines. This 
is accomplished by means of a ball and socket 
joint in the hub of this wheel. 

This ball and socket joint is the most ingeni- 
ous part of the whole machine, and to accom- 
plish the work of driving the wheel in all posi- 
tions, a number of steel keys are fitted in the 
ball, and projecting to work in slots cut in the 
shell or casing of the ball. 

This casing has projecting faces with revolv- 
ing rings on each side of the wheel, and to 
these rings are bolted arms on each side run- 
ning back to a gear segment, operated by a 
pinion on the end of an upright spindle or shaft 
with a hand-wheel at the top, just in front of 
the steersman's seat; here the man piloting the 
machine has control of the throttle valve and 
reverse lever. 

This is the first instance in which the steering 
wheel has been made to propel the machine; 
and it can be made to do the work independent 
of the hind wheels, in case of necessity; as for 
instance when both hind wheels become mired, 
or get into quicksand, or deep ruts in the road. 
This is accomplished by having self-adjustable 
clutches on the hind wheel shaft, also for back- 
ing, etc. 

In all of the traction engines heretofore built, 
only two wheels have been employed to propel 
the machine, but in this invention all of the 
wheels on which it runs are traction wheels, 
and more than three may be employed if de- 



sired. This machine was used for a c 
able length of time in the State of 
hauling ore and other freight from 
mills, etc., running up mountainous . /ads 
(where mule teams had been used); the grade 
being in some instances 530 feet to the mile, 
and hauling ten tons on wagons at a speed of 
two and one-half miles per hour. After work- 
ing for one company until their mines gave out, 
the machine was brought to Sacramento, where 
it was employed in house moving and other 
heavy work. 

The Sacramento Wood Co. have recently 
bought a Pacific coast interest in this invention, 
and have put the machine to a very severe 
test, showing its ability to haul heavy freight 
in a successful manner. Capt. J. Roberts, the 
leading spirit of the company, took this ma- 
chine up the Sacramento river on one of their 
steamers, and landing in Colusa county, where 
they run regular trips back into the country, a 
distance of 16 miles, taking freight from the 
steamer, and bringing wheat back, they loaded 
six Bain header wagons with 300 sacks of grain, 
also hauling one extra Bain header wagon con- 
taining a tank in which they took 615 gallons 
of water, besides H tons of coal, making over 
24 tons total freight in wagons; the machine 
also carried tanks secured at each side of the 
boiler, these holding 250 gallons of water. 
Five miles of the road was very dusty, and full 
of ruts, we had several sloughs to cross, making 
a very severe test of the traction power of the 
machine. But if the roads are level, hard and 
free from ruts, the machine is capable of haul- 
ing 35 tons at a speed of three miles per 
hour. 

The machine works admirably as to pulling 
or traction qualities. The machine weighed 
on the scales — having steam up and 250 gallons 
of water in the tanks, also coal in the cab — 11J 
tons total weight. 

Capt. Roberts' Company has 
plenty of work for a large num- 
ber of these machines, as they 
haul freight from various points 
throughout the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin valleys to their 
steamboats and barges on the 
rivers. 

This traction engine will run 
over any kind of ground; it can 
enter any farmer's field, plow 
his ground, and at the proper 
time haul away his grain or 
other freight, running in any 
direction without reference to 
depots or tracks that at pres- 
ent are so necessary for the 
transportation business of the 
country. 

From the recent trial of this 
engine, the constructing en- 
gineer deduced the following 
conclusions: A traction engine, 
or road locomotive, may be con- 
structed upon this plan, so as 
to be easily and rapidly man 
o?uvred, hauling a long line of 
freight wagons on the ordinary 
roads, and turning without dif- 
ficulty on a circle such as are 
common at all cross-roads. 

A locomotive weighing six 
tons is capable of hauling 25,- 
000 pounds up a grade of 525 
feet to the mile at a speed of 3^ 
miles an hour. The traction- 
power of the machine tested 
was equal to 30 horses. 
The coefficient of traction was shown to be 
about 0.5 ; the weight that could be drawn on 
a perfectly smooth and level road was 175,000 
pounds; this is exclusive of the weight of the 
engine, and the amount of fuel required is esti- 
mated at 500 pounds a day. In handling the 
machine the most experienced and skillful men 
are required. The difference between the per- 
formances of the same engine in different hands 
was 12%. 

It is estimated that the expense in heavy 
hauling by steam is 25% less than the cost of 
horse-power on an ordinary road. A much 
larger and more powerful machine is now Lein^ 
built for the company by Root, Neilson & Co., 
Sacramento. The inventor is Mr. R. R. Doan, 
who commenced many years ago to study the 
problem of substituting steam power for animal 
power on the highways and for farm use. 
After years of toil and the expenditure of a 
large amount of money, building the machine 
in several styles, he has profited by the expe- 
rience, and we believe that he has accomplished 
the desired result, in the road locomotive 
represented by our engraving. 



The Bay Nurseries.— These old established 
nurseries at Oakland, owned by J. Hutchison, 
are still holding a leading place in the patron- 
age of tree and flower purchasers. Mr. Hutch- 
ison's enterprise in making a display of plants 
and flowers at the late Mechanics' fair, for 
which he was awarded two premiums, shows 
his public spirit, and the excellence of his stock. 
Mr. Hutchison's catalogue should be con- 
sulted by all planters. 

TriE New York Sun speaks of the Sandwich 
Islands as having leaped, in the last half cen- 
tury, from barbarism to civilization. Queen 
Emma presents a greater advance over Kam- 
ehameha II. than Queen Victoria over William 
the Conquerer. 



26 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January n, 1879. 



IVrciiaskrs ok Stock will ram in this Dirkctory thk 
Na.mrs ok bom* ok tiik Most Rrliahlk. Brkkdkhh. 

Oi r Katkb — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, 0*1 Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Durham Cattle, Spanish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, S2S Front street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near I'etaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
Bex and Berkshire Swine 



Stock Notices. 



BERKSHIRES. 




■ Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince, 
"Sambo," and "Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Alderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed as represented and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdow 
Sheep. Ranis and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $10 each 
Lambs, 415 each. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



BURBANK & MEYERS. 4.3 California Market. S 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry 
Dot's, etc. Ecgs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Imports, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



W & J. ROBINSON, Hanford, Tulare Co., Cal., Im 
porters and Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshire Swine 
and Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. Trios a specialty. 



Poultry. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 




116 Acres 

DRVOTRD TO 

FANCY 

POULTRY' 

Brahmas, Leghorn: 
keys, Geese, Pekin Du 

tarSaJe arrival of Fawlx and Eggs <iuaranteed."G% 

OTPamphlet on the care of fowls hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc., adaitkd esi k.cially to tub 
Pacikic Coast. Sent for 1;> cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal 



Unlimited Range, 

Healthy Stock 



Largest Yards 
"fei on the Coast 

Roek9, Bronze Tur- 
Pigs, Etc. 



EVERYBODY KNOWS 

That Mrs. C. II. Sprague, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sendinc* orders to her. 



NEW MUSIC! NEW MUSIC! 



At Gray's No. 105 Kearny Street, 



On receipt of the amount in postage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, post-paid: 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, 35 cts 

BABY MINE, (Schottischc) Stuckenholz, 35 eja, 

EM METT'S LULLABY, (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 35 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schottische) Far West, 35 cts 

THK SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song) Harriott, 85 cts 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chaunccy, 75 cts. 

GOLDEN OPHIR, (Galop). Yankc, 50 cts 



Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 




t3T State where fOD saw this advertisement. "d 



TRUNKS! 



TRUNKS ! 



J oh.ii ITorgro ve, 

Manufacturer, Importer ami l»ealer in 

Trunks, Valises, and Traveling Bags, 

At prices to suit the times. Repairing promptly done. 

12 Geary Street, - - San Francisco 

That EXCELLENT and widely circulated journal, the Pa- 
tiric Rural Press.— Ventura HiuaaL 



BERKSHIRE A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock arc recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cur 
resiMjndence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 

ISth and A streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 



SPRING VALE FARM, 

Three Miles N. W. of San Bernardino, Cal 




Thoroughbred Berkshire and Poland China 
Swine Light Brahma and Black Cochin 
Chickens for sale. T. C STARR. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Thirty head of handsome well-bred Pigs, aged from 
three months to one year, fir sale at reasonable prices. 
Each animal pedigreed and guaranteed as represented. 

AddreBS ALFRED PARKER, 

Bellota, San Joaquin County, California 



Seedsmen. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
•.""Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will be sent frrr to all Ci'stomrrs. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc 

R. J. TRUMBULL fit CO., 
410 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



1878-9. 

W. E. STRONG & CO., 

FIELD, GARDEN, LAWN and TREE 

SEEDS. 



Our stock is full, fresh and reliable. In these essential 
particulars we claim to be unexcelled. 

We have largely increased our list of varieties, having 
imported from the very best growers both in the East and 
Europe 

Garden and Flower Seeds 

Put up in small packages for the RETAIL TRADE, as 
also in bulk. All DEALERS IN SEEDS will find it for 
their interest to send their orders to us. We make 

specialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER, TIMOTHY, 

Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian 

Grass, Millet, Lawn Gr assess, Etc. 
Also, FLOWERING BULBS of every description. 
iaTCatalognes furnished free on application. Ttl 

— W» ALSO DO A — 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California Green and Dried Fruits, 
Nuts, Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 

Nos 6, 8 & 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO, Cal. 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 
Seed Warehouse, 

409 & 411 DAVIS STREET, 

San Francisco. 
ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

Keep constantly on hand the largest stock at FIELD 
GARDEN, CONIFER, or 

CALIFORNIA TREE SEEDS, 

On the Pacific Coast. Seeds all FRESH and GENUINE 
Our Stock is large, especially of the following varieties 

ALFALFA, BLUE GRASS, 

Red and White Clover, Red Top, Timothy, 
Australian Rye Grass, Mesquit Grass, 
Lawn Grass and Millet 8eeds 

Of different Varieties. Field Seeds, Mangle Wurzel and 
Sugar Beets, Rutabagas, Carrot 8eeds of all Varieties. 
Peas, lieans, etc. Our assortment of GARDEN and 
FLOWER SEEDS are full and complete. Also, FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES at Nursery Prices. 

30.000 Three-year-old JAPANESE PERSIMMON 
TREES for sale at I<owest Market Rates. For Catalogue, 
Price Lists, etc., apply as above. 



HERRMANN'S HATS 

ARE THE BEST! 




Try one and you will Wear no other. 

Fall and Winter Styles All In! 

— AT — 

336 Kearny St., bet. Bush and Pine, 

— AMD — 

910 Market St., above Stockton. 



DO 

valuable to ANY PERSON ! ronton. plat- 
In? the i>ur<*liitM«- of any article for rer» 
Donal, Family or Agricultural umc. We 
have done a large trade the nant neAnon 
* n the remote part* of the Territories, 



NOT FAIL 

to «<-iul for our 
< atitlogue. 1 1 
contains price h 
and rieMcrlntlon 
of mont every 
article In gen* 
ral uMe.and l« 



and have, with few exception*, exceed- 
ed the expectations of the purchaser, 
many claiming; to have niaoe a saving 



or 10 to 60 per cent 
< \T \ LOCtl FJ* TO ANY 



We mall theite 
. >V ADDRE8H, 
Kit I K. I POX APPLICATION. We sell 
our goods to all mankind at wholesale 
prlci-s In quantities to suit. Reference, 
First National Hank, Chicago. 

MONTGOMERY WARD Jt CO., 

Original Orange Supply House. 
1»7 4t »*» Wabash Ave., Chicago, 1 11. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By N. II. and H. A Kino. The latest work on the 
Apiary, embody ing accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent bv mail, post- 
paid, for fl DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome Street, S. F. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES. 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers in and 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable, 
FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS. 
Also, Flowkri.no Plants, Bi lks, Friit and 
Ornamental Trkks, Etc. 
JAPANESE PERSIMMON TKEES for sale at «50 |«r 
100; two to four feet in night. 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices. All seeds warranted 
frcsli, pure and reliale. £3TTrade 
price list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable 
ami Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast Jt is 
Handsomely Illustrated, and contains full descriptions of 
Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full in- 
structions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO. 

P. O. Box 1023. J 607 Sansome Street. S. F. 



EXOTIC GARDENS 

— AND — 

CONSERVATORIES. 

Mission St.. Opposite Woodwards' Gardens, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

F. A. Miller & Co., - - Proprietors. 

Have the most extensive collection of 

RARE PLANTS, TREES & SHRUBS. 

SEEDS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, BULBS AND 
BULBOUS PLANTS, AND A GENERAL VARIETY 
OF GARDEN AND HOUSE PLANTS. 

iWOur NEW CATALOGUE now ready for Mailing. 

Send for it. 

Cut Flowers, Bouquets and Funeral Work furnished on 
short notice and in the best style. 



E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 



A General Assortment of 

GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS 

Neatly put up in papers and packages with description of 
variety, general directions for cultivation on each pa|>er, 
and bearing my name, are for sale by responsible mer- 
chants throughout the Pacific States and Territories. 
My stock of 

CLOVER, GRASS, 

VEGETABLE, and Miscellaneous SEEDS, in bulk, is also 
large and complete. 

E, J. BOWEN, 

Seed Merchant and Importer, 
815 & 817 Sansome St , San Francisco- 



XX AITXTAY' S 

NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I wish to invite attention to my large-and well assorted 

stock cf 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Consisting in Part of Apple, Pear, Cherry 
Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricot, Almond, 
Nectarine and Olive Trees. 

Also, a full assortment of 

Small Fruits, Shade and Ornamental 
Trees and Plants. 

My Trees are Healthy, Stalky and well grown. 

JOHN HANNAY, 

Successor to Hansay Brothers), San Jose, California 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRE8H KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY. SWEET 
VERNAL, MKZOUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES. FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer ia Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 




LATIN 
EXTENSION SPRING BED. 

MANUFACTORY, 

1029 Market St., San Francisco, 
C. B. RICHMOND, PROP'R. 

Prices from $4 to $9, according to Size. 

We Challenge the World to produce a Bet- 
ter, Cheaper, Simpler, more Durable 
or Cleaner Bed than Ours. 



MANSION HOUSE, 

Corner of Hckter Strkbt and Wrbrr Atuit, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

A Strictly first-class Lodging House. Rooms neat and 
clean, by the day, week or mouth. 
MRS. M. A. HOLDEN, Proprietress 



on chromo, jierfiinied, Snowflakc* Lace cards, naruoou all 
DU 10c. Gams Authors, 15c. Lyuiau JtC'o., f iiutouville, u, 



January n, 1879.] 



TIE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



27 



Nurserymen. 



PRICES REDUCED! 

DIOSPYROS KAKI 

— OR — 

JAPANESE PERSIMMON. 




This new and popular fruit at prices to suit the times. 
Nine best varieties. Also Plants of the 

VEGETABLE WAX (Rhus Succedanea.) 

For Sale by HENRY LOOMIS, 
Nos. 419 & 421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 
Send for Circular. Good and reliable Agents wanted. 



Pacific Nurseries, 

Baker St. , between Lombard and Chestnut, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

FREDERICK LUDEMANN, - Proprietor. 

P. O. Box 010, San Francisco, Cal. 

CAMELLIAS, PALMS, CYPRESS, PINES, CEDAliS, 
RARE JAPAN AND AUSTRALIAN EVERGREENS, 
AND BLUE AND RED GUMS, (ASSORTED), 
ROSES OF ALL VARIETIES, 

Acacias, and Hardy Ornamental Plants. 

Our Specialty, PANSIES of the finest and latest German 
and French varieties. 

Orders carefully filled, packed and promptly forwarded 
at reasonable prices. 

For particulars and Catalogue apply as above. 




J. Hutchison's Nurseries. 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1852. 

An immense stock of new and rare Plants, Evergreens, 
Hardy and Ornamental Shrubbery. 

Cypress, for Hedges. 

ROSES, FUCHIAS, PINKS, ETC, ETC, 
In endless Variety, 

AT BEDROCK PRICES. 

SEEDS AND BULBS OF ALL KINDS. 

£2TSend for Catalogue. 151 




TREES ! 
"Trees and Plants, 

In large or small lots, both wholesale and retail at lowest 
rates at the CAPITAL NURSKKIES, SACRAMENTO. 
We have a large and complete assortment not only of all the 
Deciduous Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, 
Flowering Plants, Vines, etc., also, a complete assortment of 
Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Citron, etc., both seedlings and 
grafted of the beat known varieties, ranging in price from 20 
cts. to $1. 75 each. Many of our grafted trees now have fruit 
on them, and most of them may be expected to hear fruit 
the first and second year from planting. Sample Grounds, 
U and Sixteenth Sts. Tree Department, J and 7th Streets 
(near Court House.) Branch Yard at Auburn, Cal., also at 
our New Brauch Nursery, known as Change Hill, near 
Penryn. Send for Catalogue and Price List. Address, 
Capital Nurseries, Box 407, Sacramento, Cal., and at 
Auburn or Penryn, Placer County, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON & Co., Proprietors. 

SHINN'S NURSERIES. 

NILES, ALAME DA C OUNTY, CAL 

We invite attention to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the moBt approved varieties. Also, Coffee, Cork Oak t 
Olives, Guavas, English and Black Walnuts, Magnolias, 
Loquats, Butternuts, Small Fruits, Evergreens, Etc. We 
have a choice stock of the Diospyros Kaki (Japanese Persim- 
mon, J of our own growing, and also, grafted stock imported 
direct from several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. 418 California St., San Francisco, 
Or JAMES SHINN. Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 



GOOD CURE FOR HARD TIMES. 

A PLANTATION OF EARLY PROLIFIC 
and RELIANCE Raspberries. 

Ifin 000 p,al,t8 F0R SALE; also, 200,000 Cin- 
IUU|UUU derella and Continental Strawberry 
Plants. Millions of other Plants, Troes, etc. Everything 
miw, novbl and rare. Prices Low, Send for Descriptive 
Circular to GIBSON & BENNETT, Nurserymen 
and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, New Jersey. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES ! TREES ! 

I offer for sale this Season a large and full stock of 
market varieties of 

Pear, Apple, Cherry, Plum, Prune, 
and Peach Trees, 

Which will be sold CHEAP to all those that buy largely. 

Japanese, American and Italian 

PERSIMMON. 
Orange and Lemon Trees. 

MONARCH OF THE WEST STRAWBERRY PLANTS, 
KITTATINNY BLACKBERRY PLANTS, GRAPE- 
VINES AND SMALL FRUITS IN VARIETY. 

SHADE and ORNAMENTAL Trees. 

EVERGREENS AND PALMS. 

FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS. 

For a full list send for a Catalogue, which will be mailed 
FREE to all applicants. 

JOHN ROCK, 

San Jose, California. 



500,000 Blue Cum 

TREES, ETC., 

— For Sale by — 

BAILEY & CO., 



OFFICE and 
DEPOT, 

No. 1161 

Seventh St 



Adeline St. 

Station, 



[Eucalyptus Globulus, or Jtilue Hum Tree. J 
Cars from San Francisco Stop at Depot 
every Half Hour. 
Also, Nursery at Berkeley, at Dwight Way Station. 



MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 

We offer for sale a large and fine stock of pure 

Strawberry Plants. 

"Crescent Seedling," wonderfully productive, said to 
have yielded 15,000 quarts to the acre. "Miners' Great 
Prolific," extra large, late and firm; very productive. 
"Cinderella" and "Continental." Figured in Rural Press 
last season. "President Lincoln," eleven inches in cir- 
cumference. "Monarch of the West," "Great American," 
"Prouty's Seedling," "Duchesse," "Capt. Jack," "Kerr's 
Prolific," "Granger," "Star of the West," Duncan "Cum- 
berland Triumph," Somer's Ruby," "Seth Boyden," "Pres- 
ident Wilder," Springdale," etc. 

"Herstine," the most productive, "Highland Hardy," 
the earliest, RASPBERRIES. "Silva's Honing Olau- 
die," the earliest and best early Blue Plum in the world. 
New early and late Peaches. Send for descriptive circu- 
lar to C. M. SILVA & SON, 
Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



To Fruit Growers and 

NURSERYMEN ! 



Washburne & Reynolds, Ferndale, Hum- 
boldt County, California, 

For Roots of 

THE SALMON BERRY. 

Easily cultivated. Larger than the Blackberry, and 
equal to the Strawberry in flavor. Ripens from March to 
June, and grows in any soil. For particulars apply as 
above. 

CASTRO VALLEY NURSERY, 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
ISAAC COLLINS offers for sale at a bargain, for cash, 
3,000 or 4,000 Cherry Trees, 1 and 2 years old. Trees good 
size on Mazzard stocks, and of the best market kinds. 
Black Tartarian, Black Republican, Royal Ann, Van 
Skike, etc. Reference: E. Lewelling, Orchardist, San 
Lorenzo, Cal. 



Buy Seeds Direct 

— FROM THE — 

FRESNO SEED FARM ! 

W. A. SANDERS, Prop'r. 

Delivered on board of Cars or at Express Office, at the 
following prices: 

China Corn 10 cts per tt> 

White Egyptian Corn, (clean seed) 5 " " 

Brown " " " " 5 " " 

Broom Corn, com var'ty " " 4 " " 

Broom Corn, dwarf " " 6 " " 

Broom Corn, evergreen " " 15 " " 

Kennedy's Amber Cane, (in hulls) 20 '* " 

Red Imphee Cane, (clean seed) 50" " 

Sorghum Cane, " " 10 " " 

Penicillaria, (East India Millet), in hulls,. . 1 00 " " 

Chufas, best Spanish 40" ". 

Artichokes 15 " " 

Spring Wheat, earliest, Sherman 5 " " 

By mail, 20 cents per pound additional. 

I have also some choice, thrifty, year-old Trees, which I 
will deliver on cars at 25 cents each, or $2.50 per dozen. 

Oranges, from best Tahiti Seed. 

Black Mulberry, large, sour-fruited, from Tennessee. 
Oleanders, Giant of Battles, Double Red and Single 
White. Black Walnuts, native of California. 
£3TSend for Circular of Instructions. 
Address, W. A. SANDERS, Fresno, Cal. 




STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, - - - Proprietor. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 

Comprising everything NEW and RARE in my line. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Lemons, 

AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

I have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nativity in Europe, and having 
propagated large quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms. 

SULTANA. — A good stock of the SEEDLESS SULTANA 
grapevines for raisins. This is an important specialty, 
and will be sold at the same rates as ordinary stock. 

S3T Send for catalogue and further information. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1858. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

An unusually fine stock of trees is offered for sale at low- 
est market raten for reliablu nursery stock, comprising all the 
leading kinds and varieties of hardy fruits. Also a general 
assortment of evergretm trees and shrubs, blue gums, Monte- 
rty cypress, etc., in boxes for hedge and forest planting. 

My trees are grown in a sandy loam, without irrigation; 
can be do finer rooted trees grown; wood ripens early, and can 
bo safely transplanted as soon as sufficient rain falls for lift- 
ing the stock. Early planting recommended. Catalogues 
with list of prices ready for distribution October 1st. 

Address. W. II. PEl'rElt, 

Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



SEXTON'S NURSERIES, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

We offer for sale this season of eood growth a general 
assortment of Fruit Trees, Fruit Bushes, Ornamental Trees, 
Kvei green Trees and Flowering .Shrubs at the lowest market 
rates. Our Trees are grown on sandy loam, without Irriga 
tion, and matures the wood early. 

We also offer a laree stock of JAPANESE PERSIM- 
MONS, transplanted. Monterey Cypress, for hedges. Blue 
(ium and Pines for forest planting, .Japan Mandarin, Orange. 
Camellias and Camphor Trees at low figures. Address for 
Catalogue and Price List, WM. SEXTON, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

Burbank's Seedling. 

This alrea.ly famous Potato is now for the first time 
offered by the originator for trial on this Coast. For de- 
scription see American Agriculturist, for March, 1878. 
PRICES: in., by mail, 50 cts.; 3 lbs. by mail, SI. 00; 25 
lbs. by express, $5.00. 

LUTHER BURBANK, Nurseryman. 

Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal. 

EOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

S. NEWHALL ... - Proprietor. 

A large and general assortment of FRUIT and ORNA- 
MENTAL TREES, Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, 
Greenhouse Plants, Grapevines, Small Fruits, etc. I offer 
for sale a large and well assorted stock. Low-topped, 
stalky Fruit Trees a specialty. Address 

S. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. 



Blackberry and Cranberry Plants. 

100,000 Plants of new varieties of BLA<7K BERRY Plants 
—the Early Cluster and Vina Seedling, Missouri Mammoth 
and Deering .Seedling, the earliest and the most productive 
of all. I will give satisfactory proof that these berries have 
realized $750 per acre. It paid more than double the 
amount as the old late varieties. Price by mail, $2 per 
dozen, $8 per hundred, and $80 per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry plants for $150 per acre, 
planted, not less than 10 acres in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAN1), Boulder Island, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 



FOR SALE. 
30,000 Kittatinny Blackberries, 

Strong Plants, grown by irrigation. Also, 
3,000 GENUINE ZANTE CURRANT CUTTINGS. 
I. A. WILCOX, Santa Clara, Cal. 



FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO 'S 
Semi-Tropical Nurseries, 

LOS ANGELES, OAL. 

FIRST PREMIUM received for two successive years for 
Best Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. We have all the 
varieties, both Foreign and Native. Great reduction in 
Apple, Pear and Peach Trees, as we wish to close them out 
the coining season, and devote our entire energies hereafter 
to the Semi -Tropical Department. H^'Hnid fur CattUvuue. 
I'. O. Box 870. 



Grangers' Bank of Cal nia, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO CAL. 

Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President G. W. COLBY. 

Manager and Cashier, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 
Secretary PRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rates. 



GRANGERS' 

Business Association. 

Incorporated February loth, 1875. 

Capital Stock, - - $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS.-Daniel Inman, Pres- 
ident ; I. C. Steele, Vice President; Axon Adams, Secre- 
tary, John Levelling, Treasurer. DIRECTORS— W. G. 
Colby, W. L. Overuiser, A. D. Logan, R. s. Clay, A. 
T. Hatch, O. Hubbell, Thos. Flint. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 

GRANGERS' BUILDING, 

106 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, 
Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and Advances 
made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, 
Produce, Merchandise, Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., 
solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our 
rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through 
us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Asso- 
ciation, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manag-er. 

Farmers' Union. San Jose. 

C. T. SETTLE .' President. 

H. E. HILL Manager. 

W. M. Uinty Cashier. 

Authorized Capital - - - - $200,000.00 
Paid up in Gold Coin - - - - 05,000.00 
Surplus - ------ 23,571.87 

Directors— William Erkson, L. F. Chipman. Horace 
Little, C. T. Settle, David Campbell. James Singleton, Thos. 
E. Snell, W. L Manly, J. tj. A. Ballou. 

Will do a General Mercantile Business, also, receive De- 
posits, on which such Interest will be allowed as may be 
agreed upon. Gold, Silver and Currency exchanged. Will 
also, on commission, make purchases and sales (at home and 
abroad) at low rates. 

Farmers and other Citizens are invited to examine 
our constantly large aud varied stock of first-class goods, 
including Teas, Coffee, Groceries, Provisions, Crockery, 
Hardware, Farming Implements, Wagons, Barbed Fence 
Wire, Household Goods, etc. 

All of our patrons can depend upon low cash prices and 
square deal in reliable articles. 

Cor. of Santa Clara and San Pedro Sts. 



A CARD 

To Grangers and Farmers. 

The undersigned is now prepared to receive and sell 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE, 

That may be consigned to him, at the HIGHEST MAR- 
KET RATES, and will open a trade direct with the con- 
sumer 

Without the Intervention of Middlemen. 

He also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock 
Buyers to co-operate with him, and thus have but one 
commission between producer and buyer. Address 

S. H. DEPTJT, 
Nos. 11 & 13 Bluxome St. , San Francisco. 

Grangers' Co-operative Business Ass'n 
Of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K & lOth St6., Sacramento, Cal 

Dealers in GENERAL PRODUCE, RETAIL GRO- 
CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the co-operation 
and trade of farmers in general. Pay the highest market 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smallest profit. Our 
orders are cash on delivery. Goods shipped: marked C. 
O. D. W. H. HEAVENER, Manager. 

¥oneT~TooF 

For Farmers. For Hogs. 

CHEAP PORK, 

The Brazilian Artichoke. 

Is the cheapest and best food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. 600 to 1,000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No harvesting. No feeding, The 
Hogs will help themselves if allowed to do so. I have a 
limited quantity of seed to sell. Send for Circular giving 
full information to 

J. H. F. GOFF, 

San Felipe, Santa Clara County, Cal 



A FEW DBVONS AND GRADES 

FOR SALE 
Address R. McENESPIE, Chico, California 



28 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January it, 1879. 




KEY f\ep0E\T- 



NoTB.-^Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, January 8th, 1S79. 

Trade still retains its holiday dullness, and mcrchan ts 
who are not busy in settling up the last year's business 
are doing little but talk about the rain. 

Since our last report the cable prices for Wheat has 
Bhaded downward a little, as may be seen from the follow- 
ing: 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for \V7ieat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 





Cal. Average. 


Cub. 


Thursday — 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 


9s — @ 9s 3d 
9s — @ 9s 3d 
8s lldW !)s 3d 
S3 lld«r 9s 3d 
Is lido* 9s 3d 
9s lido* 9s 3d 


9s 3dc* 9s 8d 
9s 3d<Ee 9s 8d 
9s 3d(rt 99 Sd 
9s 3d@ 9s 8d 
9s r-i •« 9s 8d 
9s 3d@ 9s 8d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare wilh same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1877 10b lld@lls Id lis 2d(811s 7d 

187g" 12s MSI* Hd 12s lld«*lBs 3d 

1879.] 8s lld@ 9s 3d 9s 3d@ 9s 8d 

The Foreign Review. 

London, January 7.— The Mark Lane Express says: 
Deliveries of home-grown Wheat at Mark I.ane have 
been comparatively light, but farmers have marketed 
their produce pretty freely in the country, although the 
condition of offerings was very unsatisfactory Sales 
have consequently been difficult. Still, allowing for 
poorness of quality and the holiday character of trade, 
business was not unduly depressed; and in very few in- 
stances has it been necessary to make a reduction to 
effect sales of English Wheat, where samples have been 
in a marketable condition. Imports of foreign Wheat 
into London have assumed the customary phase of win- 
ter scantiness. Arrivals to Friday were only 31,000 
quarters, made up chiefly of American descriptions. 
American supplies must necessarily be the main feature 
in our imports for some time. Maize and Barley and all 
descriptions of feeding Corn moved off slowly. Where 
any quantity changed hands, prices have been a turn 
against sellers. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

New York, January 4. — Flour is dull and unchanged. 
Wheat is quiet and firm at a slight advance. 

Chicago, January 4.— The grain business has been 
nearly stagnant for this week, speculators beimr afraid to 
make advances. Wheat for February sold at 82i«(S3Jc; 
Corn, 29J<<t30fc; Oats, l'.Vp.rlOJc; Rye, for cash, 43t<M4e; 
Barley, cash, 94«r97c. Provisions were more active, with 
an inclination manifested to keep prices from sinking 
much lower. Pork for February sold at I7.40e7.flo; Lard, 
January, >;.s r, .,, Closingcash prices: Wheat, 82jc; 
Corn, 29-f«r2Hjc: Oats. 193c; Kve, 43(g43,c; Barley, 9(*tf 
97c; Pork, *7.42J; Lard, *5.45. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New Yore, January 4.— Wool is very quiet. Sales of 
2,000 lbs choice Fall California at 21c; 10,000 11)9 Spring, 
private. 

Boston, January 4 —The new year opens with a com- 
paratively quiet market. There is no disposition to press 
sales on the part of holders, and buyers appear quite in- 
different about supplies. The stock of domestics on hand 
is larger than last year by 1,342,721 lbs, and the stock of 
foreign is also larger than last year by 142,000 lbs. For 
the year, the decrease of receipts of wool is as follows: 
Fleeces, 868,100 lbs; Oregon, 272,823; tubs and scoured, 
05,421; Spring California, 020,159; sundries, 5,700 Total, 
1,391,703 lbs. Increase in receipts is as follows: Fall Cal- 
ifornia, 1,224,154 lbs; Territorv. 425,000; Texas, 678,000; 
pulled, 360.U50. Total, 2,097,424 lbs. The falling off was 
in desirable wools, but there was a large Increase in |>oor 
and low priced wool. The stock of domestic wools on 
hand January 1st, was 13,990,201 lbs, against 12,047,480 
lbs the same time last year. 

BARLEY -Barley is dull and quiet, and prices un- 
changed. 

CORN— Yellow Corn has sold at a reduction of about 
5c per bushel. White is unchanged. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Fresh roll Butter is arriving in 
good supply and prices are steady. Ordinary first-class 
Butter brings as high as 32Jc; fancy brands, 35c. 

FEED —We note advance in Bran and Oil Meal, as shown 
in our table. 

FRUIT— California Oranges are still rather spare ar- 
rivals, but the quality is improving and the trade will 
»unn be in full blast. 

FRESH MEAT— Prices are unchanged. 

HOPS— There are no sales and no change in prices in 
this market. Emmet Wells, in his New York circular for 
December 27th, says nothing is selling except a lot for ex- 
port. Brewers are holding off until after New Year. 

LIVE STOCK— Sales are reported as follows: 700 Hogs, 
3Jc per lb, alive; 1,300 Sheep, 31.25, rather poor; 080 good 
Cattle, $35 each; 7O0 Angora Goats, grades, at $1. 

OATS — We note sales: 200 sks Oregon sold for $1.42} 
perctl; 400 do do, $1.50 per ctl; 212 do California Feed, 
$1.40. 

ONIONS— Onions have taken another sharp step up- 
ward and supplies are very short. Prices are given in our 
table. 

PROVISIONS— Light bacon is }c cheaper. A reduction 
of lc per lb is noticeable in most brands of Eastern Hams. 

POULTRY— Hens, Roosters, Broilers aud tame Ducks, 
have all improved about $1 per dozen. Turkeys have 
dropped 2Jo?5c per lb. 

VEGETABLES— Our list shows an advance in nearly all 
kinds of Fresh Stuff now in the market. 

WHEAT — Prices have dropped a point since our last 
report, and the top price for Shipping is now $1.70; Mill- 
ing, $1.75. We note sales: 530 tons Shipping, $1.70; 60 
tons Milling, $1.75; 2,000 ctls choice Sonora, $1.75; 2,500 
ctU fair Shipping, alongside, $1.(37}; 800 ctls Superfine at 
$1.07}; 1,000 ctls off Coast, $1.50, and 180 sks off Grade 
$1 35. 

WOOL— We hear of no change In rate* and but one 
■ale, 70,000 lbs Southern Seedy at 9}c. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

| WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednesday m.. January 8, 1579. 



BEANS A PEAS, 

Mayo, ctl 1 90 @S 10 

Butter 2 37'.«>'.! 50 

Pea 3 12 MS 00 

Red 1 70 <gl 75 

Pink 1 50 <al 75 

3ml White 2 75 a3 00 

Lima 4 00 («i 50 

Field Peas 1 00 @1 25 

KKOOH < OKS. 

Southern 2 (S 

Northern 3 @ 

4 1114 4 OK Y. 

California 4 <@ 

German 6}(c6 



Softsh'l 14 <& 16 

Brazil 12i<3 14 

Pecans Ufa 15 

Peanuts 4^5 

Filberts 15 (g 16 

ONIONS. 

Alviso — @ — 

Union City, ctl... .4 00 <gi 25 

San Leandro 4 00 @4 25 

Stockton — (0 — 

2} Sacramento River. — & — 

4 [Salt Lake 3 00 ("3 50 

Oregon 4 00 <tti 25 

4} POTATOES. 
7 Petaluma, ctl 1 25 (81 3! 



U IIKI PRODUCE, ET«'.]Humboldt 1 12i«l 37 



35 



BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, tb 30 ® 

Fancy Brands 32}(a 

Pickle Roll — @ — 

Firkin — (g — 

Western 12Jig 17 

New York — (g — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal.. lb.... 8 @ 12] 

Gilroy Factory 11 13 

N. Y. State 16 <g 17 

■MB. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... — <W 30 

Ducks' 25 3 30 

Oregon — (g — 

Eastern 18 «* 25 

do by express. .. 27*<* 30 

Pickled here 2o (g 27 j 

FEED. 

Bran, ton («17 00 

Corn Meal 24 00 i«26 Oil 

Hay 8 50 @16 00 

Middlings 23 00 0*24 00 

Oil Cake Meal. ..36 00 @ 

Straw, bale 50 @ 70 

FLOITK. 

Extra, bbl 5 12}<35 25 

Superfine 4 00 (H 75 

Graham, lb 2J@ 3 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef,, 1st qual'y, ft 6 (g 7 

Second 5 (g 6 

Third 3J(g 4j 

Mutton 3 « 4^ 

Spring Lamb 5 (S 6 

Pork, undressed... 3}(S 3! 

Dressed 5j@ 5| 

Veal 4}<8 5 

Milk Calves 6 @ 6| 

do choice... 7 <g 71 
«.lt \l v ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 85 @1 00 

Brewing 1 15 (ctl 30 

Chevalier 1 75 #1 90 

Buckwheat 1 25 (gl 50 

Corn, Wbite 1 00 (31 05 

Yellow 95 m 00 

Small Round.... 1 071<al 10 

Oats 1 25 M 50 

Milling 1 60 (<tl 75 

Rye 1 25 (tfl 30 

Wheat, Shipping . 1 621,o>l 70 

Milling 1 67jf*l 75 

Off Grades 1 40 (31 60 

HIDES. 

Hides, dry 15 j@ 16 

Wet salted 7i<3> 9 

HOM.l , ETC. 

Beeswax, tti 30 @ 31 

Honey in comb.... llfltf — 

do. No 2 8 <g 91 

Dark 8 <§ 9 

Strained 4}<3 6 

HOPS. 

Oregon (9 

California |g 12! 

Wash. Ter 8 (<e 9 

Old Hops 3 (g 5 

M IS Jobblnn. 

Walnuts. Cal 4 ® 6 

do Chile 6J<a 8 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (<t 8 



Cuffey Cove. 
32} Early Rose 1 62Jv»l 75 




Half Moon Bay 

Kidney 1 12 (al 37} 

Sweet 2 00 (d 2 25 

I'OIXTKY A SAME. 

Hens, doz 7 00 (of 8 00 

Roosters 7 00 (ti 8 00 

Broilers 5 OC <§ 5 50 

Ducks, tame 8 00 @ 9 00 

do. Mallard - (3 2 50 

Geese, pair 2 50 (i 3 00 

Wild Gray, doz.. <d> 2 00 

White do A 1 50 

Turkeys — (8— 15 

do. Dressed 15 @— 18 

Snipe Eng — (8 1 50 

do. Couunoii 50 @ 75 

Quail, doz 75 (<* 1 00 

Rabbits 1 50 (g 

Hare — (3 2 50 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, H vy. lb 9}<3 

Medium 10}i3 

Light 11 

Lard 

Cal. Smoked Beef 
Shoulders, Cover'd 

Hams, Cal 

Dupee's 13 (3 

None Such 13 @ 

Ames — @ 

Whlttaser — @ 

Royal 13 @ 

Reliable 13 @ 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa, 5 @ 

Cauary 4}(a) 

Clover, Red 15 w 

White 50 

Cotton 6 (3 

Flaxseed 3 # 

Hemp 9 & 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (56 

Perennial 35 (3 

Millet 10 (3 

Mustard, White... 25@ 

Brown 1}(3 

Rape 3 <3 

Ky Blue Grass 17 & 

2d quality 16 @ 

Sweet V Grass 1 00 (g 

Orchard 25 @ 

Red Top 13 @ 

Hungarian 8 (3 

Lawn 50 @ 

Mesquit 

Timothy 7 

TALLOW 

Crude, lb 7 

Refined 8}@ 

WOOL. ETC 

FALL. 

San Joaquin, free.. 

South'n Coast, do. . 

Sac. and Northern. 

Mendocino k Hum- 
boldt 16 (3 17} 

Southern, burry ... 8 @> 9 

Northern, do 11 «r 12 

( *regon, Eastern ... 16 (3 18 
do. Valley.... 21 in 22 



(3 25 



f 7 J 



9 (3 11 
9 @ 11 
11 (3 15 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

r WHOLESALE, j 

Wednesday m., January 8. 1879. 



I It I IT MARKET. 

Apples, box — 30 (g 1 25 

Bananas, bnch..— - (3 6 00 
Cocoanuts. 100. . 4 00 (3 5 00 

Cranberries, bbl. 12 50 <ffl4 00 

Figs, lb — 6 (g— 61 

Grapes — — @ 

do, Coneehou. 2 50 (3 3 00 
Limes. Mex 8 00 (3 9 00 

do, Cal, box. . . 2 00 (3 2 50 
Lemons. Cal M.10 00 (315 00 



14 



Peaches 7 @ 

do pared ... 18 (g- 

Pears 8 (3 

Plums 3 (3 

Pitted 12}> 

Prunes 8 (5 

Raisins. CaL bx 1 50 (3 2 25 
do, Halves... 1 75 @ 2 50 
do, Quarters. . 2 00 (32 75 

Blowers' 2 75 (3 

Malaga 2 75 (3 3 00 



Sicily, box .... 8 00 (3 9 00 'Xante Currants 



Australian, bx @ 

Oranges, M 25 00 (335 00 

Tahiti @ 

Cal., box 6 00 (315 00 



8 (3 10 



VEGETABLES. 

Beets, ctl — 60 @ - 

Beaus, String. .. @- 

Oabbage, 100 lbs — (3- 



75 

Pears, box 1 00 <g 1 25 Carrots, ctl 40 (3— 50 

Winter Nelis.. 2 50 (3 3 00 Cauliflower, doz 75 @ 1 00 

Pineapples, doz. 7 50 (3 8 00 Cucumbers, bx. . (3 

Plums, lbs - 5 @— 6 [Egg Plants, box. <3 

Quinces, bsk — — @ JGarlic, New. lb.. @— 8 

St'wberries. ch'st (ob Green Peas — — @— 15 

DKIT.D g IE I II. Lettuce, doz 10 (3 

Apples, lb 3 & 5} Parsnips, lb 2 @ 

Apricots 15 (p Horseradish 8 @ 

Citron 23 (3 24} Squash, Marrow 

Dates 9 (g 10 I fat, tn 8 00 (310 00 

*| 5 Tomato,50 lt,s bx (3 1 25 

6 (3 8 Turnips, ctl — 50 (fc— 75 

I White 50 76 



Figs, Black.. 
White 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro it Co.] 

San Francisco. January 8, 3 r. m 
Legal Tenders in S. F., 11 a. m., par. Silvkk, 2(32}. 
Gold in New York, par. 

Gold Bars, 890xa910. Silver Bars, 8@22 V oent. dia 
count. 

Exchange on New York, 35, on London bankers, 49J(3 
49}. Commercial, 50; Paris, five francs V dollar; Maxican 

dollars, 875(389. 
London Consols? 94 7-16; Bonds, 109J. 
QriCKSIl.viCR in S F.. by the flask. *< lb. 40(341c. 



The Best Farming Lands 

Are those that produce at least a fair crop every season. 
The demand for such property is increasing, while the 
amount offered for sale in the market constantly decreases 
and the prices advance. The most prominent tract of 
such land now being sold in subdivisions to suit purchas 
ers that we know of, is that of the Reading Ranch, in 
Shasta "County, adjoining Tehama County on the south, 
in the upper Sacramento Yalley. Level tillable land is 
hold at from $0 to $30 per acre. The climate is healthy 
and favorable to most kind9 of grains, vegetables and 
fruits, including semi-tropical growths. Wood and water 
arc plentiful A good local market always prevails. No 
drouths and no damaging floods. The tract, some twenty 
miles long by about two in width, is bordered on one side 
by the Sacramento river. The C. P. R. R. runs the en- 
tire length of the tract. Send for map and illustrated 
circular, or apply for further information to the proprie- 
tor, Mr. Edward Fkisbib, on the ranch at Anderson 
Shasta County, Cal. [Title U. S. Patent.] 



Commission Merchants. 



DAVIS &. SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Reference. —Tradesmen's National Bamc, N. Y. ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. : A Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



C. & F. NAUMAN & CO., 

227 and 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 

Produce Commission Merchants. 

Solicit Consignments of 

POULTRY, GAME AND EGGS, 

On which the highest market rates will be returned. 



DALTON & GRAY, 
Commission Merchants, 

WHOLESALE DEALERS I* 

AU Kinds of Country Produce. 
404 & 406 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

t3T Consiirnments Solicited "SI 



LITTLE'S 
SSEEI 15 JDTJP. 

—THE NEW— 

Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip, Disinfectant 
and Specific for Scab, Etc. 

It improves the growth and quality of the Wool, and 
Heals readily Sores in Sheep, Cattle and Horsea. 

It is very valuable on account of its being applied in a 
cold state. For sale at 

FALKNEB, BELL & CO. 'a 

Wool Agency, 
No. 430 California Street, San Francisco, Cal' 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds for 1879, rich in engravings, will be 
ready in January, and sent FREE, to all who apply. Cus- 
tomers of last season need not write for it. I offer one of 
the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever sent out by 
any seed house in America, a large jtortion of which were 
grown on my six Seed Farms. Printed direction* fur 
cultivation on each package. All seed warranted tn lie 
both fresh and true to name; so far, that should it prove 
otherwise, / mil refill the order gratia. The original in- 
troducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's Melon, Mar- 
blehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other Veg- 
etables. I invite the patronage of all who are anxuntu to 
have their Seed directhjfrvm the groieer,freith t true, and 
of the very beat strain. 

NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

James J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, Mass. 

WAHTESIAN 
ell Drilling, Boring, 
KIMS SAL PBOSPECTIHO »nd QUASBTINa TOOLS. 

Highest, award at Centennial Exhibition. Send for 
pictoria 1 catalogue and price-list, free. Agents wanted. 
S24) per day guaranteed. Sand, boulders, and rock 

easilv handled. Address, CALIFORNIA ARTESIAN 
WELL AND MINING CO., 202 Sansome Street, San 
Francisco, Cal. £. P. Hill, Manager. 



Dl A Mfi Beautiful Concert Grand Pianos, flPP A Kl 
rlMrilJ c „ 8t $1,600, onlv $425 .su-UnUHN 
perb Grand Square Pianos, cost $1,100, only $255 
Elegant Upright Pianos, cost $8O0, onlv $165. New 
Style Upright Pianos, $112 50. OrganB, $35. 
Organs, 12 Stops, $72-50. Church Organs, 16 stops, 
cost $390, only $115 Elegant $375 Mirror Top Or- 
gans, only $105. Tremendous sacrifice to close out 
present stock. Immense New Steam Fac'ory soon to be 
erected. Newspaper with much information about cost 
of Pianos and Organs, SENT FREE. Please address 
DANIEL F. BEATTY, Washington, New Jersey. 



DIVIDE ND N OTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
seven and one-half ("i) per cent, per annum, and on Ordi- 
nary Deposits at the rate of six and one-fourth (6J) per 
cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on 
and after the 15th day of January, 1879. By order. 

GEORGE LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, December 31st, 1878. 

DIVIDENDJMOTICE. 

Office of the HIBERNIA SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCI- 
ETY, northeast comer Montgomery and Post Streets, San 
Francisco, January 6th, 1S79.— At a Regular Meeting of 
the Board of Directors of this Society held this day, a 
dividend at the rate of seven per cent, per annum was 
declared for the period ending with the 31st day of Decem- 
ber, 1878, free of Federal tax, and payable from and after 
this date. EDW. MARTIN, Secretary. 



DIVIDE ND N OTICE. 

SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION, 532 California 
Street, corner Webb. — For the half year ending with 
December 31st, 1878, a Dividend has been declared at the 
rate of seven and two-tenths (7 2-10) per jent. per annum 
on Term Deposits, and six (6) per cent, per annum on 
Ordinary depositB, free of Federal tax, payable on and 
after Wednesday, January 15th, 1S79. 

December 28th, 1878 LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



Dewey &Co{ 2 8 °ome 



s i n ; } Patent Ag'ts 



Mining and Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

Tim Mining and Scientific Press Patent Aoenct was 
established in I860— the first west of the Rocky Moun 
tains. It has kept step with the rapid march of mechan- 
ical improvements. The records in its archives, its con 
stantly increasing library, the accumulation of informa- 
tion of special importance to our home inventors, and the 
experience of its proprietors in an extensive and long 
continued personal practice in patent business, affords 
them combined advantages greater than any other agents 
can possibly offer to Pacific Coast inventors. Circulars of 
advice free. Address, DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers Mining and Scientific Press and Pacific Ru- 
ral Press, 202 Sansome Street, 8. F.— 1878. 



Kern Valley Colony. 

LOCATION, KERN COUNTY, CAL. 

Irrigated Lands, in 40 & 80 Acre Farms. 

The Finest Body of Land ever Opened to 
Colony Purposes. 

CLIMATE. —Semi-tropical, dry, and adapted to the 
widest range of agricultural productions. 

SOIL— A rich friable loam, of great depth and inex- 
haustible fertility. 

LAND -Level, free from underbrush, cultivation easy. 

WATER FOR IRRIGATION- Unfailing and 
abundant during all seasons of the year. 

FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS, of great 
volume, in the vicinity. 

TIMBER, for fire-wood and livefence posts, abundant. 

THE GROWTH OF FRUITS, both temperate 
and semi-tropical, has been fully tested on these and ad- 
joining lands, with most successful results. 

ORANGES, LEMONS and LIMES, free from 
the mildew attending in more humid climates, will reach 
here a state of surpassing excellence. The long dry rain- 
less season is specially adapted to the curing of RaislnB 
and figs, and the Olive, Walnut and Almond flourish in 
perfection. ,T '\ I the elements for profitable Farming, 
successful Fruit-Raising, and delightful homes, exist here 
to an extent not excelled in any portion of the globe. 

TERMS EASY. For Pamphlets with full particu- 
lars apply at the office of 

HORATIO P. LIVERMORE, 
531 Market St. , San Francisco. 

Or to C. BROWER, Local Agent, at Bakersfleld, Cal. 




FOU EVERYBODY ! 

WE WILL SELL THE 

CELEBRATED FISCHER PIANO 

At Prices that Nobody can Beat. 

The "FISCHER" is one of the leading Pianos, and has 
been before the public for 40 years. We sell no bogus 
Instruments. Send for Catalogue and terms to 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

Nos. 137 and 139 Post Street, San Francisco. 



fg TH0S. MEHERIN, 

516 Battery Street, Opposite Postofflce, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

— AGENT FOR — 

B. S. FOX'S NURSERIES. 

We offer for sale this season a large and choice collection 
of FRUIT, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES and 
PLANTS. Comprising everything new and rare in our 
line. JAPAN PERSIMMONS. Large Palms ORANGE 
and LEMON Trees, grafted, from 1 to 4 years old. BLUE 
GUMS, MONTEREY CYPRESS, Pines, Acacias, Roses, 
Etc. tarSend for Price List. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 

618 Battery St. , San Francisco. 



Chance in the Nursery Business. 

There is a good chance in Tehama County for a skilled 
man who will go to work and start a nursery. The loca- 
tion is one mile from Vina station, in Tehama County, in 
a good growing region of country; the land is first-class 
and water abundant. A man is wanted, with good refer 
ences, who will start a first-class nursery in partnership 
with the owner of the land. Address, 

S. C. DICUS, 
Vina Station. Tehama County, Cal 



INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FAIR 

ONE DIPLOMA', 1 /; 

Wells, RIcfeurdMM iV- Co's PERFECTED 

BUTTER COLOR 

Over Si* Compttilors, for " Superior Pvrity, Strength. 
;vr/.«™ »/ rohr.and Ptrmanenea™ yiucli <>l I he 
Prize Batter wild rolori-il with it. Gl VK IT A 
Tin A I. Ask your Dru^irist or Merchant for it . or to 
know what it Is, what it c. ists-wherc to pet it. write 
Wells, Rich ahijson & Co ,Proprs.,liurlington,\t 



TO FARMERS AND SEED MEN. 

If you have an extraordinary Winter or Spring Wheat 
(for seed) send sample, name of Wheat and price, delivered 
at your nearest Railroad Station. 

F. J. RUSSELL, 
No. SOS Carroll Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



January n, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC mVMAL PRESS. 



29 



JOE POHEIM, 

THE TAILOR. 

203 Montgomery St. 



103 Third Street., S. F. 

Has just received a large as- 
sortment of the latest style 
goods. 

Suits to order from $20 

Pants to order from 5 

Overcoats to order from. . 15 

Jt-^TThe leading, question is 
where the best goods can be 
found at the lowest prices. 
The answ er is at 

JOE POHEIM'S, 

203 Montgomery St. , and 103 
Third St. , San Francisco. 
Samples and Rules for Self-measurement sent free to 
any address. Fit guaranteed. 





^glMllllll llll 



Farmers ! Notice ! ! 

THE BEST PLACE TO BUY 

Razors, Shears, Pocket Knives, 
Hunting Knives, Table Knives, 
Carving Knives, 

Our own manufacture, and every description of Cutlery 
is from the' manufacturers. All our Goods War- 
ranted the Best. 
42TCountry orders promptly attended to. 

WILL & FINCK, 

LEADING CUTLERS, 

769 Market Street, San Francisco. 

£3TCutlery of every description Ground and Repaired. 



DAY'S 

Automatic Incubators 



BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Very Best Incubating and 
Rearing Machines Made. 

200 Eggs, requiring only 10 minutes attention per day. 
Simple, any Child can attend it. From "0 to 90 per cent 
is roalizad from all fertile Eggs. Address 

STYLOGRAPH CO., 

12 California St., San Francisco. 




Will be 

mailed FREE to"" 
all applicants. It con-' 
tain* 1 colored plates, 500 engraving, 
about 150 pagea. and full description . 
prices and directions for planting over 1200 
varieties of Vegetable and Flower Seeds, Plants, Roses, Etc 
Invaluable to all. Send for it. Address 

D. M. FERRY & CO. Detroit Miob 



JOHN ROGERS & CO., 
General Stock and Sale Yard, 

Corner of Market and 9th Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Horses and Milch Cows Sold on 
Commission. 

ALSO, DEALERS IN HAY AND GRAIN. 

Parties consigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and quick returns. 



J. P. Jonrs. 



J. Thompson. 



JONES & THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Say, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

COUNTRY CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, and will 
receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as 6oon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 
above, 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 
HEMORRHOIDS OR PILES, 

A treatise on their scientific treatment and radical cure, 
by E. J. FRAZER, M. D., San Francisco. Price, 25 cents; 
for sale at the bookstores and by the author at 221 Powell 
street. Sent by mail to any address on receipt of the 
rice in coin, currency or postagestamps. 

YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Tea Cento. STEVENS BROS,, Northford, Conn. 



Great Slaughter 

IN SEWING MACHINES. 

We are now offering for sale, at $10 EACH, the fol- 
lowing machines: 

FLORENCE, 

WHEELER &. WILSON, 

GROVER & BAKER. 

THESE MACHINES ARE 

Guaranteed to be in Perfect Order, 

And many of them NEW. 

Parties in the country can have them packed and 
shipped free of any extra charge. Address, 

WILCOX & GIBBS Sewing Machine Co., 

No. 124 POST STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




0MPANI0N 



A WEEKLY PAPER FOR 




;young PEOPLE 



>4 A IN D THE' 




FAMILY 

It aims to be a favorite in every family — looked for 
eagerly by the young folks, and read with interest by the 
older. Its purpose is to interest while it amuses; to be 
judicious, practical, sensible, and to have really perma- 
nent worth, while it attracts for the hour. 

It is handsomely illustrated, and has for contributors 
some of the most attractive writers in the country. 
Among these are: 

J. T. Trowbridge, Dinah Muloch Craik, 

James T. Fields, J. G. Whittier, 

Rebecca H Davis, Louise C. Moulton, 
Charlotte Mary Yonge, C. A. Stephens, 
Edward Everett Hale, Harriet P. Spofford, 
Rose Terry Cooke, A. D T. Whitney, 
Louise M. Alcott. 

Its reading is adapted to the old and young; is ver 
comprehensive in its character. It gives 



Stories of Adventure, 
Letters of Travel, 
Editorials upon Cur- 
rent Topics, 
Articles on Health, 
Biographical Sketches, 
Religious Articles, 
Subscription Price, 

ent free. Please mention in 
dvertisement. 



Stories of Home and 
School Life, 

Tales Poetry, 

Selections for Decla- 
mation, 

Anecdotes, Puzzles, 

Sports and Pastimes. 

$1 75 .Specimen copies 
what paper you read this 




PERRY MASON & CO., 

41 Temple Place, Boston. 

BUSINESS 

COLLEGE, 
24 Post Street 
Near Kearny, 
San Francisco, Cat, 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structions given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladiks' Department. — Ladies will be admitted for t- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Department. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



SAMUEL JELLY, 

Watchmaker and Importer of Jewelry, 

Watches, Diamond Work, Silverware, 
Etc., Etc. 

No. 120 J Street, between Fourth and Fifth, South Side, 
SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

Particular attention given to Manufacturing Jewelry, 
and Repairing Clocks, Watches, Jewelry, etc. 



QUEEN OF THE MARKET. SaKKS, 

best hardy Red Raspberry; three inches around, very pro- 
ductive, carries well, and sells better in market. SHARP- 
LESS and CRESCENT Seedlings, ^he best Strawberries. 
SNYDER, WALLACE and TAYLOR, the hardiest and 
most prolific Blackberries; and other Small Fruits. KAKI, 
the most delicious Japan fruit, as large .and hardy as 
Apples. KIEFFER'S HYBRID Seedling Pear, blight- 
proof, good quality, bears early and abundantly. Send 
for Catalogues. 

WM. PARRY, Cinnaminson, New Jersey. 



Of\ Chromo and Perfumed Cards [no 3 alike], name in 
\)\J Gold and Jet, lQq. Cmnton Baos., Clintonville, Ct. 



VERTICAL FEED. 

(Best Sewing Machine in the World.) 

— FOR — 



DURING 
THE 



$40, 



HOLIDAY 
SEASON. 



On receipt of the above amount I will send to any ad- 
dress nicely packed for transportation, ononew 

"DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" 

Lock-stitch Family Sewing Machine complete, with a long 
list of practical attachments and a splendidly ILLUS- 
TRATED INSTRUCTION BOOK, showing unmistakably 
by wood cuts the exact position of each attachment when 
adjusted for different kinds of work. 

Make Your Wife a Present 

Of the LIGHTEST RUNNING SHUTTLE MACHINE in 
the market. Entire satisfaction guaranteed to every pur- 
chaser. 

MARK SHELDON, Gen'l Agent, 

No. 130 Post Street, San Francisco. 

P. S.— Remit by Express or Postal Money Order. At 
least one-half cash must accompany order; balance may be 
paid upon receipt of Machine C. O, D. 



DEFLECTED HEAT! 

Boswell's Combined Heater, Cooker, Ba- 
ker, Clothes and Fruit Drier. 




Combining the advantages of a Stove, Furnace, Oven, 
Dry House anil Kitchen Range. An application of Scientific 
Principles to the economy of Jiving, of labor, of health and 
of comfort. A handsome piece nf Furniture adapted to the 
w ants of every family. It equally economizes time, labor and 
fuel, and avoids exposure to heat in cooking as well as in 
baking. It bakes Bread, Cakes and Pies to any desired tint 
without turning or watching, or danger of burning. All 
odors produced in cooking are passed up the flue Food 
cooked by deflected boat is improved in flavor, more easily 
digested, contains more nutriment, will keep fresh longer, 
and is also muc h improved in appearance. The stages of the 
cooking or baking can be seen without stooping or opening 
the doors of the oven. It will dry and bleach your clothes in 
from half an hour to one hour and a half, and heat your irons. 

Fruit dried in the Boswell wi l gain from twenty to 

FORTY PER CENT, id WEHiHT, and THIRTY PER CENT, in 

quality over that dried by any other process. It will buo- 
CessfnUy dry any kind of Fruit, Crapes. Berries, Meats, Fish, 
Vegetables, Coffee, Tobacco, Corn and Grain of all kinds. 



Boswell's Commercial Fruit Drier, 

Used exclusively for drying and heating purposes on A LA EU ; E 

SCALE. 

— ALSO — 

BOSWELL'S CABINET HEATER, 

Of alt sizes and capacity for heating Private Residences, 
Hotels, Halls, School Houses, Churches, Offices, Stores, 
Railroad Cars. Hospitals, etc. 

All of which can be operated successfully by a mere child, 
it is so simple in its construction, and with one-third the 
usual amount of fuel (coal or wood), used in any other heat 
ing. cooking or drying apparatus. 

Every farmer and economical housekeeper should use it. 
It will pay for itself in the saving of fuel; it will pay in the 
superior character of its fruit drying, of its cookino, 
roasting and raking; it will pay in its salubrious and 
healthful warm air; it will pay the rich and the poor alike. 

Address, for Price List and descriptive illustrated circulars, 

Boswell Pure Air Heater Co., 

No. 606 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, California. 
S. R LIPPINCOTT, Secretary. 

EUGENE L. SULLIVAN, Pres't. 



CLOAKS and SUITS. 

SULLIVAN'S 
CLOAK and SUIT House, 

No. 120 Kearny Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



The Cheapest and Best Assortment in San 
Francisco. 



30 



ELEGANT CARDS, ALL CHROMOS, Name in Gold 
and Jet, 10c. Globe Card Co., Nortlifurd, Ct. 



Rfl Pttfimed, gilt edge & chromo Cards, In elegant case, name 
** w in gold, 10c. Atlantic Card Co., E. Wallingford, Ct. 



THE IMPROVED 

Lamb's Family Knitting M 



ne. 




IT IS THE ONLY MACHINE 

That knits flat or tubular work of all sizes; 

Narrows and widens on hosiery or tubular work; 

Knits a regular right-angled heel, as by hand 

Narrows off the toe; 

Knits a sock or stocking complete; 

Knits mittens or gloves of any size without seam; 

Forms genuine Ribbed or Seamed work; 

Knits the Double, Flat, or Fancy webs; 

Knits an elastic Beamed-stitch Suspender with button-holes; 

Knits the Afghan stitch, Cardigan Jacket stitch, Fancy 
Ribbed stitch; the Raised Plaid stitch, the Nubia stitch, 
Shell stitch, Unique stitch, Tidy stitch, etc. 

It is now the standard machine for manufacturing, and the 
only family knitter that tills the bill. Local agents wanted. 
Send for circulars to 

J. J. PFISTER & CO , General Agents, 

Manufacturers of knitte d goods and dealer in woolen yarns. 
120 SUTTER STREET, Room 46, San Francisco. 



INSURE IN THE 




ASSOCIATION. 

The only HOME COMPANY not 
exempting - its Stockholders from 
Individual Liability for 
Fire Losses. 

Cash Capital paid up, - - $200,000 

Assets, $326,617 

Surplus to Policy Holders, - $324,000 

And Unlimited Liability of Stockholders. 

THOS. FLINT, President. F. K. RULE, Secretary 

I. G. GARDNER, Vice-Preset and GenT Agent. 
OFFICE: 

209 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

ORGANIZED 1863. 
Losses Paid Since Organization, 
$3,365,231.85. 




S^OF CALIF 0RNUV7^e> 
Capital & Assets - $850,000 

itjTThis favorite Home Company has won an enviable 
reputation and large patronage by its methods of business, 
liberality in contracts, and prompt payment of losses— large 
as well as small. 

FARM FOR SALE 
Near Newcastle, Placer Co., Cal., 

Containing' 240 Acres, 

160 Acres under Good Fence, 30 Acres of Alfalfa, 
good Buildings, good Water. Title Perfect. 
TERMS EASY, and free Water from Bear 
River Ditch for five years, to irrigate ORANGE and 
LEMON TREES. Address 

WILLIAM J. PEOSSER, 

Rocklin, Placer County, California, 



A NEW AND PERFECT HORSE SHOE. 

Made of welded Steel mid Iron 
with contirumiw rn!k. 

Acknowledged to bo tho best 
ehoc in the world. Prevents 
interfering. Lameness usually 
caused by shoeing entirely pre- 
vented by Us use. Horses 
haviDg quarter-cracks, tender 
feet, and Corns travel -with 
case. Trial set with nails sent 
on receipt of $1.00. 

Send lor free Illustrated pam- 
phlet to 
The 

John D. Billings Patent Horse Shr>cCo M 
1G1 and 1G3 Bank St., New Voi k. 




50 



Perfumed, Snowflake, Chromo, Motto, Cards, name 
in gold & jet, 10c. U. A. Si-rinq, E. Walliiujford, Ct. 



30 



THE PACIFIC BUI1L PRESS. 



[January n, 1879. 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

(PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always (five sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
doulife bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating, 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in gi 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON &. KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMOKE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, RICE 
Si CO., 401 Market Street. 

~ MtiiwttJN « WILLIAMSON'S 




■der now, that 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 

in Stockton, in 1870 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
Inve been long in the business and know what is required 
n the construction of Gang Plows It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
Bhares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most dosirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

F. ALTMAN'S 





Foundry and Machine Shop. 

Manufacturer of all kinds of Steam and Agricultural 
Machinery. 

GANG PLOWS A SPECIALTY. 

Sheers and Mould Boards always on hand. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Peerless Corn Sheller 

It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only 86), that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
so rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels pur hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It weighs only 13 
pounds and is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, address 

WEISTER & CO. 

17 New Montgom- 
ery St., 8. F. 

CALIFORNIA^ 

(Patent) 

WINDMILL. 

Self-Regulator. 

ThiB is the ojtaapert and beat 
Windmill in the country. Has 
73 fans, 10 tafet in diameter. 

Price, $75 

Every mill is warranted, be- 
fore you buy. send for a circu- 
lar, giving full description to 

BERRY & PLACE, 

Market, head of Front street. SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 

THE BOSS PRUNER. 

Patented January 8th, 1878. 

ENTIRELY NEW ! 

Works on a cog principle. Smallest size cuts one inch, 
Bd largest size two inches in diameter, lias been thor- 
ughly tested, and giveu perfect satisfaction. Sold by 

GEORGE LARKIN, 
Newcastle, Placer County, California 

MONEY TO LOAN 

AT LOWEST RATES, 

ON FIRST-CLASS COUNTRY REAL ESTATE AND 
OTHER APPROVED SECURITIES, 
McAFEE BROS., Real Estate and Loan Brokers, 
a02 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 




Sacramento City. 



Sacramento, the capital city of California, is centrally 
located to the great and rich agricultural and milling fields 
of the State. It iB the second city in trade and importance 
on the western side of the continent. Sacraim litans through- 
out the history of California have honorably competed for a 
fair share of trade, and are well noted for their indomitable 
enterprise in establishing and perpetuating the growth, sub- 
stantial improvement and good reputation of their capital 

CITY. 



TAILORING 



CAPITAL WOOLEN MILLS, 

248 J St., Sacramento, 

CARRY A LARGE STOCK OF CASSIMERES, DOE- 
SKINS, TWEEDS, FLANNELS, BLANKETS, READY 
MADE CLOTHING AND FLANNEL WEAR 
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION FOB THE 
WHOLESALE TRADE. 
Generous Discount on San Francisco Prices 

In our Tailoring Department we 
have an attractive assortment ot 
our own manufacture, together 
with the finest display of French, Scotch. German and Eng- 
lish goods to be seen in the City. We make suits to measure, 
of eveiy description, from the commonest working pants to 
the finest cloth suit. 

f ^'Country gentlemen, farmers and mechanics should take 
notice that our facilities are really superior for furnishing 
standard and durable goods at LOW CASH RATES. 

QTUDEBAKER 

E. E. Ames, General Agent. 

49 & 51 J STREET, SACRAMENTO 

S3T Send for Catalogue and Price List. "Wi 



T. B. McFARLAND, 

Attorney at Law, late Register 
Sacramento Land Ottice. 



G W. FARR, 

Late Clerk of Sacra- 
mento Laud Office. 



Attorneys for Land Claimants. 

Offices, over Capital Kink, Southwest Corner of 
Fourth and J Streets, SACRAMKNTO, Cal 

(live especial attention to caaea involving Titles to Public 
Lands, either Agricultural or Mineral, in the Land Office* in 
this Statu, in the General Laud office, and in the Local 
Courts. Address, McFARLAND & FARR, Sacramento. 



ORLEANS HOTEL, 

Second St., bet. J and K, SACRAMENTO, Cal. 



This large, POPULAR and FIRST-CLASS Hotel (lately m- 
proved) is only one block from the depot. It has Mos- 
quito Proof Rooms, hot and cold Water Baths, 
Free. Prices of room and board reduced to 
$2, 82. 50, and $3 per day. (iuests con- 
veyed to and from the Hotel, 
free of charge. 

RICHARDSON & PRESBURY, Prop's. 



F 



URNITURE, 



VAN HEUSBN & HUNTOON'S, 
204 J STREET, SACRAMENTO. 

42TPrice8 always the Lowest, and the best assortment. "^S 

J. Pitcher Spooner, 

PHOTOGRAPHER, 

Nos. 171, 173 and 17o Main Street, Kidd's Block, 

STOCKTON, CAL 

Animals, Landscapes and Patent 
Model Photographing a Specialty. 

Special Photographer for the Pacific Rural 
Press for San Joaquin County. 



M. COOKE. R. J. COOKE. 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit & Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

tST Communications Promptly Attended to. "5J 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cook* & Grkoohy 



BENNETT, PATTERSON & CO., 

Manufacturers and Dealers in 

Furniture, Bedding, Etc. 

Walnut, Marble Top and Cottage Sets a 
Specialty. 

Salesroom, 422 and 422J 1st Street, Auzerais Building, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



SWEET 

Ckcwii 



NAVY 



Awanle! hiffheti p,izt. at Centennial Exposition for 
fine chrt'ing QuaHHett and exrttte»ce and hinting char- 
acter nf $mm*i*0 and flavoring. The be*t tobacco 
ever ma'l»i. A* nnr blue srrip trade-mark In clovely 
Imitated ot inferior poods, see that Janboft's Be*t ii 
on everv plug, SnM hv all dealers. Bond for cample, 
tree, to 'C. A. Jackson & Co., Mfrs., Petersburg, Va. 

L & E. WERTHHEIMER, Ag'ts, San Francisco. 



San Jose. 



This popular City of Homes is the largest business center 
south of the Golden Gate. It is surrounded by the moat 
thickly settled farming district in the State— owing largely to 
the combined advantages of rich soil, mild and healthy cli- 
mate and neatness to market. 0h0»p and healthy living, 
with favorable facilities for transportation, favor the com- 
mercial and manufacturing interests of the enterprising citi- 
zens of this early settled, appropriately termed "Garden City." 



H. J. 




MANUFACTURER OF 



CARRIAGES, 
BUGGIES, 

— AND — 

SPRING WAGONS, 

At the Lowest Rates. 
Corner of Alameda and White Streets, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Finch's Horse Medicines. 

FINCH'S CUBE ALL— Warranted to cure all sores, old 
or fresh, on man or beast. 

FINCH'S CELEBRATED HORSE RENOVATING MED- 
ICINES— Used by Montgomery Queen for many years. 
Testimonials. 

Mr. S. Finch — Dear Sir:- 1 have given your Horse Medi- 
cine a fair trial, and rind that it works satisfactorily , and feel 
fully warranted in recommending it to the public. -Geo. B. 
McKee, San Jose, October 10th, 1878. 

I fully concur in the above testimonial, having given it a 
thorough test - S. A. Bishop, Pres't 8. J. & 8. C. R. R Co. 

Mr. S. Finch.— Sir:- »1 have used your Cure All on Bores 
of all kinds, and can say It is the best I have ever had in my 
bun for man or beast. I have also used your Renovating 
Medicine, and can fully recommend it to the public. It 
should be kept in every stable, even to feed occasionally to 
keep horses in good condition. I keep it in my stable all the 
time, and would recommend it to all horsemen— especially to 
those keeping livery and railroad horses. — R. K. Ham, Santa 
Clara, Cal., October 10th, 1878. 

I hereby certify that I have sold Finch's Cure All in Michi 
gan for 10 years, audit has always given good satisfaction 
And for the last three or four years have sold it in San Jose, 
and can truly say that it is one of the best preparations for 
healing all manner of sores on man or beast I have ever Bold. 
- 8. H. Wagner, Druggist, San Jose, October 10th. 1878. 
For sale, wholesale or retail, by 

S. FINCH, 661 Seventh St., San Jose. 

Or at Wa<;nek'h and R hod em Drug Stores, San Jose, Cal. 



KEPT ON THE EASTERN PLAN. 

LICK HOUSE, 

Comer First ami San Fernando Sts., SAN JOSE, Cal. 

J. L. HILL, PROPRIETOR. 

•SI 50 to ?2 per Jay $8 to $10 per week. Carriage at- 
tends all trains. 



FREE WATER 

- FOR — 

ORANGE AND LEMON GROVES, 

In Placer County, Cal. 

Notiee is hereby' jriven by the owner of the BKAR 
KIVEK, NORTH FUKK ami GOLl> 1111,1, DITCHES, that 
he will supply, 

Free of Charge, 

For five years, from June 1st, 1878, all the water needed 
to irrigate 

Orange and Lemon Plantations, 

Provided each party claiming water under this offer has 
fifty or more trees in growing condition. 

He will also furnish free water for the first year to irri- 
gate Fruit Trees, Vines and Vegetables to all persons 
starting new places and improving the same, provided 
they make application in advance to 

S. WASHBURN, Sup't. 

Or to any local agent. Auburn, Placer Co., Cal 



CLYDESDALE AND HAMBLETONIAN 

STALLIONS. 

Mares and Colts. 

HOLSTEIN * CATTLE. 

All of the finest breeding to be found in the United States 
or Europe, several of which wore prize animals at the recen 
New York State Fair. TRICKS AND TERMS EASY. 

Also, a large NURSERY STOCK of best quality. Cata- 
logues free. Special inducements offered on Horses and 
Cattle to go west of the Rocky mountains. 

SMITH & POWELL, 

199 West Genesee Street, Syracuse, New York 



Lands for Sale andjo Let. 

LOMPOC 
Temperance Colony. 

45,654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF SALE— 25% cash, and the remainder in eight 
equal annual installments with interest at 10/. per annum, or 
full payment and Deed immediately. 

Rich Soil and Healthful Climate. 

Located in the Western part of Santa Barbara County, 
California, embracing 10.000 acres of the Finest Bean Land 
In the State; as high as 3,700 lbs. of Beans to the acre have 
been raised the present year, while S.000 lbs. to the acre is not 
an uncommon yield. 

DAILY MAIL 

Anil Telegraphic Communication with all parts of the State. 
The Telegraph Stage Co.'s Coaches now run daily, each 
way, directly through the town of 

LOMPOC. 

E. H. HEACOCK, President. 

IRVING P. HENNING, Secretary. 

November 6th, 1878. 



California Land Agency, 

NO. 276 FIRST STREET, 

San Jose, Cal. 

Hns on hand and is in constant receipt of Mapg and Charts 
of 

Public Lands for Location. 

For from |SS to *50 I will select and survey for you a 
good claim, giving full details of it« quality and adapta- 
bility to different kinds of agriculture or stock railing. I 

locate Pre-emptions, 

Soldier or Sailor's Homesteads, 

TIMBER, WOOD OR DESERT LANDS, 

And have also numerous 

Tracts of Cheap Lands For Sale. 

For further particulars apply as above to 

C. C. RODGERS, 
Land Agent and Surveyor. 

CHOICE 

Farms and Orchards 

In Santa Clara County. 

212 Acres. 2 miles west of Santa Clara, considered one 

of the best Farms in the County, at $90 per acre. 
41 Acres, 30 acres in Almonds and English Walnuts, 

|>art in bearing, at Los Gatos, J mile from R. R. depot; 

no frost; Price, $8,000. 
1,040 Acres, in Santa Ana Valley, miles east of Hol- 

lister; is one of the best farms in San Benito County; 

Price, 830,000. 

164 Acres, 8 miles S. W. nf San Jose, rolling hills, all 

fenced, small orchard, running water; very cheap, $f>, 000. 
2,650 Acres, stock ranch, 20 miles south from San 

Jose; good pasture, plenty wood and water; $18,000. 
832 Acres, 22 miles from San Jose.stock ranch;$f>,000. 
160 Acres, in the warm belt, 1} miles above Alma, on 

R. R. ; Price, #3,000. 
337 Acres, 3 miles from San Jose, at $70 per acre; No. 

1 farm. 

73J Acres, 5 miles from San Jose; house, bam, etc.; 

at $55 per acre. 
191 Acres, 4 miles from San Jose; choice farm, at $90 

per acre. 

Several fruit orchards in vicinity of San Jose, from 3 to 
20 acres, on easy terms. Also, improved places in San 
Jose and Santa Clara. Title good in all cases, or no sale. 

JAMES A. CLAYTON, Real Estate Agent, 

288 Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 

A Good Dairy Ranch For Sale 

On Bear River, Humboldt County, Cal , 

containing' 600 acres of as good grazing 1 land as any in the 
State. New Dairy and Dwelling House. The land is well 
watered, and plenty of timber for firewood and shelter, 
and well fenced. I will also sell with the ranch 100 head 
of choice dairy cows and five horses. Price, $13,000, one- 
half down, the remainder on easy terms for one, two or 
three years Apply either in person or by letter to Rich- 
ard Johnston, Post-office address. Myrtle Grove, Hum- 
boldt County, Cal., or to K. J Johnston, No. 1,824 How- 
ard Street, San Francisco. 



COMMERCIAL HOTEL, 

Nos. 273. 275. 277 and 279 Main Street. Smith's Brick 
Building, STOCKTON, California. 

FKLD. C. HAHN, - - PROPRIETOR. 

Kates, SI. 25 and $2.00 per day. This popular Hotel has 61 
well -appointed rooms, has been refurnished and refitted in 
the most elegant manner, and is the most comfortable and 
commodious Hotel in the City. Large, pleasant rooms for 
amllies A Coach will be at all Trains to carry Passengers 
ree to the Hotel. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

After dipping the sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the rine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole A*ent for Pacific Coast. 



San Francisco Shopping. 

MRS. M. B. SMITH will purchase and forward 
goods of every description at reasonable commission. For 
Circulars giving full information and unexceptionable ref- 
erences, address her, No. 200 Stockton St., San Francisco. 



January n, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



31 



Winchester Repeating Rifle, 



MODEL 1873. 




String measuring from center of tar- 
get to center of each shot, 32 
inches. Average distance of 
each shot, 1 9-100 inches. 



The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting'. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch — 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— G. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 



Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



PACIFIC 

Bone Coal and Fertilizing Material Co. 

Office, 21 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

Pure Bone Meal, Superphosphate, Animal Fertilizers, 

Bone Meal for Chicken and Stock Feed. 

In order to introduce our fertilizers, and to prove that we are using nothing; hut pure materials, and being positive 
that when properly used they will double the yields of most crops, and at the same time enrich the soil, we are willing 
to furnish small lots, of 100 pounds and upwards, at ton prices. 

For Circulars, giving information concerning the use of the fertilizers on different crops, apply to or address the 
Company's office, No. 21 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

A. HAAS, Manager. 



MAKE NOTE OF FACTS AS NOTED BELOW. 




The great popularity of the SCITTT PATENT STAR BARBED WIRE arises from the following peculiarities: _ 

1st — Owing to its being plaited (not twisted) it is stronger than any other Wire made. All other Wires, and especially 
close twisted Wires, are weakened; IT MUST BE SO. because the fiber of the metal is broken in twisting. 

2d —Our Patent Machines are the only oues that form a Barbed Wire Cable without twisting the single strand of Wire. 

3d.— We use STEEL made by the Siemans & Martin process, for Barbs, the best in the world. Our Wire is made 
entirely by Machinery, and is perfectly uniform. . . 

4th.— It is coated with our own weatner-proof Iron Cement Coating— rust proof. It has been imitated, but never 
equalled. Weight-17 ounces per rod. 

5th —It costs from 20 to 40 percent less than an equally good board fence. 

6th.— 1,440 pounds will make a fence one mile long four Wires high. * . ^ j 

7th.— The wind will not blow it down; fire will not burn it; boys will not climb it; in fact it is a four-pointed argument 
that both man and beast will heed. ,.,„„, , _ „ ,., , „ 

8th.— For a Hog-tight fence use one koard and three Wires, posts 3 to 10 feet apart. For Cattle and Horses, three 
Wires, posts from 8 to 20 feet apart. - 

9th.— It is lighter, will reach farther, last longer, turn stock better, and look handsomer than any other Wire on the 
market. If these are not found to be facts return to 

GRANGERS' UNION Wire Fence Department, Manufacturers, Stockton, Cal. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NE W LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

. thus, 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ash for LEA S- PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London s 
<5r*<r., &*c; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO.. San Francisco. 



THE 



CRAPE CRAPE 



WATERPROOF CRAPE AND LACE 

Patent 



REFINISHING COMPANY. 



California Furniture Manufacturing Go 



224 & 226 BUSH STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Manufacturers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

FURNITURE, Etc. 



•LATEST STYLES AND LOWEST PRICES. 



(Shriver's 

The only Process by which old Crape can be made good as new. 
taking off. CITY AND COUNTY RIGHTS FOR SALE. 

OFFICE, II4BTURK STREET, IS AN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Process.) 

Crape refinished on Bonnets and Dresses without 




For Crippled and Deformed Persons, 

Is the largest Institution &f its kind on the Continent. The Medical and Surgical Staff comprises the best talent in 
the country. There have been more cases of human deformities successfully treated than by any similar Institution. 
More than 50,000 cases have been successfully treated. Diseases which are made a specialty— Curvature of the Spine, 
Hip Disease and all Diseases of the Joints, Crooked Limbs, Club Feet, Piles, Fistula, Nasal Catarrh and Paralysis. 
Send for Circulars and References to the 

Western Division, 319 Bush Street, San Francisco. 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

^ IMPORTERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN ' 

Top and Open Phaetons, Carriages, Top and OpeT Rockaways, Top and Open Buggies, 
Jump Seat Buggies, Single Seat Business Wagons, Two Seat Country Wagons, 

Thorough brace Wagons, Harness, Saddlery, Whips, B/anKets, Robes, Eic. 



JAMES R. HILL 



& CO.'S CONCORD HARNESS. 

C. B. SMITH & CO.'S 



TOMPKIN'S MANDVILLE 
HARNESS. 



HARNESS. 



No. 9 New Merchant s' Ex change, California St. 
REPOSITORY AND SALE STABLES, 

Corner New Montgomery and Mission Sts. 

Our Sale Stables are the largest on the Pacific Coast, having a large Amphitheater with first-class facilities for 
the exhibition of stock. We have ample accommodations for two hundred head of horses, atul are ready to receive 
consignments from all parts of the country, to be cared for at reasonable rates until day of sale. 



Olilanclt & Buck, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Animal Charcoal, Ivory Black, Bone Ash, 

AND NEATS FOOT OIL. 

Willow Charcoal for Rectifying Always on Hand. 

PURE BONE MEAL AND SUPERPHOSPHATES, 

For Fertilizing the Soil and insuring Good Crops. GROUND BONE, the best Feed for Poultry 
and Stock. Highest Market Price Paid for Animal Bones. For particulars apply to above 
parties, 

Second Long Bridge. Potrero, San Francisco, Cal. 



1 MUSICAL BOXES | 



a. 
ui 

DC 

c/> 

LU 
X 



o 

CO 



For Holiday, Birthday and vYedding Presents. 



HVL\ jr. 



CO.. 



Manufacturers and Importers, 

No. 120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 



3> 

a 
o 

*» 

=0 



30 

C/3 



CORK OAKS FOR SALE. 

We call attention to our large stock of CORK OAKS 
two years old, Also, FRUIT TREES and ORNAMEN- 
TAL Trees. 

SHINN & CO.. 

Niles, Alameda County, Cal 



ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gaa and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Boom. 

A PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS. 

At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 



32 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January n, 1879. 



WIRE 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized — 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 

THE RANDALL 

PULVERIZING HARROW. 

Unequaled for Cross-Plowing. 





Self-Sharpening by Use. 

Local agents wanted. Descriptive Circular and Price 
List free on application. 

Address GRIFFITH & BURKE. 

Sole Agents. 

Yolo, Yolo County, California. 



New Opera! Cantatas! 

XX. M. S. PINAFORE. 

Comic Opera by Arthur Sullivan. 

Is the most popular think of the kind ever performed in 
this country. Music excellent and easy, and words unex- 
ceptionable, making it very desirable for amateur per- 
formance in any town or village. Elegant copy, with 
words, music and libretto complete, mailed anywhere 
for $i.OO. 

Trial r» / Inru ' 8 ■ laughable operetta by the 
lllal U 1 JUI y 9 ame author. Price, 50 Cents. 

JOSEPH'S BONDAGE, B] Ohabwick, $1 OO 
BELSHAZZAR, " BrjTTEBFiELD, 1 OO 

ESTHER, " Bradbiry, .50 

Three Cantatas which are magnificent when given with 
Oriental dress and scenery. The last one is easy. 

"PAULINE," m. "PALOMITA," ($2.) "DIAMOND 
CUT DIAMOND ($1.) "GUARDIAN ANUEL"(50 Cts.) 
"LESSON IN CHARITY" ^60 Cts.) "MAUD IRVING" 
(60 Cts. ), are Operettas requiring but a few singers, and 
are capital for Parlor Performances. The last three are 
Juveniles. 

In Press: "THE SORCERER," by Sullivan. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Ditson & Co , 711 & 843 Broadway, N. Y. 



GREAT REDUCTION! 

—AT— 

MORSE'S 
PALACE OF ART, 

417 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Notwithstaii'linfr the great expense attending- the pH 
duetion of the tirst-clans and artistic IMmtographii: work 
of our Gallery, GREAT REDUCTIONS have been madc ; 
as follows: 



CARD 


CABINET 


CABINET 


PICTURES, 


PICTURES, 


PICTURES, 


Full and J length, 


Large Heads 


$3 per dozen. 


,5 per dozen. 


$<j per dozen. 


SOUVENIR 


SOUVENIR 


BOUDOIR 


CABINETS, 


CABINETS, 


PICTURES, 


Full and , length, 


Large Heads, 


810 and US 


87 per dozen. 


88 per doztn. 


Per Dozen. 



There will be no change in the excellence or perfection 
of our work. GEORGE D. MORSE 



SEEDS 



Our large illustrated Descrip- 
tive Catalogue for 1879 mailed 
FREE TO ALL. It ™M fay to 

sendjor it. BENSON, MAULE * CO, 

223 Church St., PMlada., P».r 



IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



GO 

Q 
W 
W 
w 

Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. 

S ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

Q In large Quantities and offered in Lots to suit Purchasers. 

< GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES. 

O 

Seed Warehouse, 315 & 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



r 
o 

XA 

m 
m 
d 

CO 




■ M 


L a _ _ / . i i / i , v , , > iB , ! 






\ , 1 5 1 1- r— -| r - - r - -T - -r 


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' T T r T i r- • y- -r - - r - r - - r m - r - - 



More than One Hundred Thousand Dealers and Con- 
sumers Testify to its Superiority. 

In answer to numerous inquiries with reference to Patent Barb Fencing, we respectfully 
submit the following: 

1st. Barb Fencing must remain rigid and inflexible after being once properly put up. This 
can only be insured with at least tiro main wires, twitted together. 

2d. Two Wires twisted together afford much more strength, for the same weight, than 
one Wire. 

3d. To insure the greatest strength with the least weight, Steel is much superior as a 
material for the main Wires to any other. 

4th. the sharp puncture at the moment of contact is what gives Barb Fencing its efficacy, 
and makes it at owe, the dread of every Animal. 

5th. Therefore the Barb should be made of round Steel Wire, cut obliquely, which in- 
sures the highest degree of sharpness. 

Cth. After the essentials of sharpness and stiffness are secured for the Barb, the remaining 
necessary condition is that of its being fired Jirmly upon the fencing, so that it cannot be detached 
without destroying the Fencing itself. This can only be accomplished by fastening the Barbs 
upon one of the two main Wires before they are twisted together. 

The strongest and most efficient Barb Fencing must be made of two separate and independent 
Steel Wires firmly and evenly twisted together, upon one of which has been fixed at regular in- 
tervals a round Steel Wire Barb with beveled points, so that while one main Wire sustains the 
Barbs, the other tends to bind them firmly and unalterably in place. It necessarily follows when 
this is done that the Barb points will projtct in every direction from the fencing. 

Barbs preseutingybf/r points in a group cannot lie effective, as the points will inevitably pre- 
sent themselves in pairs, thus destroying the efficiency of either, the result being to scratth mere- 
ly and thus inrife contact, rather than to puncture and reptl. 

All Barbs stamped or cut from Sheet or Flat Metal should be avoided, as they cannot be 
made uniformly sharp enough to warn and dr\ve away the Animal. Also avoid all styles of 
Barbed Fencing where the main Wires are fastened or clamped together by the Barbs, as this tends 
to destroy the power of the fencing to remain taut and rigid between the posts in all temperatures, 
which is the great advantage gained by the use of two separate and independent Wires twisted 
together. 

The GLIDDEN PATENT is the only Barb Wire including the features demonstrated above 

as essential. 

We are prepared to supply demand both for Galvanized and Japanned at reduced prices. 
Send for Circulars. 

JONES & CIVENS, 

Pacific Coast General Agents, 

10th and K Sts., Sacramento. Cal. 



Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Co., 



-OF— 



J. H. CARROLL, President. GEO. A. MOORE, Vice-Pres't. 

J. C. CARROLL, Secretary. 



This substantial Company, the only Life Insurance Corporation organized upon the Pacific 
Coast, is now offering to the insuring public its new 

LOW RATE POLICY, 

The Most Attractive Form of Insurance Ever Presented to the Public. 



Keliable agents wanted in every town and County. Applications for explanatory Circulars or 
for Agencies may be made to the Principal Office of the Company in SACRAMKNTO, or to any 
of the General Agents. 



Sharpless Seedling Strawberry. 

PRICE REDUCED. 

Circulars, containing' testimonials and Price List sent 
free to all applicants. 

COLORED PLATE sent on receipt of Ten Cents. Free 
to all purchasers of Plants. 

J. K. SHARPLESS (Originator), 
Catawissa, Pennsylvania. 



THE BEST KAY PRESS. 

TOE MITEL ECONOMY HAY I'RKSS IS TUP. I1F.ST 

and cheapest. Opera- 
ted Willi l noise onij 
2 men. 10 ions of lis 
hay can In- loaded in 
p ny ordinary u>x car. 
. The only strictly por- 
table pre.ss m use, so wail-anted or money refund- 
ed. Before linving get my circulars. . GEO. 
ki. I I.I. Patentee and ». . . '. -r. CJuincy. 111. 




ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY 

NURSERIES. 

Trees. Plants. Shrubs. 

I offer fur sale this season a large and well assorted 
slock of FRUIT TREES, SHADE TREES, EVERGREENS 
and SHRUBS. Also, PALMS, CAMELLIAS, JAPAN 
PERSIMMONS, AZALEAS. ROSES and GREENHOUSE 
PLANTS in great variety. 

Pear Seedling*, fine $16 per 1,000 

Roses, in variety, fine $15 per 100 

Japan Persimmon, five varieties $25 per 100 

Magnolia, Grandiflora, 6 to 10 in $18 per 100 

Lauristinus, 6 to 10 in $10 per 100 

Chinese Magnolias, 2 ft $8 per dozen 

Special Inducements to Large Purchasers. 

iSTCatalogne Free on application. TEJ 

BERNARD S. FOX, Proprietor, 
SAN JOSE. CAL 
THOS. MEHERIN. Agent, 

516 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The LAWRENCE ENGINE. 

tea 




The Best Farm Engine in the World. 

AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF, 

Less Fuel, Less Water, Less Repairs than 
any other Portable Engine 

No Commission to Agents! Bottom Price to Purchasers! 

Engines for all purposes, with and without Wagons. 
You can save money by buying direct of us. Order early 

for next season's use. Send for Illustrated Catalogue and 
Price List. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS. Lawrence. Mass. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS were lately with the J. C. Hoadley Co 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Constantly on hand ami for sale, choice s|tecimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brahmaa. Buff 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 

Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish, Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Bocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
tams, Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 
*3\SAFE ARRIVAL OF EGGS GUARANTEED. TSJ 

No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
/yFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box 1018, San Francisco, Cal. 




FOR SALE. 
Berkshire Boar, "Blackbird," 

"BLACKBIRD" was farrowed April 4th, 1876, and is of 
the celebrated "SAMBO" family. 

Sim —"Sambo," bred by G. W. Shriver, Iowa. 

G. Sue.— "Glaston's Sambo," bred by Jno. Snells & 
Sons, Canada. 

G. G. Sire.— Jno. R. Craig's "Sambo," A. B. R., 761. 

Dam.— "Taplash, Jr.," bred by A. Rankin, Illinois. 

2xn Dam — "Taplash, 293 A," imported from England, 
and cost $500 when a pig. 

•'BLACKBIRD" is a splendid specimen of the Berkshire 
breed, with great length of body and depth of sides, short 
legs, broad shoulders, good hams, dished face a fine coat 
anil handsomely marked. He has been used in my herd 
with good success for two years. Object in selling: to 
prevent inbreeding. 

Price, $75, if taken at once. 

I have also several fine Pigs of both sexes, different ages 
and distinct families, for sale at prices to correspond with 
the times . Address, 

ALFRED PARKER, 

Bellota, San Joaquin County, California. 



FOR SALE. 

Black Hamburg Fowls, 

From stock of J. B. Lambing's latest importations. 
Hardy. Non-sitters. Best Layers. Beautiful. Warrant- 
ed pure. i 
Per Pair, $10. Cocks, each, $5. Eggs, per dozen, $8. 

M. COLLINGRIDGE, 

San Leandro, California. 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold|St.,|N. Y. 




Volume XVIL] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1879. 



Number 3. 



Leghorn Fowls. 

We give on this page a handsome engraving 
of a pair of Brown Leghorn fowls, made from a 
drawing of a couple of birds which won the 
first premium in their class at the Centennial, 
and are thus entitled to prominence. The birds 
were from the stock of Benson, Maule & Co., of 
223 "Church St., Philadelphia, and to these 
breeders we are indebted for the material with 
which to introduce these beautiful specimens 
of a well-approved breed to our readers. The 
Leghorns are already popular in California, 
both among the fancy breeders and the egg- 
producers, and doubtless a general review of 
the facts concerning the breed will be interest- 
ing in this connection. On the following page 
a correspondent of the Press writes upon an- 
other branch of the subject, and to his letter we 
j;all attention. 

Leghorns are a most desirable breed of fowls, 
both on account of their beauty of plumage, 
aristocratic bearing and practical purpose of egg 
production. They are natives of Italy, and 
arrive at the greatest perfection in a southern 
climate. They have the very great advantage 
of being very hardy, being pronounced by their 
admirers to be more exempt from poultry 
disease than any other variety. If given free 
range they will thrive well with only ordinary 
care; the most essential thing to their health 
being a constant supply of fresh cool water. 
Leghorns commend themselves to the farmer 
because of their skill as foragers; they are 
unexcelled in this respect. At an early age 
they will pick up their own living, when they 
have the unlimited range of the barnyard, etc. 

Unlike common fowls they will not take 
advantage of this liberty to "steal" their nests, 
but can readily be induced to lay wherever good 
nests are provided for them. Early maturity 
is not one of the least of their good qualities. 
Cockerels will crow at six weeks and pullets lay 
at four and a half month's. The crowning 
merit, however, of the Leghorn, is their produc- 
tion in eggs. Their reputation as layers is so 
well known that argument on this point is 
unnecessary. Under favorable circumstances 
they will lay from 200 to 250 eggs per annum. 
Their eggs are good size and uniformly pure 
white in color, may therefore be readily distin- 
guished. Where eggs alone are desired, the 
small size of the Leghorn is no disadvantage 
for the chief item is the largest number of eggs 
for the least outlay of food, and the Leghorns 
meet these requirements pre-eminently. The 
average weight of cocks is four and a half to six 
pounds; hens, three and a half to four pounds. 

The Brown Leghorns are the most popular and 
probably the most beautiful of all the sub-vari- 
eties of Leghorns. It would be impossible to speak 
in too extravagant terms of their elegant plumage. 
In color they resemble the Black-Breasted Red 
Games. They have large, red, single combs, 
pures white ear lobes, bright yellow legs and 
are very handsomely penciled. The cocks have 
solid black breasts and the hens a beautiful 
rich maroon. Their color is favorable to great 
hardiness and adapts them the better to such 
runs where the White Leghorns would become 
soiled. In the matter of ear lobes, the pullets 
are usually less faulty than the cockerels. The 
Browns do not, as yet, breed them to the 
same perfection as the Whites. In form it may 
safely be said that they have no superiors. It is 
claimed that they attain greater size and hard- 
iness than any other of their family. All that 
has been said of the economical merits of Leg- 
horns, applies with peculiar force to the Browns. 



Although of comparatively recent introduction, 
their fame as persistent layers, excellent 
foragers and for great hardiness is wide-spread. 
Benson, Maule & Co., in their new catalogue, 
which is a very desirable publication, say: ''We 
know of an instance where careful record show- 
ed that two hens laid 130 eggs in 2 months and 
10 days. In another remarkable case which 
came under our immediate notice, a hen pro- 
duced 223 eggs in 10 consecutive months. The 
cross between the Brown Leghorn and Partridge 
Cochins gives a very desirable result in quick 
growing chickens for broilers and market, and 
in fact for all purposes. The Leghorn being a 
non-setter and the Cochin having a propensity 
to sit, the cross produces a good fowl for eggs 
as well." 



North and South. — It is but poetic justice 
that the southern part of the State should 
have its time to laugh at the arid north. That 
power which regulates balances and compensa- 



Old Probabilities. — The Eastern weather 
god has finally undertaken to fix up the 
weather for the Pacific coast. His first utter- 
ances are as indefinite as the Delphian oracles, 
and will probably suit all cases. He begins by 
prognosticating for the coast in three divisions, 
lower, central and upper, which may, we pre- 
sume, embrace all the coast line from Aspinwall 
to Alaska; and thus having a wide mark, he 
may hit somewhere, as the boy thought when he 
fired at the barn. However this may be, we 
doubt not the Signal Service will localize thei r 
prophesies as fast as possible, and the difficul- 
ties of the problem they encounter will permit. 
It is true that our meteorological conditions 
seem so grouped in grand divisions that there 
will be a degree of monotony in the daily fore- 
casts, but there are certain periods when a 
foreknowledge of coming rain will be of great 
value to our agriculturists and warning of ap- 
proaching storms, will always help the mari- 
ners. One point of especial importance to the 




CENTENNIAL PREMIUM BROWN LEGHORN FOWLS. 



tions in the affairs of men, has taken cognizance 
of the way in which the proud dwellers in the 
northern counties have vaunted themselves 
upon their unfailing rainfall and their surety 
of time to labor and to reap, in comparison 
with the uncertainty which sometimes prevails 
farther south. As a rebuke for this sectional 
rejoicing there comes a full drenching at the 
south, while the north is still looking and 
longing and receiving, as it were, the crumbs of 
rainfall which fall from the lavish southern re- 
freshment. The rebuke will no doubt be just 
as well appreciated, even though it be of only 
present moment. The time for the north to 
regale itself with copious downpours will 
duly come, and then the State-long prosperity 
will call for general rejoicing. The deduction 
to be drawn from this unusual season is, that 
the south may take precedence in the rainfall, 
even though its advantage does not signify 
permanent lack elsewhere. The north will 
take off its hat to the south this year, and 
acknowledge itself beaten at its own game. 



An American bank is about to be established 
at the city of Mexico. 



agriculturist, is the coming of the October 
rains. At that season of the year, the raisins 
and other drying fruits are exposed, and a day's 
warning of rain would be worth thousands of 
dollars to the producers. As these interests are 
yearly increasing, the value of the warning will 
proportionately increase, and we trust that it 
may be forthcoming. There will doubtless be 
other practical and important applications of 
the information as soon as it assumes the de- 
finiteness attained at the East, and we are glad 
that our coast has been embraced in the system. 

The Phylloxera in Portugal. — The tele- 
graph announces that the Portuguese govern- 
ment, in alarm at the ravages of the phylloxera 
in the province of Douro, has directed local com- 
missions to make careful investigation and 
instruct vineyardists in the best modes of resist- 
ing the attacks of this foe. 

The great suit against the United States for 
11,000 square miles of land in Missouri and 
Texas was decided by the Supreme court ad- 
versely to the claimants. 

Jay Cooke, the ex-banker, is in Utah. 



Poison Cheese. 

Editors Press : — Seeing a note in your paper 
of November 9th, that you would like to ex- 
amine some of the cheese that has made so many 
people sick in and about our town, I thought 
I would send you some. This cheese made 10 
persons sick in one day, at our house and glove 
shop. They were very sick, all thought they were 
poisoned, and we would much like to know 
what is in it, which makes everyone who par- 
takes of it so very sick. You will confer a 
great favor by sending us word in your paper. — 
Mrs. Carrie A. Kingsley, Red Bluff. 

It is several weeks since we received the 
sample of cheese alluded to, and it has had a 
very careful examination, but thus far nothing 
has been discovered which can be certainly 
charged with the evil. Prof. Hilgard kindly 
consented to put the cheese through a chemical 
analysis, and we have worked it over thoroughly 
with the microscope. Prof. Hilgard reports to 
us that he finds no poisonous substances in the 
cheese, and our microscopic search does not 
show anything not commonly found in cheese. 
It seems likely that this specimen of poisonous 
cheese must take its place among others, which 
have come forward at the East during the last 
few years, and which neither chemist nor 
microscopist has been able to explain except by 
analogies. Cases of diseased milk or milk from 
diseased cows can be easily detected by the 
microscope, but cheese which makes people sick 
seems to guard its own secrets very successfully. 

The best explanation advanced to account for 
these cases is that by Prof. L. B. Arnold, but 
he owns that it is only an inference and that he 
has not found actual evidence in cheese to 
demonstrate the truth of his veiw. He argues 
from cases of diseased milk, which, as we have 
said, are easily detected by the microscope, 
that the unwholesome properties in milk are 
transmitted to the cheese, and though disguised 
by curd-forming and curing are still effective as 
sickeners when introduced into the system of 
the eater. Of course this needs much exami- 
nation and proof before it can be established. 
The deduction, however, from this theory is a 
wholesome one in any event; and that is that 
cheese-makers should guard the quality of their 
milk most zealously and should never use milk 
from cows in a feverish condition, or otherwise 
out of good health. 

Cases of poisonous cheese are exceedingly 
rare; not more frequent than instances of ill 
effects in many other foods. Although we have 
examined a number during our dairy studies, 
we never fear to eat cheese as it comes before 
us. The rare cases of evil are not enough to 
cast a shade upon the wholesomeness and desir- 
ability of cheese generally as an article of food. 



Yield and Value of Olives. —Mr. Frank A. 
Kimball, of San Diego county, is certainly 
entitled to credit for the enterprise he is show - 
ing in pushing forward practical tests of the 
olive and its products. In an article which he 
writes to the Riverside Press, occurs the follow- 
ing statement of yield and value : " From a 
row of 10 trees in my orchard — cuttings from 
which they grew were set out May 9th, 1872 — 
I have this fall picked over 125 gallons, or an 
average of over 12 gallons per tree. From one 
tree I took 21 gallons — this six-year-old tree has 
paid me $41 in the four years it has borne fruit.' 
We learn from the Southern California Horti- 
culturist, that Mr. J. De Barth Shorb pronounces 
Mr. Kimball's pickled olives, the best he ever 
tasted in flavor and in condition of nutritive 
qualities. This is a good score. We trust it 
may be repeated by others. 



34 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 18, 1879. 



The Cone-bearers, or Evergreen Trees of 
California— No. L 

[Written for the BD&U Prkss by J. G. Lemho.v] 

General Description. 
Few orders of plants can be named which are 
of more importance to man, whether in reference 
to furnishing food or building materials, thau 
this of the conifers, included in and forming the 
most of the great class of Oi/nrnosperma, or 
naked-seeded plants. In general character they 
are resinous- juiced trees, mostly evergreen, 
cone-bearing (though often greatly modified) 
with needle-shaped or scale-like leaves, very 
easily distinguished at sight, and inhabiting the 
cold or temperate regions of the earth. Except 
our yew, which may be poisonous to horses and 
cattle, as is its English congener, not a species 
of them all is either noxious or useless. The 
most of them are very valuable, and among 
them are the most beautiful trees in the world. 
It is beyond the scope of these papers to present 
even briefly the various uses and values derived 
from the pine, spruce, fir, cedar, cypress, and 
juniper families of our forests. They contribute 
three-fourths of the material for our houses, 
mines, bridges, roads, wharves, vessels, etc., 
and the Aborigines, especially of the Southern 
hemisphere, depend largely upon their fruits for 
food. 

Habitat or Locality. 

Found almost exclusively in the cold regions 
of the earth, the cone-bearers form necessarily 
two great zones across the extreme land surface 
— one at the nortli and the other at the south. 
In these zones the conifers outnumber the other 
trees of the broad-leaved, non-resinous class (as 
oak, ash, etc.), ten to one. Great disparity is 
found between the trees of these extreme re- 
gions ; those of Australia, New Zealand aud 
South America can scarcely be recognized as 
relatives of the more abundant and typical trees 
of Northern America, Europe and Asia. Some 
entire genera and one large sub-order, very 
numerous in the northern, are entirely absent 
from the southern zone, though in the southern 
regions there are found a great many genera aud 
but few species. 

Again, the two continents have widely differ- 
ent forms, amounting often to generic distinc- 
tions, and very frequently to difference of 
species. All the drear northern regions of Asia 
and the more humid northern portions of Europe 
are forested with this class of plants. Immense 
forests of pine and spruce abound in northern 
Russia and in the Scandinavian peninsula. 
These noble forests extend down as far as Ger- 
many and Switzerland, but below this locality 
the evergreens are outnumbered by the broad, 
deciduous-leaved trees, oak, ash, beech, etc. 

In the northern part of North America exist 
the most extensive and noblest pine forests of 
the globe; being often, as in the eastern United 
States, 300 to 500 miles in extent. The Amer- 
ican conifers, though possessing many species 
peculiar to the region, are destitute of 25 entire 
genera of Asiatic and Australian species. 

Here on this continent are found, also, wide 
distinctions in respect of character between the 
two coasts, Atlantic and Pacific; species of 
each coast being generally confined to each. 
There is one notable genus of two monster 
species that inhabits exclusively this Pacific re- 
gion — the coast redwood and our famous Sierra 
"big tree." 

The last climatic, or rather regional effects to 
be noticed are found by comparison of our two 
mountain ranges — the Coast and the Sierra. In 
the lower, fog-fostered Coast Range is found the 
redwood; while in certain groves of the inland, 
lofty Sierra Nevada, tower up the grand, col- 
umnar kings of the vegetable worlds. 

Wide differences in species (termed varieties) 
are detected by comparison between trees of 
the two ends of these ranges. The Douglas 
spruce, of the Oregon coast, with its large 
trunk and small cones, two inches long, becomes 
in San Bernardino, a poor deformed tree, with 
enormous cones one foot long. The red fir of 
the Oregon Cascade Range, with its medium 
cones having exserted bracts, becomes (accord- 
ing to Prof. Brewer and John Muir, but not 
Englemann) in the high Sierra the large coned 
fir with concealed bracts. 

Class Characters. 

This great class of cone-bearers, called scien- 
tifically Gymnospermte, or naked-seeded plants, 
i. e., plants with seeds not enclosed in a peri* 
carp, but lying naked at the base of the scales 
of a strobile or cone, is the last grand division 
of the phoenogamous plants, and comes next to 
the endogens or inside-growers, with which it 
shares the character of (chiefly) parallel-veined 
leaves. 

The other class characters are resinous juice, 
mostly more than two cotyledons or parts to the 
seed, pitted cells in the wood fiber (detected 
only with a strong magnifier) and the absence of 
ducts. The latter fact accounts for the resis- 
tance to decay generally presented by conifer 
trees ; but fir trees form a remarkable excep- 
tion, rotting as soon almost as poplar. The 
flowers are always imperfect and diclinous of 
both descriptions, i. «., monoecious, with the 
male and female flowers on different branches 
of the same tree ; or \dkrcious, i. «?., with male 
flowers on one tree and female on another. The 
fruit is a strobile or cone (e. g., the pines, spruce, 
etc.), sometimes reduced to a cup (e. g., the yew), 



and even to a closed, berry-like object, called a 
galbulus, (e. </., juniper). The leaves are mostly 
long and slender, as in the pines, sometimes 
reduced to pointed scales, as in the cypress 
family. 

Obscurity of the Gymnospermee. 

Except the greatly modified family of orchids, 
no class of plants is more studied and is less 
understood than the Gymnosperms. Their 
mixed characters, resembling the great classes 
on each side of them, and the extreme modifica- 
tion of organs, but more than all the few or 
poor specimens collected of such an unwiedly 
class of plants, have reudered research formid- 
able to moat scholars and mostly fruitless, except 
by a few specially qualified scientists, of whom 
mention may be made of Touruefort, Link, 
DeCaisne, I.indley, Endlicher, Hooker, both 
father and son, Torrey, Gray and Engelmann. 

Even unscientific observers often speak of the 
resemblance between the flat, expanded limbs 
of fir trees and the Usual forms of the stems or 
fronds of ferns. This resemblance also led the 
master of botanical science, Linntpus, to errone- 
ously classify them together. Their resemblance 
to the palms is also very marked. Both form 
generally a single stem. All the leaves of the 
palm die and fall away as the stem arises ; so 
the side limbs of the conifers generally become 
dwarfed or fall off as the tall, straight shaft 
towers heavenward. The leaves, mostly in 
fascicles or bundles {e. g., pine, tamarack), are 
regarded as abortive shoots. They are usually 
persistent (deciduous in tamarack), remaining 
on the tree from 4 to 12 ysars. 

(To be Continued.) 



Points on Poultry — White Leghorns. 

Editors Press: — Poultry is doubtles8 the 
most profitable of any little thing that farmers 
have, and because of its small nature in dollars, 
many will not bother with fowls. The fact is, 
aggs and chickens are as high in the cities of 
this State as in any market in the United 
States, and wheat and other feed as low as any 
where, except Chicago; and if the people of the 
Pacific slope would give this branch of industry 
their attention, thousands of dollars in clear profit 
could be realized from it. Although it might 
be only a few hundred dollars to any one or 
each breeder here and there this side of the Si- 
erras, it is nevertheless in the aggregate just 
as important, and Utah and the East would not 
send eggs to California. Little things are what 
New England farmers get a living from. No 
farmyard is without its cow, pigs, fowls, etc., 
while here no farmyard has them,, or in other 
words, it is the exception there to be without, 
aud here the exception to have them. It is too 
much on the principle of big things here, either 
make or break; and I think it oftener breaks 
than makes. But some one says: "How are 
we to do it so that it will be profitable. We 
had some chickens once and we received no re- 
turn or profit from them, and they ate or 
scratched up everything in our garden, and 
roosted on our wagons, plows, and other tools, 
or anywhere they could. 

This is just the point; first have a yard and 
hen-house built for them (it need not be an ex- 
pensive one in this warm climate), then decide 
what variety you will keep, and procure some 
good ones. A trio of No. 1. birds at $15 is in 
my opinion cheaper than 15 mongrels at the 
same price. Breed only one kind, so that if you 
have some extra nice ones to spare, your neigh- 
lx>rs or friends will want them at a fair price to 
breed from. Post yourself up at least on the 
kind you breed; get the standard in your mind 
so you will know if they should be single or 
double combed; yellow or willow legsf white, 
brown or black plumage, etc. 

I have been an extensive breeder of Leghorns 
in Hartford, Connecticut, for many years, and 
I see some of the breeders and fanciers here in 
California do not pay as much attention to the 
standard or poiuts in the different kinds as the 
Eastern breeders do, consequently cannot get 
the fancy prices that Eastern men get for their 
standard fowls. So that all can familiarize 
themselves to the standard, I will give it on 
the Leghorn class and on other kinds from 
time to time, if you will give it space in your 
already crowded but valuable paper, which 
every farmer, gardener or live stock man cannot 
afford to be without. 

White Leghorn Cock. 

Head — Short and deep; beak yellow, rather 
long and stout; eyes full and bright; face red 
and free from folds; comb red, medium size, 
erect, firm on the head, single, straight, deeply 
serrated (having five or six points), extending 
well back over the head and free from side 
sprigs. 

Earlobes and Wattles — Earlobe white or 
creamy-white, rather pendant and smooth or 
free from wrinkles. Wattles red, long and 
pendulous. 

Neck — Long aud well arched; hackle abun- 
dant and pure white. 

Back — Back of medium lengtli and width, as 
free as possible from yellowish tinge. 

Breast and Body — Breast round and carried 
well forward. Body broad, heaviest forward; 
color white; wings large, well folded. 

Tail — Large and full, carried very upright; 
sickle feathers large and well curved; tail-cov- 
erts abundant; all plumage white. 



Legs. — Thighs medium; shanks long and in 
color bright yellow. 

Carriage — Upright and proud. 

White Leghorn Hen. 
Head like the cock. Comb like the cock ex- 
cept it droops to one side. Earlobes and wattles 
same as cock except the wattles are rounded. 
Neck long and graceful. Back medium length 
and full. Breast and body: breast full and 
round; body deep and broader in front than 
rear. Color white. Wings long, well 
folded. Tail upright, full, long and all plum- 
age white. Legs and thighs medium, shanks 
long and slender, bright yellow. Carriage not 
so upright as that of the cock. 

Points Used in Judging'. 
Symmetry, 10; size, 10; condition, 10; head, 
7; comb, 15; earlobes and wattles, 15; neck, 5; 
back, 5; breast and body, 8; wings, 5; tail, 5; 
legs, 5. Scale, 100. 

I wish there was interest enough in poultry 
here so a society could be formed and exhibi- 
tions held yearly. C. A. Pitkin. 
San Jose, Cal. 



The Salmon Berry and Other Wild Fruits. 

Editors Press: — The salmon berry question 
has been pretty fully discussed of late through 
the columns of the Press, but as some of your 
correspondents differ with me on some points, 
I would like to set myself right before the pub- 
lic, and then I am done. First, I agree with 
Dr. Newmark, that they are too soft for trans- 
portation; and he might have added that they 
will not keep for any length of time — at best, 
soon becoming moldy. Mr. Jessup says I am 
mistaken about their encroachments into the 
forests. He says they extend hundreds of 
miles instead of yards through them. This 
may be so in Washington Territory, but not so 
in Del Norte county, Cal. I now think I see 
the reason why. In Washington Territory 
there are immense forests of fir as the principal 
timber, and no redwood. The salmon berry 
seems to be at home among the former, but not 
in the latter, lu Del Norte, the principal for- 
ests are redwood, bordered by a belt of fir, 
spruce and hemlock, 200 or 300 yards wide. 
In this belt the salmon berry is at home, and I 
have never known it to encroach far into the 
redwood forest. 

Mr. Jessup says I am right in some of my 
statements, and doubtless would be in all, had 
I seen them in their native home with a view 
of bringing them out. In answer, I would say 
that my acquaintance with them is confined to 
Del Norte county, and extends from 1853 to 
1868, a period of 16 years, and I had them, and 
other wild fruits, growing on my farm in all 
their native luxuriance, and ought to be some- 
what acquainted with them and their habit of 
growth. 

Mr. Tower, of Humboldt county, says they 
will not grow at all in heavy timber. As stated 
in my former letter, they are seldom seen more 
than a few rods from the timber in Del Norte, 
and their growth is very much stunted, with 
little fruit and of inferior quality. 

One correspondent thinks they were kept in 
check by fires; but 1 had them under fence 
during the whole 16 years, where they never 
were once disturbed by fire. I have seen them 
in small openings in the timber of an acre or 
so, where they were thrifty and productive, 
but in the open prairie exposed to sun and 
wind, were always of stunted growth. 

Some of your corresjwndents differ with me 
about the color of the variety known in Del 
Norte as purple. When about half ripe they 
are a bright red, but when fully ripe they as- 
sume a darker hue, a mingling of red with a 
darker shade, which to the eyes of the people 
in my neighborhood had the appearance of 
purple. 

Your correspondent J. G. C. comes to the 
rescue and describes several varieties. The 
one at the head of his article [Rubus specta- 
hilis, is perhaps the one described in my letter. 
The Del Norte variety have purple flowers, 
with sharp spines that shed off after a few 
years' growth, becoming smooth and hard, 
with bodies two or three inches in diameter at 
the ground. 

In conclusion, I would say that I hope Mr. 
Washburn, or some one else, may succeed in 
improving this fruit aud adapting it to various 
localities; but I must confess that I have little 
faith in this, and am a little like Mr. Miller, 
inclined to class them with "poorLo," whose 
doom is sealed when the withering effects of 
civilization take hold of him. 

Other Wild Fruits. 

Mr. Jessup very accurately describes another 
native fruit of Del Norte, known by some as 
the "high bush huckleberry," and by others as 
the "high bush cranberry." They are confined 
entirely to the forests, and grow considerably 
taller than where he saw them, say from three 
to six feet high. The seeds are very small, 
much smaller than the currant, and for pies 
and jelly are superior to the currant or cran- 
berry. If this fruit could be domesticated and 
improved by cultivation, it would be desirable 
as an ornamental shrub and for its fruit. 

There is another variety found growing in 
the mountains on open land, from 18 inches to 
two feet high. This shrub is quite different 



from the other, but the fruit is the same. 
Still Another Variety. 

The blue berry, known as the "blue huckle- 
berry" there, grows on low, moist prairie land, 
18 inches to two feet high. The fruit is blue 
when ripe, high flavored, small seeds, excellent 
for pies. The fruit is about as large as small 
buckshot. It will soon become extinct by the ■ 
trampling of stock, unless some one comes to 
the rescue, and adapts it to garden culture. 

Another shrublike-variety is found growing 
in the open woods, on both bottom and high 
lands. It grows three to six feet high, and is 
known as "high bush huckleberry." The fruit 
is black, about the size of currants, and of oval 
shape. If I remember right, it is not very 
high flavored, but very good for pies, or stewing. 

The thimbleberry is found growing in rich 
well drained soil, on prairie land, generally 
along the edge of forests, and sometimes on 
rocky land, but always where the land is rich. 
It grows three to four feet high; fruit bright 
red; shape like the raspberry, very small seed 
and delicate flavor, but unproductive. It is 
rather acid, parts from the stem like the rasp- 
berry, and the shell-like berry is so thin that 
it will scarcely bear the touch of the fingers 
without crushing. They might possibly be im- 
proved by cultivation. 

Crab Apple and Wild Cherry. 

There is a species of crab apple in Del Norte 
growing 25 to 30 feet high, and eight inches to 
a foot in diameter, bearing an oval-shaped 
fruit, from a half to five-eighths of an inch 
long. The fruit grows in clusters of a dozen or 
more together. The fruit has the true crab 
flavor, and makes a very good jelly. The 
writer's mind is carried to 1853, when Del 
Norte was a part of old Klamath county, and 
when the settlements in those parts dated back 
only a few months. It was then we could 
prize and appreciate the wild fruits so bounti- 
fully distributed throughout all this region by a 
beneficent Creator. 

The wild cherry grows 30 or 40 feet high, a 
foot or more in diameter, and extends I believe 
all through Oregon. I have never seen it fruit. 
It is sometimes used for a stock to graft on, 
and proves very thrifty and strong, generally 
outgrowing the graft, and has the fault of 
sprouting badly. 

Wild Plums. . 

I have never seen the wild plum on the coast, 
but in southern Oregon (Rogue River valley) 
there are two or three varieties. The Southern 
Oregonians in early days dried large quan- 
tities of them for family use. Also in Scott's 
valley, Siskiyou county, are large thickets 
(they grow more as a shrub than tree), and 
were the main reliance for dried fruit by the 
inhabitants for many years. There are large 
quantities of them in Modoc county. There is 
one variety among them that is a very good 
substitute for the cultivated kinds, but most 
varieties have a more or less bitter flavor. The 
writer has used them for stock to graft upon 
with success. They make a suitable stock for 
dwarfing. John Mavity. 

St. Helena, Cal., Dec. 25th, 1878. 



pLOr\IcdLXJ^E. 



Potted Plants. 

Editors Press: — In perusing your issue for 
December 21st, my attention was attracted by 
an article headed, "Care of Potted Plants," by 
G. Howatt. The writer of the article in ques- 
tion starts out by taking up and most unwar- 
rantably misconstruing an article from my pen, 
which appeared in your issue for October 26th. 
He says: "The writer states that amateurs 
fail in potting pot plants for the reason that 
they expose their pots to the sun. The writer 
means to say that they must be plunged," and 
goes on to show that such treatment is not only 
wrong but highly injurious. 

Now, in my article in the number for October 
26th, I did not, in any way or manner, hint 
that plants in pots should be plunged. While 
I did say that the practice of placing the pots 
in the sun was the cause of much failure, I, as 
distinctly, gave my plan for protecting them 
from the sun, in the seoond paragraph. I said: 
"To prevent the pots from being in full sun, 
have the shelf made lower than the window 
sill, just so the top of the pots will be even with 
the sill." 

I thought that this was short and distinst 

enough that all who read might understand. By 
having the shelf so constructed the sides of the 
pots are protected from the sun's rays, while 
the surface of the pots and the plants them- 
selves enjoy all the sun practical, which is right 
and -proper to have a good and satisfactory 
growth and display. 

To show that all authorities do not agree 
with Mr. Howatt in regard to plunging pots, I 
ask permission to give a short extract from an 
editorial in the American Agriculturist for De- 
cember, 1878, headed "Fixtures for Window 
Plants:" 

" Window-boxes, those intended to hold the 
soil in which the plants are to grow, have been 
described in earlier numbers; but those who 
keep their plants in pots will find a box exceed- 
ingly useful. The pots, being placed in this 
and surrounded by sand, or what we think pre- 
ferable—sphagnum, or neat-moss— the use of 
a box will prevent much litter, which is to some 
neat housekeepers a sufficient objection to keep- 



January 18, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



ing any house plants. If the plants must be 
moved away from the window for safety in an 
unusually cold night, or for other reason, the 
box allows this to be done with very little 
trouble. A still greater advantage is that it 
checks undue evaporation from the surface of 
the pots, and makes watering less frequently 
necessary. If the window has a deep sill, the 
box may sit upon that; otherwise it should be 
on legs with castors. The box may be of pine, 
securely put together, or of any ornamental 
wood. 

" In describing, some time ago, a window- 
box for holding the soil, we suggested that oil- 
cloth carpeting of some neat pattern, made a 
covering that at a little distance could not be told 
from expensive tiles. Whatever the box may 
be, it should be lined with zinc. The pots will 
be of various hights, and in arranging them in 
the box should all be brought up to the same 
level by standing them on blocks or small in- 
verted pots, or whatever will serve the purpose. 
The moss is to be first thoroughly dampened, 
and then squeezed in the hands; it is then to be 
packed in by degrees around the pots, using a 
stick to press it down when the spaces are too 
narrow for the hands. The pots should be far 
enough below the edge of the box to allow a 
thiu layer over them and the earth they con- 
tain. Sand may be used in a similar manner, 
but it has no advantage over moss, while it is 
much heavier." 

I could cite much similar testimony from 
equally high authority, but the above will 
answer all practical purposes, coming as it does 
from authority higher than which we have none 
in the United States. 

Now I would like to ask Mr. Howatt a few 
leading questions : What is the difference 
whether we pot our plants and plunge the pots 
in sand or moss, or take them out of the pots 
and plant them on benches, as practiced by 
professionals ? 

Why do professionals remove the plants from 
pots and plant them on benches ? Is it not to 
save extra expense in the purchase of pots and 
extra labor in watering ? 

Did you ever try watering plants under the 
same conditions, one set with ice-cold water and 
the other set with tepid water ? If so, you must 
have noticed a marked advantage in watering 
with tepid water, if not, try a calla, begonia or 
fuchsia, and then say whether it is old fogyised 
or not. 

Would you throw lime water on a geranium 
or fuchsia in full bloom, or slash it over them as 
you say ? 

Where did you ever see or hear of a rose 
colored sweet alyssum ? I would much like to 
get it, if there is such a color. 

W. C. L. Drew. 

El Dorado, Cal. 

[We trust this matter will not be carried 
beyond a brief setting forth of the points at 
issue between our contributors. We have no 
space for extended discussion. — E»s. Press.] 

Foothills of the Sierra. 

[Read before the California Academy of Sciences by B. B. 
Rkddinu. J 

Geologic Formation. 
The western base of the Sierra Nevada bor- 
dering the Sacramento valley, is known in this 
State as the foothill region. These foothills 
extend from Reading at the northern end of the 
valley to Caliente at the southern extremity, a 
a distance of 350 miles. I am indebted to Mr. 
A. Bowman, formerly of the State Geological 
Survey, for the following description of the for- 
mations of this portion of the State. He says: 
"Generally speaking, there are gradually rising 
low outliers of upper tertiary gravels, sands 
and clays all along the western base of the 
Sierra. They are often capped with volcanic 
matter and cut through by erosions. The dry 
winding arroyos through the flatfish foothills 
are familiar to every one who has followed 
along the edge of the Sacramento and San Joa- 
uin plains. These erosions in some places cut 
own into the middle tertiary and even into 
the cretaceous beds; but there is little surface 
area of the latter. Down on the plains all is 
covered up by the Recent. 

"Patches occur of middle tertiary and upper 
tertiary where denudation has removed great 
masses of tertiary country with, these excep- 
tions; for example, at Millerton on both sides 
of the San Joaquin. A patch of middle ter- 
tiary hills about three by ten miles is there 
seen; and at lone valley, several miles square 
of steep hills of this period are laid down in 
slightly pitching beds. The tertiary formations 
reach away up into the Sierra in the shape of 
ancient river deposits. They change at from 
300 to 1,500 feet altitude into Huviatite depos- 
its; although a large portion of the plains 
tertiary, to below the present sea level, is also 
fluviatite, interbedded with lacustrine or marine, 
sometimes (apparently) in alternate order. 

|'The surface areas may be said to change, 
going eastward, from recent to upper tertiary 
(pliocene), as the soil belongs above or below 
the volcanic outflows; and then to the slate and 
granite formations of the Sierra, extending to 
the Summit. 

"The cretaceous formation shows scarcely 
any surface area along the base of the Sierra 
except in Shasta county; although from Folsom 
north, the ravines and canyons expose its 
edges; especially north of Oroville, at Reading's 
ranch, and from there north to Pit river, the 



flat country is all cretaceous, the tertiary being 
mostly removed by denudation. The same is 
true of patches between there and Oroville. 
The patch between Fort Reading and Pit 
river is about 20 miles square. The foothill 
cretaceous of Butte and Shasta counties is over- 
laid by the Shasta coal measures, which are, I 
think, middle or upper tertiary; and these 
again by the upper tertiary formation of the 
ancient river gravel period and by the volcanic 
outflows from the Lassen volcanic chain. No 
cretaceous rocks have been identified interme- 
diate between Folsom and Tejon pass. Patho- 
logically, the cretaceous beds are much more 
silicified and compacted than the tertiary. 
They are the shales and conglomerates fouud 
in these regions; while the tertiary are often 
loose and fragile, and scarcely worthy of classi- 
fication in the harder category. Both are very 
regularly bedded and only moderately tilted 
here; while on the opposite side of the valleys 
of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, they are 
both tilted and altered — remarkably so in com- 
parison with those on the east side, and in pro- 
portion to their age, generally speaking. 

"The older rock formations of the Sierra 
foothills are, in the main, granites south of 
Fresno river, and slates north. The slate re- 
gion contains patches of granite, often several 
miles square; and there is between Folsom and 
the Central Pacific railroad a large patch, 
eight or ten miles square at the least, extend- 
ing from the valley to near Auburn. 

"The granite region at the south has also 
patches of slate. Opposite Visalia, at the edge 
of the valley, are two isolated patches 10 by 12 
and 10 by 15 miles. 

"It remains only to trace the boundary be- 
tween the slate north of Fresno river and the 
tertiary of the valley. Along this line, begin- 
ning at the south, are the Buchanan copper 
mines, Indian Gulch and Snellings near the 
western Mariposa county line; Lagrange, 
and Knight's Ferry near the western Tuolumne 
line; Telegraph City, Campo Seco, Michigan 
Bar and Mormon Island near the edge of Cala- 
veras, Amador and El Dorado — in short, a line 
separating these mountain counties from the val- 
ley counties, or very nearly. Farther north the 
framers of the eountiesdid not study the soil. In 
Placer county, Rocklin on the west and Auburn 
on the east mark the granite limits; and from 
there north in Yuba to Oroville in Butte 
county the first steep foothills of the Sierra are 
of the slate formation. 

"The flat-bedded, unaltered formations of 
the foothills described as upper tertiary, rise to 
very different altitudes in different places. The 
Oroville Cherokee mesa is, if I remember 
aright, considerably over 1,000 feet above "the 
sea at the Cherokee end. Similar isolated 
middle and upper tertiary (miocene and plio- 
cene) hills are found left as remnants, all along 
the base of the Sierra south of Oroville, while 
to the north they are plastered up against the 
Sierra with a cretaceous base and preserved 
by a volcanic capping covering nearly the whole 
country. 

" The slates and granites extend to the sum- 
mit of the^Sierra, the line between the granites 
of the south and the slates of the north running 
slantingly from the point mentioned on Fresno 
river through the heart of Mariposa county 
towards Lake Tahoe in a tolerably direct line." 

Climate. 

From Reading in the northern end to Sumner 
at its southern extremity, as has been stated, is 
a distance of 350 miles. The mean annual aver- 
age temperature of Reading is 64. 14'. The lowest 
point to which the thermometer has fallen since 
a record has been kept, was 27°, in December, 
1876. Its annual average rainfall is 48.05 inches. 
Sumner, at the southern end of the valley, has 
an annual average temperature of 68.29° and 
an average rainfall of four inches. The lowest 
point to which the thermometer has fallen at 
this place was also 27° on the same day in De- 
cember, 1876. There is a remarkable uniformity 
in the climate throughout the Sacramento valley. 
In it a difference of five degrees of latitude, 
between 35° 30' and 40° 30', only lowers the 
annual average temperature 4. 15". The differ- 
ence of the annual average temperature between 
corresponding degrees of latitude in the Atlantic 
States, at an equal distance from the ocean, is 
more than eight degrees. 

It has been found that the foothills of the 
Sierra, up to a hight of about 2,500 feet, have 
approximately the same temperature as places 
in the valley having the same latitude. It has 
also been found that, with increased elevation, 
there is an increase of rainfall over those places 
in the valley having the same latitude ; as, for 
illustration, Sacramento, with an elevation above 
the sea of 30 feet, has an annual mean tempera- 
ture of 60.48°, and an average fall of rain of 
18.75 inches; while Colfax, with an elevation of 
2,421 feet, has an annual mean temperature of 
60.05°, and an average annual rainfall of 42.72 
inches. This uniformity of temperature and 
increase of rainfall appears to be the law 
throughout the whole extent of the foothills of 
the Sierra, with this variation, as relates to 
temperature, namely, as latitude is decreased 
the temperature of the valley is continued to a 
proportionally greater elevation. To illustrate, 
approximately, if the temperature of Reading, 
at the northern end of the valley, is continued 
up the foothills to a hight of 2,000 feet, then 
the temperature of Sacramento, in the center 
of the valley, would be continued up to 2,500 
feet, and that of Sumner, in the extreme southern 
end of the valley, up to 3,000 feet. 

The increase of rainfall on the foothills in the 
latitude of Sacramento due to elevation is about 



one inch to each 100 feet. South from Sacra- 
mento the proportion decreases, until, at Sum- 
ner, the increase due to elevation is but half an 
inch to each 100 fe'et. This is shown by the 
record kept at Ft. Tejon, in the Tehachipi 
mountains near Sumner, at an elevation of 
3,240 feet, where the annual rainfall is 19.53 
inches. There is no record kept at any point 
in the hills above Reading, but probably, in this 
latitude, the increase due to elevation is about 
one and a half inches to each 100 feet. 

The increase of precipitation on the hills at 
the northern end of the valley gives greater 
density to the forests, and permits them to 
grow at lower elevations than in the southern 
end of the valley. At the same time the differ- 
ence in temperature is so small that the char- 
acter of the vegetation of the hills at each end 
of the valley is not dissimilar. The trees that 
are found in the vicinity of Reading, at the 
northern end of the valley below an elevation 
of 500 feet, are not found at the southern end 
until we pass Caliente, at an elevation of 1,300 
feet. 

It would seem that the temperature of the 
valley prevails up the Sierra to an elevation 
that equals the average hight of the Coast Range 
mountains. If a line were drawn parallel to 
the surface of the ocean, from the top of the 
Coast Range east until it met the flanks of the 
Sierra, it would mark a level on the Sierra, 
below which the temperature would not ma- 
terially differ from that in the Sacramento val- 
ley. This fact is probably to be ascribed to the 
prevailing southwest return trade-wind, which 
blows over the State from the ocean for more 
than 300 days in the year ; passing the summits 
of the Coast Range, but small portions descend 
into the valley, the remainder reaches the sides of 
the Sierra at about the level of the summits 
they have passed. 

Arborial Vegetation. 

At the northern end of the valley, at an ele- 
vation of 500 feet above the sea, of the Cali- 
fornia oaks are found QuerCUS lobalor, Sonomen- 
sis chrysolopis and Wisetzenii; of pines, only the 
nut or digger pine, Pinna aabinia/na; the buck- 
eye, jEscu lus Calif ornica; and chemisel Adenos- 
toma fasiculata. This is the characteristic ar- 
boriai vegetation throughout all these 350 miles. 
Its presence everywhere shows increased rain- 
fall over the valley, and similarity of tempera- 
ture to that of the valley. Our pasture oak 
( Qutrcus lobator) is found at lower elevations 
in the valley, but always on moist land or near 
river courses, proving that it demands, in addi- 
tion to temperature, the increased moisture. 
In the southern end of the valley this vegeta- 
tion prevails at higher elevations, because it 
there finds the proper temperature and moist- 
ure. Wherever on the foothills any of the 
trees named constitute the predominant ar- 
borial vegetation, it is evidence that the tem- 
perature is the same as that of the valley, and 
that plants that can be successfully grown in 
the valley can be grown to as high an elevation 
on the hills as these trees abound. If one tree 
were to be taken as the evidence of this uni- 
formity of temperature, it would be sabins (the 
nut or digger) pine. It is never seen in the 
valley or on the hills below an elevation of 
about 400 feet. It is not found at a higher ele- 
vation than that in which the temperature is 
the same as that of the valley. It is never 
found in groves, but singly among other trees; 
yet it prevails throughout these 350 miles of 
foothills. 

While the vegetation is more dense on the 
hills' at the northern end of the valley, due to 
increased precipitation, there are also local 
differences, where there is similarity of soil, due 
to exposure. Throughout all the lower hills 
the greatest number of trees is found on gently 
sloping eastern, northeastern and northern hills, 
which necessarily are more moist and cool. The 
southern aspects contain less trees, because ex- 
posed to the direct rays of the sun and to the 
full force of the prevailing winds. 

Area of Foothill Region. 

On the line of the Central Pacific railroad, the 
foothills commence at Roseville, which has an 
elevation of 163 feet. From this point to Col- 
fax — elevation 2,421 feet — in a direct line, is a 
distance of 32 miles. To allow for all possible 
errors, it would be safe to estimate that the 
width of the foothills, where the valley tem- 
perature, prevails, is 20 miles. This region, 
therefore embraces a tract of country from 
Reading to Sumner 350 miles long and 20 miles 
wide, or 4,480,000 acres, The principal towns 
in this part of the State are Oroville, Ne- 
vada, Grass Valley, Colfax, Auburn, New- 
castle, Georgetown, Placerville, Coloma, Jack- 
son, Sonora, Columbia, Mariposa and Havalah. 
In the vicinity of these towns and also near the 
line of the Central Pacific railroad the land is 
occupied by settlers. It would be using a large 
figure to state that half a million acres of these 
foothills have been pre-empted. If we esti- 
mate that another million is composed of lands 
granted to the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, ravines, river-beds and lands too rocky 
or precipitous for cultivation, there would re- 
main nearly 3,000,000 acres of land, all of it 
timbered, all having abundant rainfall, in a 
%semi-tropical climate and to which title in 160 
acre tracts can be acquired by settlement and 
complying with the rules of the United States 
Land department. Throughout the whole re- 
gion overliving springs are numerous, and in 
those parts where there has been placer min- 
ing, there are many canals f;om which water 
by purchase can be obtained for irrigation. 
The immense precipitation that takes place 
during the rainy season along the western face 



of the Sierra, passes through this region in 
streams that are tributaries to the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin. Within this distance there 
are 54 of these principal streams, whose waters 
are perpetually adding to the volume of the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin. 

Adaptation to Cultivation. 

Every agricultural product that can be grown 
in the valley, including the semi-tropical fruits, 
can be grown with equal facility in these foot- 
hills. Ordinarily the land has to be cleared of 
the trees found upon it, and cultivation must 
be continuous, for on the whole western face of 
the Sierra, the native trees when cut, or burned 
down, are rapidly replaced by a new growth of 
the same kinds. 

These lands are found to have all of the re- 
quisites for the successful growth of orchards. 
Fruit trees thrive better upon them than on 
the lands of the valley. None of the many 
theories advanced as to the cause of the treeless 
condition of many plains and prairies, having 
ample rainfall, seems to be entirely satisfactory, 
but experience has demonstrated that orchards 
grow best and thrive with less artificial aid on 
lands that in a natural condition are covered 
with trees. 

The increasing exports of small fruits, such 
as strawberries, blackberries and raspberries, 
from the vicinity of Newcastle and Auburn, 
and their superior size and quality, prove that 
this region is better adapted to their culture 
than any place yet found on the level lands of 
the valley. The peaches of Coloma have a stall 
reputation for flavor and size. The apples of 
Nevada and Georgetown are equaj in size, taste 
and keeping qualities to the best imported from 
Oregon. The Oroville oranges have been pro- 
nounced equal to the best Los Angeles. The 
vine grows with luxuriance and bears abun- 
dantly wherever it has been planted throughout 
all this region. The wines of Coloma have 
more than a local reputation. Persons com- 
petent to judge assert that wine from grapes 
grown on the foothills is free from the earthy 
taste that characterizes much of the wine of 
the flat land of the valleys. They also express 
the belief that if ever wine is to be made in 
California as light as that from the Rhine, and 
as free from alcohol, the grapes will be grown 
in the higher elevations of the foothills, where 
snow falls and remains on the ground a few weeks 
each season. It is said that the long summers and 
great heat of the valleys develop the saccharine 
matter in the grape, which, by fermentation, is 
converted into alcohol. 

The Lands Open to Settlement. 

There is but one Spanish grant in all this 
region — the Fremont grant in Mariposa. The 
land, therefore, can only be obtained from the 
Government, in tracts of 80 and 160 acres. A 
monopoly of the land in large estates is conse- 
quently impossible. The character of the coun- 
try, being of rolling and rounded hills, prevents 
the possibility of very large farms. Experi- 
ments have shown that the soil is more pro- 
ductive than the dry plains of the valley, but 
of course it does not yield crops as largely as 
the deltas and bottom lands of the rivers. It 
is certainly better and more productive than 
lands similarly situated in France, Switzerland 
and Italy, which now sustain a population of 
millions. Wood is everywhere to be found, and 
in this region north of Oroville there is an abun- 
dance of water in streams and springs not yet 
appropriated. These lands have remained open 
for settlement, because, up to the present time, 
sufficient government laud could be found in the 
valleys. The legislation by Congress has been 
and still is unfavorable to their appropriation 
for agriculture. The river bars and benches of 
this region originally contained the placer gold 
mines. Positive legislation by Congress forbid 
their survey for many years after the State was 
admitted into the Union. When surveys were 
ordered, the Land Department at Washington 
was so fearful that they would be occupied by 
farmers to the injury of the miners, that more 
than 1,000,000 acres were reserved as mineral 
land. The placer mines of these foothills have 
ceased to yield gold, even at Chinese wages, for 
the past 10 years, yet the Land Department at 
Washington continues the mineral reservation 
on these lands. The effect of this is to increase 
the expense of obtaining title from the Govern- 
ment, and thereby settlement of this region has 
been retarded. Where a farmer settles on land 
that has been reserved as mineral by the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office, the ex- 
pense has to be borne by the settler, of show- 
ing, by testimony, that his farm contains no 
mines, and that it is only valuable for agricul- 
ture. There are 2,000,000 acres of these lands, 
on which there is no mineral reservation, and 
which can be obtained by homestead and pre- 
emption as cheaply as were the lands in the 
valley. It cannot be but a few years before the 
unwise policy of reserving lands as mineral, 
that, in fact, are not mineral, will be abandoned, 
so that these lauds can be obtained by settle- 
ment, pre-emption and homestead as cheaply as 
other lands. 

As I have shown, there aro more than 3,000,- 
000 acres of these lands open to settlement, 
fallow from the flood, waiting for occupants ; 
capable of supporting a population of 100,000' 
people, if they will but cultivate them; situated 
in a semi-tropical climate, and, in all the higher 
regions, free from miasma. One need not be a 
prophet, nor a son of a prophet, to foretell that, 
before many years, the agriculture of California 
will become varied, and cultivation will not be 
confined to one cereal. Then the foothill region 
of the Sierra will be occupied by a prosperous 
and happy rural population. 



36 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



(January 18, 1879. 



Correspondence oonlially invited from all Fatrona for this 
department. 



Healdsburg Grange and Grangers' Busi- 
ness Association. 

Editors Press: — The new year dawns 
brightly for the Granges in this section of the 
"Golden State. " Healdsburg Grange, No. 18, 
■till lives. Those who joined during the past 
year are persons who mean business and will 
make live Grangers. Our Grange meets the 
first and third Saturday of each month. The 
newly elected officers are men and women who 
will not let the Grange interest flag. The best 
of harmony prevails among the members and all 
are determined to see that the Grange fulfills 
its legitimate mission. 

Grangers' Store. 

The store is in a more flourishing condition 
than ever before. George \V. Stedman is the 
Business Manager. He is well qualified for the 
position he holds and is quite popular. John 
L. Bates is the book-keeper; C. W, Woodward, 
principal salesman; J. W. Laymance, assistant 
salesman; A. C. Dodge, in change of the coun- 
try produce and delivery wagon. The store 
comprises a well-selected stock of drygoods, 
groceries, boots and shoes, chinaware, agricult- 
ural implements, grain, feed, etc. The mer- 
chandise sales average $10,000 per month, and 
are slowly but surely increasing. The town 
prejudice is fast dwindling away and the citi- 
zens of Healdsburg are learning that the Grang- 
ers are their friends. Most of the customers 
are reliable parties, therefore but little loss oc- 
curs from bad debts. A wide reputation is al- 
ready gained and people from other towns, and 
even adjoining counties, purchase large bills of 
goods at the Grangers' store. One noticeable 
feature is that on Saturdays if you are in search 
of any one you can invariably find said person 
at the Grangers' block. At present the store 
building is undergoing a change. It will be 
much enlarged and room made for the con- 
stantly increasing trade. 

Grangers' Warehouse. 

Doubts were entertained by many as to 
whether a warehouse could be made to pay or 
not; but these doubts have long since been re- 
moved. Nearly all the shipping, last season, 
from northern Sonoma county passed through 
the Grangers' warehouse. The shipments of 
fruit alone amounted to 50 tons. The poultry 
trade averages about $600 per month, and the 
shipments of wool were very heavy. All ship- 
pers have confidence in the Grangers' Associa- 
tion, and its reputation already is one that the 
Grangers can well be proud of. A cleaning 
mill is kept at the warehouse and all trashy 

frain is screened before leaving for the market, 
'rom one to six men are employed at the ware- 
house, according to the season. 

E. H. Kraft. 



What of the Year in the Grange Work ? 

Sister Maria B. Lander, W. L. of Alhambra 
Grange, in a lecture after installation, made 
these pertinent remarks: 

Another 305 days have written their changes 
upon everything around us, giving to many 
nothing but joy and gladness, and to others 
sickness and death. Our circle is not only intact 
but new links have been welded by our Grange 
fires. Some have been near death's door, but 
an o'erweening Power has seen fit to grant a 
longer life-lease, and in all thankfulness, we can 
say with one voice, all is well. 

As the closing scenes of this year are being 
rolled into the great and sealed volume of the 
past, and its business records and private en- 
tries all stand revised and corrected, so that 
balance sheets are clear and satisfactory between 
outgoes and incomes, can we say the same of 
our entry into the books of the Patron ? Can 
we say in that ledger of life, all is ./•••// ? Has 
our Grange life been consistent with'our solomn 
obligation ? Will our sacred profession and a 
full confession make a balance sheet that will, 
bear 'the scrutiny of our most lenient broth- 
ers and sisters, or even satisfy our own con- 
sciences? Have we always forgotten private 
ills, or have we not sometimes rather nursed 
them, and thus have checked or perhaps en- 
tirely curbed the good we might have done by 
a little sacrificing of these ills to the general 
good? Could we not many times have lost 
Bight of self and yet not have lowered our col- 
ors of character or independence, so that our 
lives might have borne closer testimony to that 
great central truth, "do ye good one to an- 
other. " 

We are by nature so constituted that differ- 
ences must necessarily arise. Each mind around 
the home fireside giveth its own characteristic 
shadings to the whole; how much more so, then, 
shall these different colorings lighten the Grange 
homestead, as it is but the nucleus of numberless 
•homes. The acts, works and opinions of one are 
foreign to those of another, hence misunder- 
standing and wrong interpretations. If we 
would but remember that each view is taken 
from a different standpoint, and that "all nee as 
through a glass darkly," our judgements and 



criticisms would not be pointed with that ven- 
om which too oft stingeth to the soul's depth. 

Your color bearers for the year 1879 are now 
clothed with the insignia of their office. They 
stand before you, not in the pretensions of the 
ermine of jimtice, but in all human weakness, 
pleading that criticism be always tempered 
with charity. Should their acts in private life, 
not always, in your judgment, be in keeping 
with the Patron's manual; do not, we pray you, 
sit in silent and bitter judgment away from our 
portals, thus bringing upon the whole Order 
that lukewarmness of principle, which will not 
only blight the flower and fruit, but may blast 
forever the parent stem. 

Our entrance into the sacred portals of the 
house of Lahor was the seal of individual ac- 
knowledgement of its pure, bright and ever- 
living principles; then shall we from the weak- 
ness, inefficiency or even injustice of one or 
more of our leaders, desert those principles, 
or rather shall we not the more persistently 
watch the hearth-fires and trim our lamps the 
closer, that our Grange lights may not grow dim, 
or it life-heat be extinguished. 

Sisters and brothers, our subordinate Grange, 
and that of State and national life-light, is in 
your keeping; you dare not trust so great a 
boon even to your chosen officers; they are but 
the mouthpiece, you are the life and soul. The 
living heart and principle and healthy action 
depends upon the constant presence of these 
organic members; and though there be many 
silent ones in'onr body, remember they have in 
a perfect mother Nature that prestige of a 
silence so mighty that it bursteth the tiny 
seed and reareth the mighty, forest; therefore, 
if we would be a prosperous, happy family, our 
altar fires must be tended at every meeting by 
the hands of every sister and brother of Alham- 
bra Grange. 

Martinez, Jan. 4th, 1878. 



Election of Officers." 

Bennet Valley Grange, No. 16. — Election 
Dec. 14th: C. Lyman, M. ; N. Carr, O.; I. 
DeTurk, L; D. E. Miller, S.; J. B. Whitaker, 

A. S.; A. 11. Lacque, C; G. N. Whitaker, T. ; 
W. H. Lumsden, Sec'y; R. E. Lacque, G. K. ; 
Mrs. C. Lyman, Ceres; Miss S. A. Lacque, 
Pomona; Miss F. L. Lumsden, Flora; Miss 
Maggie Delezell, L. A. S. ; B. Lacque, Trustee 
for three years. 

Elk River Grangk, No. 104. — Election Dec. 
7th: W. Fields, M. ; F. S. Shaw.O.; A. C. Spear, 
L.; W. Turney, S. ; R. A. Haw, A. 8.; J. S. 
Stewart, C. ; G. H. Shaw, T. ; Mrs. P. Fields, 
Sec'y; A. J. Knapp, (J. K. ; Mrs. S. EL Stewart, 
Ceres; Mrs. A. A. Knapp, Pomona; Miss S. C. 
Shaw, Flora; Mrs. F. L Meyer, L. A. S.; G. 
H. Shaw, Trustee for three years; Theo. Meyer, 
Trustee for one year. 

Enterprise Grange, No. 129. — Election, 
Dec. 23d: F. B. Fitch, M.; John Hanlon, O.; 
John Sharp, L. ; G. Beckley, S. ; Francis Tib- 
bits, A. S. ; A. M. Plummer, C. ; Nelson Shaver, 
T.; S. A. Greene, Sec'y; Charles Patton, G. 
K. ; Mrs. Beckley, Ceres; Mrs. M. Toomey, 
Pomona; Miss Mary E. Shaver, L. A. 8. 

Garden Valley Grange, No. 270. — Election 
Dec. 18th :Theodore Schlim, M. ; Dan'l D. Philips, 
O.; N. D. Burlingham, L.; C. P. Hoxie, S.; 
Milton Coe, A. S.; Sister N. I). Burlingham, C. ; 
R. Fillipini, T.; J. W. Reese, Sec'y; John 
Hubbard, G. K. ; Jennie Bacchi, Ceres; Mrs. 
Fillipini, Pomona; Mary O'Bannon, Flora; Mrs. 
H. C. Reese, L. A. S. 

Lincoln Grange, No. 187. — Election Dec. 
21st: A. J. Soule,M.;H. Newton, O. ; J. Whelty, 
L. ; S. J. Lewis, S. ; Wm. H. Reinhart, A. S. ; 
J. P. Fowler, C; John Crook, T.; J. J. Phil- 
brick, Sec'y; L. B. Adams, G. K.; Sister M. A. 
Newton, Ceres; Sister, A. E. French, Pomona; 
Sister Saiah C. Williams, Flora; Miss Ella Ful- 
ler, L. A. S. Installation, Jan. 18, 1879. 

Montezuma Grange. — Election, Dec. 28th. 
T. T. Hooper, M. ; F. Unger, O. ; Jas. Galbraith, 
L. ; E. I. Upham, S. ; Daniel Cushman, A. S. ; 
S. H. Dupuy, C; G. N. Daniels, T.; Sister 
Addie Parker, Sec'y; F. Wise, G. K. ; Sister S. 

C. Galbraith, Ceres; Sister H. Dupuy, Pomona; 
S. A. Daniels, Flora ; A. M. Hooper, L. A. S. 

National Ranch Grange, No. 235. — Elec- 
tion: Mrs. Flora M. Kimball, M.; F. A. Kim- 
ball, O.; S. C. Field, L. ; G. H. Parsens, S.; B. 

B. Rockwood, A. S. ; James Todd, C. ; W. C. 
Kimball, T. ; Mrs. Sarah C. Kimball, Sec'y; 
L. L. Robert, G. K. ; Mrs. A. M. Field, Ceres; 
Mrs. Rachel A. Rockwood, Pomona; Mrs. L. L. 
Roberts, Flora; Mrs. Josephine Walker, L. A. S. 

North Butte Grange, No. 225. — Election 
28th. Otis Clark, M.; H. B. Stevenson, O.; 
H. S. (iraves, L.; T. M. Brace, S.; T. A. 
Clyma, A. S. ; H. A. Wemple, C. ; C. Williams, 
T.; L. A. Clark, Sec'y; J. D. Spilman, G. K; 
Sister M. J. Stevenson, Ceres; Sister M. E. 
Bruce, Pomona; Sister M. E. Davey, Flora; 
Sister M. E. Durley, L. A. S. ; H. S. Graves, 
Trustee for three years. 

Nord Grange, No. 87.— Election Dec. 21st: 
L. H. Mcintosh, M. ; P. Kerne, O.; G. W. Colby, 
L. ; W. Van Woert, S. ; P. McGwin, A. S. ; A. 
Swand, C; S. Bragg, T.; J. B. Clark. Sec'y; 
S. M. Smith, G. K. ; Mrs. Mattie Kern, Ceres; 
Maggie Leninger, Pomona; MisB Nellie Turner, 
Flora; Mrs. Nora Van Woert, L. A. S. 

Paso Robleh Grange, No. 203. — Election: 

D. F. Stockdale, M. ; P. McAdams, O. ; H. W. 
Rhyne, L.; W. W. Low, S.; John Botts, A. 
S. ; J. Cunningham, C. ; L. Exline, Sec'y; P. 
Klipple, T.; G. Middagh, G. K.; Mrs. E. Mc- 

"Secretaries of Subordinate Oranges are invited to ncnd 
ua for publication, lists of officers at* soon as they are 
leectod ; also dates of installation. 



Adaifls, Ceres; Mrs. R. Stockdale, Pomona; 
Miss C. C. Middleton, Flora; Miss M. A. Mid- 
dagh, L. A. S. 

Placerville Grange, No. 242. — Election 
Dec. 27th: J. P. Allen, M. ; Peter Vigneaunt, O. ; 
J. P. Munson, L. ; Chas. Bryan, S. ; F. C. Car- 
penter, A. S. ; John Bryan, C. ; Jacob Lyon, T. ; 
Mary Reynolds, Sec'y; John Steele, G. K.;Mrs. 
Susan Murgotton, Ceres; Mrs. Merry, Pomona; 
Mrs. E. Richards, Flora; Mrs. F. Goyan, L. A. 
S.; Wm. Wiltse, Trustee. 

Plumas Grange, No. 245.— Election Dec. 
14th. A. B. Huntley, M. ; W. E. McVeil, re- 
elected, O. ; C. H. Brown, L.; W. A. Sperry, 
S.; A. Hubbard, A. S.; A. Trimble, re-elected, 
C.;*J. L. Crow, re-elected, T.; T. Black, re- 
elected, Sec'y; G. W. Cramer, re-elected, G. 
K. ; Sister A. F. Hubbard, Ceres; Sister A. 
Bringham, Pomona; Sister Frankie Smith, 
Flora; Sister Hattie Bringham, L. A. S. 

Plymouth Grange. — Election Dec. 14th : 
Jas. F. Gregg, M.; Isaac W. Whitacre, O. ; 
Jonathan Sallee, L. ; Harding Vanderpool, C. ; 
Reuben M. Ford, S.; Eleazer S. Potter, A. S.; 
John Sharp, T. ; Mrs. Sara Vanderpool, Sec'y; 
Simpson B. Newman, G. K. The election of 
the remaining officers was postponed to Jan. 1st. 

Riverside Grange, No. 128, Riverside, San 
Bernardino Co. — Election, Dec. 20th, 1878. 

E. G. Brown, M.; W. A. Abbott, O.; James 
Boyd, L.; D. Battles, S.; T. Abbott, A. S.; D. 
0. Twogood, C. ; A J. Twogood, T.; John Hall, 
Sec'y ; W. B. Russell, G. K. ; Mrs. D. S. Hall, 
Ceres ; Mrs. S. A. Battles, Pomona ; Mrs. M. 
A. Russell, Flora ; Mrs. C. Stewart, L. A. S. ; 
E- Hart, Trustee for three years. Installation, 
Jan. 17th, 1879. 

Rio Vista Grange, No. 159. — Election Dec. 
26th. J. H. Gardiner, re-elected, M. ; John 
Johnson, re-elected, O. ; W. B. Pressley, L. ; 
A. Currie, S. ; E. C. Dozier, A. S. ; T. P. Gif • 
ford, re-elected, C. ; A. B. Alsip, re-elected, T. ; 
Alvin Dozier, re-elected, Sec'y; Charles Peter- 
son, re-elected, G. K.; Mrs. J. W. Cameron, 
Ceres; Mrs. A. B. Alsip, Pomona; Mrs. John 
Johnson, Flora; Mrs. T. I. Gifford, L. A. S. 

San Jose Grange, No. 10. — Election Dec. 
21st : C. T. Settle, M. ; L. J. Chipman, 0.; N. 
J. Haines, L. ; Wm. C. Kingsbury, S. ; Joab 
Powell, A. S. ; Mrs. H. C. Paine, C. ; W. L. 
Manly, T. ; H. G. Keeling, Sec'y; J. R. Weller, 

G. K.; Sarah Kingsbury, Ceres; Mrs. M. Hale, 
Pomona; Mrs. G. W. Tarleton, Flora; Jennie 
Powell, L. A. S. Installation set for Jan. 18th, 
1879. 

Santa RosaGrance, No. 17. — Election Dec. 
7th: John Adams, II; W. H. Nash, O.; Julius 
Ort, L. ; L. J. Hawkins, S. ; E. T. Wall, A. S. ; 
L. Hendrix, C; A. J. Mills, T.; S. T. Coulter, 
Sec'y; Jacob Sallida, G. K.; Sister R. M. 
Coulter, Ceres; Sister N. Mills, Pomona; Sister 
L. J. Hawkins, Flora; Sister W. W. Gauldin, 
L. A. S. ; Isaac , Trustee for three years. 

Social Grange, No. 271. — Election Dec. 
28th: J. O. Sherwood, M.; Benj. Bailey, O.; F. 
Prothero, L.; & M. Prothero, S.; Wm. Atkin- 
son, A. S. ; Sister Hannah E. Putnam, C. ; Geo. 
Atkinson, T. ; S. W. Prothero, Sec'y; James 
Putnam, G. K. ; Sister S. E. Sherwood, Ceres; 
Sister M. C. Nichols, Pomona; Sister Gussie 
Sherwood, Flora; Sister Elizabeth Sherfey, L. 
A. S. 

S. V. AND ROCKVILLE GRANGE, No. 9. — R. C. 

Haile, M.; H. G. Paugbone, O.; A. T. Hatch, 
L.; J. L. Miles, S.; J. G. Edwards, A. 8.; J. 
Cunningham, C. ; P. T. Cox, T. ; J. R. Morris, 
Sec'y; H. D. Tinsdale, G. K.; Sister M. C. Mor- 
ris, Ceres ; Sister Sadie Cunningham, Pomona ; 
Sister Mary Halsh, Flora ; Alice Edwards, L. 
A. S. 

Vallejo Grange. — Election Dec. 7th. J. 

F. Deming, re-elected, M. ; S. S. Drake, re- 
elected, O. ; James Hunter, L. ; C. J.. Mosley, 
S. ; M. Carroll, re-elected, A. S. ; Sister Annie 
Deming, re-elected, C. ; Sister M. Robinson, 
T. ; Sister F. A. Mosley, re-elected, Sec'y; R. 
Miller, G. K.; Sister L Wilson, Ceres; Sister 

C. Hunter, Pomona; Sister H. Deming, Flora; 
Sister T. Drake, L. A. S. 

Wheatland Grange, No. 260. — Election 
Dec. 21st. C. K. Dam, M.; J. M. C. Jasper, 
O. ; D. A. Ostrom, L. ; Frank Krishner, S. ; 8. 

D. Wood, A. S.; Sister Keyes, C. ; P. L. 
Hutchinson, T. ; I. W. Huffaker, Sec'y; James 

H. Keyes, G. K.; Sister Jasper, Ceres; Sister 
Oakley, Pomona; Sister Ostrom, Flora; Sister 
Schlosser, L. A. S. 



Personal Adornment. — The number of 
people who have drawn upon the stock of 
Palmer Bros., for their handsome clothing, 
underwear, toilet articles, etc., during the last 
few weeks, is beyond count. The firm, at their 
establishment 726 to 734 Market street, have a 
splendid variety of goods to choose from, and 
one can hardly go amiss in seeking everything 
necessary for personal adornment and comfort 
at their store. 



Alfalfa and Canary Seed. — C. Bagge, of 
Oakland, sows 20 lbs of alfalfa with six of ca- 
nary seed to the acre. The canary protects 
from frost and makes good hay. His ground 
near San Leandro, is more or less adobe, and 
he is satisfied, after experimenting, that he 
can keep it clear of gophers with steel squirrel 
traps. 

Grapevine-Cutter Wanted. — One of our 
readers wishes a cutting machine for chopping 
up the refuse vines from his grape pruning. 
Will the inventors and manufacturers of suc- 
cessful machines send their address to this 
office, so we can forward them to our grape- 
growing friend. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Freedom from Frost. — Washington Inde- 
pendent, Jan. 11: Yesterday E. L. Beard, Esq., 
was kind enough to leave at our office a basket 
of oranges and lemons just picked from the 
trees in his orchard, together with specimens 
of the almond trees in full bloom. Spite of the 
severe cold weather so unusual in this section, 
none of the young growths of semi-tropical 
fruits at the Mission, of which there are large 
quantities, have been injured in the slightest 
degree. 
AMADOR. 

New Potatoes. — Dispatch, Jan. 4: Mr. E. 
Andrews broaght into our office this week a 
fine mess of splendid looking aud delieious 
Early Rose aud Early Goodrich potatoes? just 
dug from the ranch of Mr. A. P. Harmon, near 
the New York ranch. The potatoes were not 
planted until September, yet they seem to have 
matured perfectly. Mr. Andrews planted some 
potatoes in October, which promise to yield as 
full a crop as though they had been planted in 
early spring; thus elucidating the fact that we 
had all just as well eat new potatoes all the 
winter if we want them, as to only have them 
in the summer. 
COLUSA 

Crops. — Hun, Jan. 11: The condition of the 
crops in this county are anything bat flattering. 
Much of the summer-fallow U dead, and iu 
fields that will not in any event be re-sown, 
there are spots where it is dead. There is time 
yet for sowing. We have seen wheat planted 
in March, and even sometimes as late as April, 
make good wheat. Wheat now in the ground, 
and not sprouted, will lie apt to make grain, 
even if we do not have rain until February. 
It will require so very small an amount of rainfall 
this season to make crops, that we may safely 
count on having it. Of course it is in the range of 
possibilities that we shall have an entire fail- 
ure, but judging by the past the chances are 30 
to one against it. 

EL DORADO 

Agricultural Society. — Democrat, Dec. 28: 
To C. H. Weatherwax, financial Secretary of 
the El Dorado County Agricultural Society, we 
are under obligations for an inspection of his 
report to the late annual meeting, from which 
we ascertion that up to December 6th, 1878, 
the total receipts had been $7,819.45; the total 
amount of orders on the Treasurer had been 
$10,269.38; the total liabilities, less $216.91, in 
hands of Treasurer and financial Secretary, 
were $5, 109.93. 

LOS ANGELES. 

High Priced Horses. — Herald, Jan. 11: 
Mr. L. J. Rose has just consummated a sale of 
stock which shows that it is, after all, worth 
while, from a pecuniary standpoint, to breed 
fine horses. We allude to the sale of two fillies 
by the "Moor,"to Mr. A. Newlands, of Oakland, 
for the princely sum of $7,000. The fillies are 
aged, respectively, two and three years, and 
many noted turfmen look upon them as the two 
most promising colts on the Pacific coast. It is 
pleasant to know that the progeny of the "Moor" 
is being scattered all over the State, and that 
his owner is being remunerated for the public 
spirit and untiring perseverance which have 
signalized him as a breeder of fine stock. The 
" Sunny Slope " colts are rivaling the Sunny 
Slope " wines and brandies in the public favor. 

The Orange Crop. — Mr. J. De Barth Shorb 
informed us yesterday that the orange crop of 
the San Gabriel valley will be very heavy this 
year, but that it will probably command low 
prices. This is owing to the fact that the pro- 
tracted harsh north winds which preceded the 
rains have dwarfed the fruit. In number the late 
crop is superabundant, but in size it is apt to be 
behindhand. 
MONTEREY. 

Gonzales. — Inder, Jan. II: The merry 
plow-boys are at work in every direction turn- 
ing up the soil to receive the seed which, we 
hope, will produce a bountiful harvest. The 
late rain was sufficient to insure good plowing, 
the total here being 1.54 inches. 

NAPA. 

Napa Valley Wine Statistics. —St Helena 
Star, Jan. 4: After careful inquiry and visits 
to many of the cellars of the valley during the 
past two months, we are able to give what we 
believe to be a quite accurate statement of the 
wine manufacture of Napa valley, during the 
season just closed, though it is possible there 
may be some unintentional omissions of small 
quantities. The St. Helena district produced 
971,600 gallons; Yountville, including Oak- 
ville, 605,000 gallons; Napa, 510,000 gallons; 
grand total, 2,086,600 gallons manufactured in 
the valley the past season. What is encourag- 
ing is that the entire quantity of wine manu- 
factured in the valley the past season is of ex- 
cellent quality. We have not been able to find 
a single lot of poor wine any- where. The in- 
variable answer has been to our question of 
what success this season, "never better; 
haven't lost a gallon; nor have we a gallon of 
poor win*, of thiB season's vintage, in the 
cellar." The valley has been overrun with 
purchasers of the new vintage, and most of our 
manufacturers have standing offers for the con- 
tents of their cellars, epeciafiy in this distriot. 
The prospect of the business for the future 



January 18, 1879. j 



THE PACIFIC RURAL FB1SS. 



37 



could scarcely be better, nor are our wine men 
of the stuff that would ask for anything better 
than a fair showing for their products in the 
markets and a favorable season. 
PLACER. 

Oranges. — A collection of fine oranges from 
Placer county was recently shown at the store 
of W. R. Strong & Co., Sacramento. The fruit 
was from the following growers: C. M. Silva 
& Son, Newcastle, who present the "San Ga- 
briel" variety; John F. Curtis, Ophir, seedlings; 
D. A. Rice, Newcastle, seedlings; YV. Hatha- 
way, Ophir; Dr. J. R. Crandall, Auburn, seed- 
lings — over 1,200 oranges picked from one tree; 
Rev. N. R. Peck, seedlings, trees 15 years old 
bearing seven years; Mr. Goodrich, Newcastle, 
seedlings; J. W. Smythe, Horseshoe Bar, seed- 
lings; M. Andrews, Auburn, seedlings, grown 
on dry slate soil without irrigation; Dr. J. M. 
Fray, Bellevue, Newcastle, " St. Michael" va- 
riety. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

The Rains.— Press, Jan. 11: The rainfall 
in this county beyond the range has been much 
less than here on the coast. In Lonipoc, up to 
last Friday night, it was, according to the Re- 
cord?* report, 5.75 inches; in Los Alamos, up 
to the evening of the 1st, 6.14 inches; in 
Guadalupe, up to the 4th inst., only 2.97; and 
in Santa Maria, up to the 5th inst. , only 2. 80 
inches. Still we have no fears of the ultimate 
result; before the season is over those regions 
will doubtless get a bountiful supply. Santa 
Barbara shows, we believe, a greater rainfall 
thus far in the season than any other place in 
the State where records are kept. The pres- 
ent agricultural prospects are brighter in south- 
ern California than in any other section of the 
State. 

STANISLAUS 

The Bain. — Neivs, Jan. 10: The rain of last 
week was much heavier on the west side of the 
San Joaquin river than in any other part of the 
county. The rain was so heavy at Hill's Ferry 
that farmers had to lay off a day or so before 
they could plow. At Grayson the rainfall was 
an inch and a quarter. At this place, 12 miles 
east, it only amounted to .64 of an inch. We 
regret to say that 16 miles still farther east the 
rainfall was only about one-half of the amount 
we had here. Still, there is nothing suffering 
seriously, as yet, for the want of rain in that 
section. 
TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press: — Farmers are now jubilant 
over the late rains. Teams are now in demand 
for plowing purposes, as the season is well ad- 
vanced, and there is a short allowance of time 
for seeding. The prospects for a continuance 
of rainy weather is good; at least the will to 
have it so is good. There seems to be a general 
holding on to the stock of barley and wheat on 
hand. A few more showers such as we have 
had lately, will dispel all hopes of a rise, which 
will have the effect of depressing prices, by the 
large quantity thrown [upon the market. It often 
occurs to our reflecting feculties, that lard, ham 
and bacon should be produced in California 
without sending to Chicago and other points 
for a supply. A few days ago Mr. Henry 
Walker from Stanislaus county, delivered some 75 
head of superior hogs to Woolfing, of Sonora, 
who is extensively engaged in the curing of the 
above named articles. The hogs averaged some 
2101bs., and scarcely able to walk for fat. Five 
cents was the price paid, although four and four 
and a half is the general price; a much smaller 
sum than ever hog flesh sold for hitherto. Mr. 
Woolfing makes ham and bacon-curing a spec- 
ialty, and is indeed an enterprising man. Mr. 
Walker procures the best breeds, and feeds 
well, a system which ensures a ready sale at ad- 
vanced prices. By adopting such a course gen- 
erally, a ready market would be obtained and 
highest prices realized. Twenty cents per 
pound at retail is asked and obtained for Chi- 
cago lard in fancy tins. Hogs at four or five 
cents per pound on foot, could realize a profit to 
dealers at 12 cents. We would also keep the 
money circulating at home, instead of enriching 
the citizens of Illinois. If all butchers were as 
enterprising as Mr. Woolfing of Sonora, that re- 
sult would soon be obtained. — John Taylor, 
Chinese Camp. 

Agricultural Prospect. — Sonora Democrat, 
Jan. 11: The agricultural prospect around here 
cannot be said to be a very encouraging one for 
our farmers at present. In the first place there 
is a small acreage in comparison to other years, 
and the sown grain is at a standstill point 
owing to the cold and dry weather, although 
our farmers we believe are, as a general thing, 
less despondent than they were in other years 
when the prospects presented a gloomy appear- 
ance. It will be far better for all hands to 
keep up courage, and a pleasant countenance, 
as this will do as much to bring the much- 
needed rain as graveyard faces and evil forebod- 
ings. 



Ladies and Gentlemen are both alike pro- 
vided for by Palmer Bros., in all things fitted 
to give satisfaction and comfort in the way of 
clothing, furnishing goods, laces, millinery, and 
the 1,000 articles needed in fitting up the "human 
form divine." You can supply your whole 
family at little expense, by consulting Palmer 
Bros., at 726 to 734 Market street, S. F. 



Delegate Gannon thinks the Mormons would 
be cravens and poltroons if they yielded their 
religious principles to the [dictates of the 
Supreme Court. 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, January 15th, 1879. 
Trade is dull and the situation generally unchanged. 
Opinions are at conflict concerning the prospect for the 
coming season, and people are waiting tor developments. 
Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 
The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 



Thursday.. . . 

Friday 

Saturday. . . . 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



Cal. Average. 



8s lld@ 9s 3d 

8s lld@ 9s 3d 

9s — @ 9s 3d 

9s — @ 9s 3d 

9s — @ 9s 3d 

9s — @ 9s 3d 



Club. 



9s 3d@ 9s 

9s 3d® 9s 

9s 3d@ 9s 

9s 3d@ 9s 

9s 3d(3 9s 

9s 3d<a 9s 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare wirh same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1877 10s lld@lls — lis ld@lls Bd 

1878 12s 7d@12s lid 12s 10d@13s 3d 

1879 9s — @ 9s 4d 9a 3d@ 0s 8d 

The Forelscn Review. 

London, January 14. — The Mark Lane Express says: 
Little or no improvement is visible at Mark Lane, where 
sales have been quite from hand-to-mouth in their nature, 
at unaltered currencies. The American supply is slightly 
diminished, but the surplus available for export is so un- 
usually heavy that, to all intents and purposes, America 
holds the reins of prices, although at the same time it 
must not be forgotten that the wants of the Continent 
between this and harvest may be safely counted upon to 
relieve America of a considerable portion of its produce, 
accumulated both on the Atlantic and Pacific boards. 
According to a recently published return, the estimated 
stock of Wheat In granary, in London, at the end of last 
year, was 116,808 quarters, showing a deficiency of 145,- 
000 quaiters compared with the corresponding time of 
1877. Stocks of Maize and Barley are more than double 
what they were at this time last year. Oats decreased 
about 170,000 quarters. Sales of English Wheat last 
week amounted to 37,400 quarters at 39s 7d per quarter, 
against 33,472 quarters at 52s Id per quarter last year. 
Imports into the United Kingdom for the week ending 
January 4th were: Wheat, 708,342 cwt, and Flour, 193,- 
027 cwt. 

Freights and Charters. 

The latest Wheat charter is the ship Eureka, 2,101 tons, 
Wheat to Liverpool, £1 lis 6d; Cork, £1 14s; Continent, 
£1 19s. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

Chicago, January 11— The week has been quiet in the 
grain business, with a firmer feeling toward the close, but 
with very small fluctuations and no excitement. Feb- 
ruary Wheat sold at 83J(ii84Jc; February Corn at the re- 
markably steady range of 3u@308o; February Oats, 19|@ 
19Jc; cash Rye, 43<g43Jc; Barley, 95J@9SJc. Provisions 
attracted the chief interest, and the daily range was 
higher. At the close, prices were 30c higher on both 
Pork and Lard than last Saturday. Pork lor February 
sold at $7.52J@7.92J; Lard for February, 85.52^5.80. 
Closing cash prices: Wheat, 83Jc; Corn, 2S)Jc; Oats, 
19Jc; Rye, 43J; Barley, 9Uo; Pork, 47.80; Lard, $5.70. 
Receipts for the week: Wheat, 570,000 bushels; Corn, 
494,000; Oats, 157,000. Shipments: Wheat, 214,000 
bushels; Cora, 299,000; Oats, 130,000. Receipts the same 
time last year: Wheat, 332,000 bushels; Cora, 252,000; 
Oats, 89,000. Shipments: Wheat, 290,000 bushels; Corn, 
80,000; Oats, 31,000. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, January 11. — There was a fair business done in 
domestic Wool the past week, but prices remain without 
improvement. The stock on hand is considered ample to 
meet the wants of manufacturers, but there is no dispo- 
sition to force sales at any concessions, and for all desir- 
able Wools, buyers have to pay current rates. Combing 
and Delaine Fleeces are now inquired for, and prices are 
firm for desirable grades. Pulled Wools are in moderate 
demand. Sales comprise Eastern and valley Oregon, 20(j* 
26c; Texas, 19@24c; scoured, 35(360; Colorado carpet, 12 
(313c; Territory, 18(330c; super and X pulled, 23(tf41e; 
coarse tub, 31c. In California there was considerable do- 
ing, sales of the week comprising 582,000 lbs, at 14(326Uc 
for Spring, and 10@22c for Fall, transactions in Spring 
being mostly choice Northern, at 25(326£c. Total sales of 
domestic for the week, 1,316,000. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks. 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals. 

Beans, sacks 

Cora, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Dec. 26. 


Jan. 1. 


Jan. 8. 


Jan. 15, 


37,287 


44,370 


9,820 


17,042 


170.933 


173,855 


42,722 


94,663 


26,544 


16,662 


2,442 


6,900 


23,816 


9,060 


1,992 


1,865 


4,736 


10,140 


2,261 


3,122 


14,761 


15,293 


110 


1,640 


19,276 


23,955 


2,149 


16,916 


701 


485 


11 


419 


442 


183 


11 


74 


105 


135 


2 


70 


1,008 


725 


60 


771 



BARLEY— Prices are unchanged. We note sales: 350 
sks Coast, at $1; 110 do, 97ic; 1,000 do, 95c, and 500 do at 
90c $ ctl. 

BEANS— Bean prices are not materially changed, since 
last report. They are holding their rates firmly. 

CORN— Former prices still rule. We note sales: 170 
sks small round Yellow, at $1.07$; 300 do, at $1.02J; 1,100 
do large Yellow, at $1; 65 do poor White, at 95c $ ctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter is rather weak at present, 
and few samples bring the top rates. New California 
Cheese is in demand and sales are quick at 8J(313c accord 
ing to quality. 

EGGS— Eggs are still low, with 30c as the top price for 
fresh California. 

FEED— Bran is advanced by the millers about $1.50 per 
ton. 

FRUIT— Winter Nell Is Pears have advanced to $4 per 
box and are scarce. Oranges are coming forward more 
freely, but with great range in quality. Prices range from 
$10 to $30 per M, as to quality. 



FRESH MEAT— Fresh Meats abundant and unchanged 
in price, except that Mutton has advanced about Jc per 
ft for good quality. 

OATS — Prices unchanged. We note sales of 168 sks 
good Humboldt seed at $1.40, and 100 do common at 
$1.37*. 

ONIONS — Onions are exceedingly scarce and have gone 
up to $5.50 per ctl for all good lots. 

POTATOES— There has been a slight advance in Pota- 
toes, as shown in our list. On the other hand Sweet 
Potatoes have declined to $1.75 per ctl. 

POULTRY — There is no change in prices. 

RYE— Prices have fluctuated considerably of late, and 
are generally lower. We note sales of 2 carloads Stock- 
ton Rye at $1.25 per ctl; 1 carload Coast at $1.17*. 

VEGETABLES — The list is well worked down, and little 
will be done until the new crop3 come in. 

WHEAT — Shipping wheat will bear an advance of 2*c 
per ctl for best grades. 

WOOL — There is nothing doing and quotations are 
nominal. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

f WHOLES ALB. 1 



17 



BEANS A PEAS. 

uayo, ctl 1 90 (32 10 

Butter 2 375*2 50 

Pea 3 00 @3 12 

Red 1 70 (§1 75 

Pink 1 50 @1 75 

Sm'l White 2 75 -6)3 05 

Lima 4 00 (34 50 

Field Peas 1 00 @1 25 

BKOOH COK5I. 

Southern 2 @ 

Northern 3 @ 4 

CHICCORY, 

California 4 @ 4} 

German 6£@ 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 30 (3 32J 

Fancy Brands 32j<8 34 

Pickle Roll — @ — 

Firkin — @ - 

Western 12i@ 

New York — @ 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal., tb.... 8 @ 
Gilroy Factory. ... 11 @ 
N. Y. State 16 @ 

EGOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz. ... — & 

Ducks' 25 (3 

Oregon — @ 

Eastern 18 (3 

do by express. . . 27*(3 

Pickled here 26 @ 

f EED. 

Bran, ton 17*50 (318 00 

Corn Meal 24 00 >g>26 00 

Hay 8 50 @16 00 

Middlings 23 00 (324 00 

Oil Cake Meal... 36 00 @ 

Straw, bale 50 <B 70 

I I ,01 It. 

Extra, bbl 5 12J<35 25 

Superfine 4 00 fti 75 

Graham, lb 2j@ 3 

I Itl.MI MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qualy, lb 6 @ 

Second 5 (3 

Third 3j@ 

Mutton 4 @ 

Spring Lamb 5 @ 

Pork, undressed... 3$(3 

Dressed 54(3 

Veal 4|@ 

Milk Calves 6 

do choice. . . 7 @ 
CRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 85 @1 00 

Brewing 1 15 (31 30 

Chevalier 1 75 @1 90 

Buckwheat 1 25 (31 50 

Corn, White 1 00 @1 05 

Yellow 95 @1 00 

Small Round.... I 07}(«1 10 
Oats 1 25 m 50 

Milling 1 60 (gl 75 

Rye 1 17 (31 25 

Wheat, Shipping.. 1 65 (31 72$ 

Milling — (31 75 

Off Grades 1 40 PI 60 

HIDES. 
Hides, dry 15J@ 

Wet salted 71(3 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 30 @ 

Honey in comb. . .. II j® 

do. No 2 8 @ 

Dark 8 @ 

Strained 4J@ 

HOPS. 

Oregon @— — 

California 8 @ 13 

Wash. Ter 8 (3 9 

Old Hops 3 @ 5 

NIITS-Jobblnc 
Walnuts, Cal 4 (3 6 

do Chile 6J<3 8 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (3 8 

Softah'l 14 @ 16 



Wednesday m.. January 15, 1S79. 



Brazil 12*@ 14 

Pecans I2J@ 15 

Peanuts 4 @ 5 

Filberts 15 @ 16 

ONIONS. 

AlvisO — @ — 

Union City, ctl. . .. — @5 50 

San Leandro — (35 50 

Stockton — @ — 

Sacramento River. — (3 — 

2J'8alt Lake — @ — 

Oregon — (ro — 

Red — (34 00 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma, ctl 1 25 @1 50 

Humboldt 1 25 SI 50 

Cuffey Cove — @ — 

Early Rose 1 62*^1 75 

Half Moon Bay... — @ — 

Kidney 1 25 (31 50 

Sweet — @1 75 

POIFLTKY A GAME. 

Hens, doz 7 00 @ 8 00 

Roosters 7 00 @ 8 00 

Broilers 5 00 (3 5 50 

Ducks, tame 8 00 @ 9 00 

do. Mallard — @ 2 50 

Geese, pair 2 50 @ 3 00 

Wild Gray, doz.. (3 2 00 

White do 3 1 50 

Turkeys — @— 15 

do, Dressed 15 @— 18 

Snipe Eng — (3 1 50 

do, Common 50 (3 75 

Quail, doz 75 (3 1 00 

Rabbits 1 50 @ 

Hare 2 00 (3 2 50 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, H'vy.lb 9J(3 

Medium 10J@ 

Light 11 @ 

Lard 9}@ 

Cal. Smoked Beef 84(3 
Shoulders, Cover'd 7 @ 

Hams. Cal 12 @ 

Dupee's 13 @ 

None Such 13 & 

Ames — @ 

WhittaKer — (3 

Royal 13 @ 

Reliable 13 (3 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 5 

Canary 4J@ 

Clover, Red 15 

White 60 

Cotton 6 

Flaxseed 3 

Hemp 

Italian Rye Grass 35 

Perennial 35 

Millet 10 

Mustard, White... 2 

Brown 1__ 

Rape 3 @ 

Ky Blue Grass 17 ~ 

2d quality 16 

Sweet V Grass.... 1 00 

Orchard 25 

Red Top 13 

Hungarian 8 

Lawn 50 

Mesquit — 

Timothy 7 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tb 6i 

Refined 84 

WOOL, ETC. 

FALL. 

San Joaquin, free.. 
South'n Coast, do. . 
Sac. and Northern. 
Mendocino & Hum- 
boldt 16 @ 17* 

Southern, burry ... 8 @ 9 

Northern, do 11 @ 12 

Oregon, Eastern... 16 (3 18 
do, Valley 21 (3 22 



10 
11 

m 
a 

9 

7i 
124 
131 
13| 



9 @ 11 
9 @ 11 
11 (3 15 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

■ WHOLESALE. ] 

Wednesday m ., January 15, 1879. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, box — 30 <oe 1 

Bananas, bnch..— — (3 6 
Oocoanuts. 100.. 4 00 (* 5 
Cranberries, bbl. 12 50 (gl4 

Figs, lb — 6 @— 

Grapes @ — 

do, Conechon. 2 50 (co 3 
Limes, Mex 6 00 @ 7 

do, Cal, box. . . 2 00 @ 2 
Lemons, Cal M.10 00 (gl5 

Sicily, box ... . 8 00 @ 9 

Australian, bx @ — 

Oranges, M 26 00 <g35 

Tahiti @— 

Cal , M 10 00 ®30 

Pears, box 1 00 @ 1 

Winter Nelis.. 2 50 ® 4 
Pineapples, doz. 7 50 0> 8 

Plums, lbs — 5 @— 

Quinces, bsk @ — 

St'wberries. ch'st- (5>— 

DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples, lt> 3 @ 

Apricots 15 &— 

Citron 23 @ 

Dates ,. 9 & 

Figs. Black 4 @ 

White 6 @ 



Peaches 7 @ 8J 

do pared ... 18 @— 20 

Pears 8 (» 10 

Plums 3 (8 

Pitted 12J@— 14 

Prunes 8 & 9 

Raisins. Cal, bx 1 50 @ 2 00 
do, Halves... 1 75 @ 2 5„ 
do, Quarters. . 2 00 (3:2 75 u 

Blowers' 2 75 & 

Malaga 2 75 i* 3 00 

Zante Currants.. 8 (S 10 
VECETARLES. 

Beets, ctl — 60 & 

Beans, String. . . @ 

Cabbage, 100 lbs — (5— 75 

Carrots, ctl 40 @— 50 

Cauliflower, doz 75 @ 1 00 

Cucumbers, bx . . @ 

Egg Plants, box. @- — 

Garlic, New, lb.. @— 8 

Green Peas — — @ 

Lettuce, doz 10 @ 

Parsnips, tt> 2 @ 

Horseradish 6 @ 

Squash, Marrow 

fat. tn 8 00 (310 00 

Tomato, 50 lbs bx— — @ 

Turnips, ctl — 50 <g— 75 

White 50 #— 75 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sotro & Co.] 

San Francisco, January 15, 3 r. M. 

Legal Tenders in 8. F., 11 a. m.. par. Silver, 2Ji«? 60. 
Gold in New York. par. 

Gold Bars, 890@910. Silver Bars. 8@22 $ cent, dis 
sount. 

Exchange on New York, 33, on London bankers, 49i(§ 
49i. Commercial, 60; Paris, five francs $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 87i<»89. 

London Consols, 94 7-16; Bonds, 1092. 

Quicksilver in S. F., by the flask, V lb, 40<g41c. 



Mining and Scientific Pi 
Patent Agency. 

The Mining and Scientific Press Patent Agency was 
established in 1860— the first west of the Rocky Moun 
tains. It has kept step with the rapid march of mechan- 
ical improvements. The records iB its archives, its con 
stantly increasing library, the accumulation of informa- 
tion of special importance to our home inventors, and the 
experience of its proprietors in an extensive and long 
continued personal practice in patent business, affords 
them combined advantages greater than any other agents 
can possibly offer to Pacific Coast inventors. Circulars of 
advice free. Address, DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers Mining and Scientific Press and Pacific Ru. 
ral Prkss, 202 Sansome Street, S. F.— 1878. 




Pacific Rura[ Handbook. 

This book is devoted to the horticultural interests o' 
the Pacific States, and treats of orchards, gardens, lawns, 
irrigation, seed-planting, vegetables, forests and shade 
trees, shrubs, and similar topics of interest, all handled 
in Chad. H. Shinn's well-known vivid style. The book 
also contains a number of carefully prepared and valuable 
'Tables of Plants Adapted to our Climate," and a most 
copious index. No work of the kind has heretofore 
appeared on this coast, and we think it will be found 
fresh, practical and original ; in short, a manual of great 
value. It will be issued shortly, containing 120 or more 
pages. Published and sold by Dewey & Co., S. F. Send 
stamp for full table of contents, or $1 for the book in 
limp cloth cover, post paid. 

A Book for Ruralists. — Chas. H. Shinn, a former 
teacher in Monterey county, but now residing at Niles, 
Alameda county, has written a book entitled "The Rural 
Handbook of Horticulture." The volume is devoted to 
the horticultural interests of the Pacifie States, and treats 
of orchards, gardens, lawns, irrigation, seed-planting, veg- 
etables, forest and shade trees, shl ubs, and similar topics 
of universal interest, besides a number of carefully pre- 
pared tables of plants adapted to our climate. Messrs. 
Dewey & Co., of the Rural Press, have purchased the 
author's rights, and are publishing the book, the price of 
which is $1. It is the first work of the kind that ever 
appeared on this coast. — Salinas Index. 

January 17th.— The above book will be issued during 
this month. 

Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber"s great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. PriceB remain as usual. 



Popular Music. — Make your homes merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
can recommend this large, first-class, standard and popu* 
[ir establishment. Examine his advertisement, appear- 
ing from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstruments possessing the very highest and most perma- 
nent reputation. Call at 106 Kearny Stree't. The Rural 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 

When a Lady wants a cloak or suit for herself or child 
and feels in doubt where to buy it, we cheerfully recom- 
mend her to go to Sullivan's, No. 120 Kearny street, San 
Francisco, where she can always find the cheapest and 
best assortment. 



For the best servant girls send to lady Clerk at A. 
Zeehandelaar's Employment Agency, 627 Sacramento St. , 
San Francisco. In ordering female help it is always cus- 
tomary to advance the fare. Please remit the traveling 
expenses, for which will be purchased ticket and the girl's 
receipt taken. 

It is to your advantage, Farmers! to send your orders 
for all kinds of labor to the old Employment Agency of 
A. Zeehandelaar (formerly with Labor Exchange) 627 Sac- 
ramento street, San Francisco. He selects your men with 
care and good judgment, with a view to give satisfaction 
to both employer and employee. 

Ayer & Son's Manual contains much information of 
value to advertisers not to be found in any other publica- 
tion. Sent postpaid on receipt of 25 cents. Address N. 
W. Ayer & Son, Advertising Agent, Times Building, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

A Successful Paper.- The Youth's Companion of Bos- 
ton is one of the most enterprising sheets in the coun- 
try. It has twice the circulation of any similar publica- 
tion, and unquestionably merits its success. 



San Jose is decidedly a very popular place of residence 
on this coast, and James A. Clayton is its leading agent 
for the sale of city and country real estate. See adv't. 



The Best Farming Lands 

Are those that produce at least a fair crop every season. 
The demand for such property is increasing, while the 
amount offered for sale in the market constantly decreases 
and the prices advance. The most prominent tract of 
such land now being sold in subdivisions to suit purchas 
crs that we know of, is that of the Reading Ranch, in 
Shasta County, adjoining Tehama County on the south, 
in the upper Sacramento Valley. Level tillable land is 
held at from $6 to $30 per acre. The climate is healthy 
and favorable to most kinds of grains, vegetables and 
fruits, including semi-tropical growths. Wood and water 
are plentiful. A good local market always prevails. No 
drouths and no damaging floods. The tract, some twenty 
mileB long by about two in width, is bordered on one side 
by the Sacramento river. The C. P. R. R. runs the en- 
tire length of the tract. Send for map and illustrated 
circular, or apply for further information to the proprie- 
tor, Mr. Edward Frisbie, on the ranch at Anderson 
Shasta County, Cal. [Title U. S. Patent.] 



38 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 




The Farmer's Legend. 

I Written for the Rural Prrss, by Philmorr] 

A mounted traveler halted by the way, 
And hailed a fanner resting in the shade; 

'• What monument is yonder, rude and gray? 
What battlefield was this fair meadow made?" 

" So bloody battlefield was this, I trow, 

For man and boy I've lived here sixty years; 

Eaeh sprii.g I follow this old plow, 
And here 1 am when autumn's fruit appears, 

And never yet have I discovered aught, 
To tell of" deadly strife or vietories won; 

In short, no battle here was ever fought, 
And as for monument* I know of none. 

Yon pile of stones is but a chimney old, 
Where once a modest dwelling-house arose; 

Perchance ii migh.1 dreadful tale unfold, 
liut what it is no human being knows. 

Nigh forty years ago, old Simon died- 
The very last one of his wicked race; 

He might have some small scraps supplied . 
Of what was told him here had taken place. 

The house whose sleepers once were laid 
Where the "hi stone chimney stands alono 

Was haunted, so the old folks said, 
And many strange things there were done. 

Men without heads were often seen 
Walking around, now here, now there, 

And strange noises have often been. 

From time to time, heard wrangling in the air. 

Strange lights were often seen at night, 
When furious whirlwinds raged around, 

Which frightened people; well they might, 
For, it was said, the cause was never found. 

Some called it witchcraft; and others said 
A man was murdered here one summer day, 

Who often wandered round without his head 
To frighten superstitious folks away. 

Yon ruin, overgrown with weeds, I know- 
Is but the vestige of the village pound, 

Built, so they say, one hundred years ago, 
Where owners, straying cattle often found. 

Sometimes the cattle scaled the ragged fence 
And somehow got away in spite of care, 

Some owners said the witches took them hence, 
Because, forsooth, they did not find them there. 

Some butchers bought these cattle very low, 
And so, of course, could sell it very cheap. 

From whence they came they did not care to know, 
Venison to them was deer, and mutton tttieep. 



Finding the Corners. 

[Written for the Rvral Prsss, by Mrs. J. M. K.J 

On the 3d of November we pitched our tent 
near where water from the Igo ditch crossed 
the road, rippling along over the stones in the 
most charming way, like a natural mountain 
brooklet. Had we been assured the spot was 
Government land, probably we would have 
looked no farther, but begun at once our home. 
The next day, discovering at a distance a cabin 
of pine logs, and the sky being overcast, we 
moved up beside it; but the dirt Moor and con- 
tracted walls, without a single pane of glass, not 
being as pleasant as the tent, we waited until 
the rain drove us in the next day, glad of so 
poor a shelter. The practiced eye of a carpen- 
ter pronounced its dimensions 7x9 feet, and 
only one side high enough to stand quite erect 
under. Sitting around our pleasant pine-cone 
tire in the little chimney that afternoon we puz- 
zled over the problem how to arrange beds for 
eight persons in that space, occupied also by 
trunks, provision box, etc. 

Next day a better cabin was found, and rented 
for a short time. This was 12 feet square, and 
after our late experience seemed quite a house. 

There are more difficulties to be overcome be- 
fore settling upon a Government homestead 
than many areawareof. After reaching the land, 
if it lies within the railroad limits, the first of 
these is to find the corners of the sections as 
surveyed, in order to avoid the odd or railway 
sections. These generally seem to take the 
best land; if only all was vacant, how much 
faster the country would fill up. 

Getting settled in our cabin, and hay and 
barley hauled up from the valley 15 miles away 
— enough to keep the horses a few weeks — we 
were ready to begin directly the object of our 
search —a home, or rather a place to carve out a 
home. First, we hunted up our neighbors who 
had located a few days before. They were from 
Yolo county without their families. We found 
them standing with the proud and independent 
air of land owners beside their shake cabins, 
and quite willing to give any information in 
their power. One of them had hunted through 
the underbrush 10 days before finding a corner 
stake, finery — Why did the surveyor throw 
the crooked sticks, used for corner stakes, upon 
the ground where they might be walked over 
without being noticed ? 

Quite a number of new home-hunters now 
came in, and even old settlers who had lived 
near for years joined in the land hunt. A man 
with compass was engaged to run out lines, 
and on the 12th of November we rode to Shasta 
to file upon our soldier's homestead, well pleased 



with our locality, six miles due west of Ander- 
son, although we had to go four miles for water. 
A house was the next consideration, as the 
owner of the cabin might come down from the 
mountains any day and call for it. In this crisis, 
the beautiful designs published in the Press 
the past year were no help to us, and for the 
encouragement of those who may have felt a 
country villa beyond their means, I will add 
that in four days the house, 12x10 feet, went 
up at an estimated cost of 925, besides work. 
Sills and rafters were of pine logs cut off the 
land. We hope to complete an addition before 
New Year's day. 

It may be wise for every one to make some 
allowance for my view of the country, it being 
with me a case of love at first sight, realizing 
better than any place I ever saw before my 
idea of a beautiful situation: a high land com- 
manding a view of distant mountains above, 
and smiling valleys below. At present we only 
catch glimpses of the snow-capped mountains 
and the Sacramento valley, but when the 
trees anil underbrush are cleared out we expect 
to see spread out before us a most sublime and 
expansive landscape. 

Returning health and idle horses enabled me 
to ride around almost every day the first few 
weeks, and after living so long on the treeless 
plains of San Joaquin, riding through the wind- 
ing avenues of green did seem so inspiriting. 
A friend who wanted a homestead in California, 
believes no land as good as represented could 
now be lying idle here, and that it must have 
been abandoned by some farmer settlers because 
found worthless. 

True, there is the great California drawback, 
want of water. About half a mile from us once 
stood a hotel, upon the stage route, I believe. 
A well was dug about 90 feet deep which gave 
a scant supply of water. When the railroad 
superseded the stage, the buildings were re- 
moved, and the old wells ever since pointed out 
as failures. 

There are good springs in some of these 
gulches, and no doubt veins of water exist 
through the highlands. The dense under- 
brush, too, makes those in haste to begin farm- 
ing on a large scale pass this by. There will be 
hard work to do here. The Igo water company 
are very favorable to the settlement of these 
lands, and offer water at low rates. All our 
land lies, where at small cost, we can have this 
pure mountain stream at our doors. Again, 
some doubter asks, "Can you produce anything 
upon this soil ? " 

What need to answer this question ? The 
towering pine, sturdy oak and blooming man- 
zanita answer it most eloquently. They had 
their fine view, but it could not make the pot 
boil said a lady of one who chose a home for its 
beautiful situation. 

Very true. The bread and butter question 
comes next. We shall look around among the 
old residents, see what they raise and how they 
do it, convinced by experience that Eastern 
methods of farming cannot always be trans- 
planted to California. 

Oak Highlands, Shasta Co., Dec. 21st. 



A Stanislaus Maiden's Fxfloit.— Miss 
Susie Jones, daughter of Capt. Jones, a pioneer 
settler of this county, last week noticing that 
the «dogs had "treed" some animal near the 
house, armed herself with a gun and proceeded 
to investigate the matter. No sooner had she 
approached near the tree, than a gigantic 
catamount sprang to the ground. The dogs 
followed in close pursuit over tangled weeds 
and through the dense willows and forests of 
the Tuolumne for near a mile, when the animal 
again took to a tree for protection. The brave 
girl trudged on alone, with her gun on her 
shoulder, and on coming up with the dogs soon 
discovered his catship in an unusual close prox- 
imity, but not daunted by his glaring eyes and 
ferocious appearance, took deliberate aim and 
fired. The cat made a spring, but fell to the 
ground dead. Swinging the monster over her 
shoulders she carried him home in triumph as a 
trophy of her prowess. A friend sent us the 
animal, and we found it to be one of the largest 
of his species. In fact, after a 29 years' residence 
in the State, and through force of necessity 
compelled to see all the various wild cat species, 
we pronounce it the largest catamount we ever 
saw. The young lady hunter has only seen 
some 14 or 15 summers and is a native of our 
county. — Stanislaus News. 



Regularity. — Regular, systematic labor is 
the whole philosophy of large accomplishment. 
Sir Walter Scott seldom worked more than two 
or three hours a day. He completed volume 
after volume at this easy rate of speed, and had 
abundant time for other interests, because the 
sun was not more punctual in the skies than he 
at his appointed task. Dr. Bowditch, a very 
busy man, translated the great Mecanique Cel- 
este, giving it less than two hours of work a 
day. But then the planets he explained did 
not move in their prescribed orbit more evenly 
than he in his. Dickens' writing was not gov- 
erned by inspiration, but by system. He said 
that he owed whatever Buccess or reputation he 
had made to the habit of sitting down regularly 
to bis work, and sticking to it a certain time, 
however much he might be tempted away, 
either by external attractions or by the feeling 
that he was not in the mood for writing, and 
had nothing to say. Let all your undertakings 
be thus regulated by will, and you will be sur- 
prised at the amount accomplished by deliber- 
ate, systematic toil. — London Reader. 



The Unexpressed Thank-you. 

How unconsciously, as mothers and teachers, 
we continually underestimate to our children 
the value of thought; or rather, what a pre- 
mium we continually pledge upon material 
things, and so suppress the highest impulses ? 
For instance, children are early taught to 
promptly return thanks for what they have 
to eat and to wear, but how 'seldom are they 
reminded of the obligation they are under to 
the friends who bestow upon them fine thoughts, 
beautiful music, or create in them noble im- 
pulses. Are there not many children who 
would promptly return an earnest "thank-you", 
to a friend for a beautiful dress or a pound of 
candy, who would never think of expressing 
their delight to a schoolmate who has recited a 
beautiful poem, sung a beautiful song, or pa- 
tiently sat at the piano in order that they might 
dance; and we, children of a larger growth, 
while promptly returning the thank-you for all 
material gifts, seldom, so seldom, express our 
gratitude to the friends who write our helpful 
books and lectures, preach our best sermons, or 
in any manner contribute to our enjoyment ? 
More people are wandering lonely through life 
hungry for expressed appreciation than the 
thoughtless crowd imagine. No man or woman 
ever yet was spoiled by the honest praise of 
loved friends. As we write, the memory of the 
sudden glory wrought into a toil worn face, 
when we told a famous woman of the pride a 
father and mother evinced in her writings, when 
they thought she would not know of it, assures 
us that we are not mistaken. Do we withhold 
our praise until our friends are dead through 
fear they may hear a thank-you for their toil ? 
For the weary workers toiling in our midst we 
so often keep sharp criticism and prejudice; for 
the lifeless clay we weave garlands and strew 
flowers, chant our sweetest music, compose our 
loveliest poems. No wonder that many persons so 
calmly arrange the details ot their own funerals. 
Alas, the saddened heart about to lay aside life's 
burdens knows that probably for the first time 
justice will be accorded. 

How strange our habit, so careless and reck- 
less of the throbbing, grieving heart; so care- 
ful of the lifeless remains ! 

Oh, sister women, notwithstanding a deep and 
abiding love for you, the tears will fall when 
the thought comes of this your besetting sin, 
and wc realize the soul-murders committed by 
the careless tongues of women. Oh ! the ten- 
der, loving hearts that are pierced and wounded 
to death by the poisoned arrows of envy, criti- 
cism and prejudice. Let us, each one, examine 
our own quiver, and see to it that every arrow 
is tipped with love and charity. — Mrs. Her- 
bert, in Inter-Ocean. 



Agricultural Art and Newspapers. 

Too poor to take a newspaper! Nonsense, 
that any man who has anything to do requiring 
capital or implements can make such an asser- 
tion. Those who refuse to keep themselves 
posted as to the current news of the day, and, 
more important, what is constantly coming new 
in the trade or profession they practice, are the 
ones who sooner or later fall behind and perhaps 
succumb. To what? A failure to keep pace 
with the times, for want of the same intelligence 
exhibited by the more successful individuals 
who read and think. It is true the reading and 
thinking man may fail. It is oftener through 
extravagance than otherwise, at least so far as 
the farm or other than mere speculative business 
is concerned. It is true a farmer who never 
reads an agricultural paper may succeed. It is, 
however, done by denying himself and his 
family many of the comforts and elegances of 
life, cheaply had through enlightened intelli- 
gence arising from reading. A man may get 
disgusted from reading so-called claptrap news- 
papers, many of them called agricultural, edited 
by mere theorizers, who know nothing practi- 
cally about the profession, and of course have to 
depend upon what they can clip from other 
journals, correct, perhaps, but fully as apt to 
be wrong, or not adapted to the end desired. 
Can the mechanic succeed with old-fashioned or 
duU tools? Can he afford to use the old-fashioned, 
wooden-cranked, wobbling grindstone? No. 
He uses modern appliances that enable the 
stone to cut true and evenly. So he uses the 
mo3t modern tools, as better and easier to work. 
Just so with the farm. Go into districts where 
newspapers do not circulate, and you will see 
the farming of 40 years ago. They keep about 
so far behind the times. On the other hand, go 
to districts where agricultural and other tech- 
nical journals circulate; where secular and 
literary and religious journals are found in 
every home, and you will find a prosperous and 
intelligent population, with fine church and 
school buildings. Their manufactures ilourish, 
and the wealth of the people is founded on 
intelligent endeavor. This comes of the appli- 
cation of reading and intelligent thought to the 
business in hand. In this the measure of success 
depends greatly upon an intelligent discrimina- 
tion in the journals read. Therefore hold on 
to the best. The same rule will apply to 
implements and machinery. —Prairie Farmer. 

The Society of Ladies. — We seek the society 
of the ladies with a view to be pleased, rather 
than to be instructed, and are more gratified by 
those who will talk, than by those who are 
silent; for if they talk well, we are doubly de- 
lighted to receive information from so pleasant 
a source; and if they are at times a little out in 
their conclusions, it is flattering to our vanity 
to set them right. 



Why the Sierra Nevada is Larger than 
the Coast Range. 

A Legend of the Yokuts. 

Stephen 'Powers, in his "Indian Tribes of 
California," relates occasional legends of the 
strange peoples he visited. Many of these tra- 
ditions are in themselves silly, child's fables, 
but viewed from the standpoint of ethnology 
they possess peculiar interest The tribe of the 
Yokuts lived, or rather their remnants still live, 
about the northern half of Tulare lake, reach- 
ing as far north as the bend to the eastward of 
the San Joaquin, and extending to the east and 
west as far as the Sierras and the Coast Range 
respectively. The following legend belongs to 
this tribe. Powers entitled it the 

The Origin ct the Mountains. 

Once there was a time when there was noth- 
ing in the world but water. About the place 
where Tulare lake is now there was a pole 
standing far up out of the water, and on this 
pole perched a hawk and a crow. First one of 
them would sit on the pole awhile, then the 
other would knock him off and sit on it himself. 
Thus they sat on top of the pole above the 
waters for many ages. At length they wearied 
of the lonesomeness and they created the birds 
which prey on fish, such as the kingfisher, eagle, 
pelican, and others. Among them was a very 
small duck, which dived down to the bottom of 
the water, picked its beak full of mud, came up, 
died, and lay floating on the water. The hawk 
and the crow then fell to work and gathered 
from the duck's beak the earth which it had 
brought up, and commenced making the moun- 
tains. They commenced at the place now 
known as Ta-hi-cha-pa pass, and the hawk 
made the east range, while the crow made the 
west one. Little by little, as they dropped in 
the earth, these great mountains grew athwart 
the face of the waters, pushing north. It was 
a work of many years, but finally they met to- 
gether at Mount Shasta, and their labors were 
ended. But, behold, when they compared their 
mountains, it was found that the crow's was a 
great deal the larger. Then the hawk said to 
the crow: "How did this happen, yon rascal? 
1 warrant you have been stealing some of the 
earth from my bill, and that is why your moun- 
tains are the biggest." It was a fact, and the 
crow laughed in his claws Then the hawk 
went and got some Indian tobacco and chewed 
it, and it made him exceedingly wise. So he 
took hold of the mountains and turned them 
round in a circle, putting his range in place of 
the crow's; and that is why the Sierra Nevada 
is larger than the Coast Range. 

This legend is of value, says Powers, as show- 
ing the aboriginal notions of geography. In 
explaining the story, the Indian drew in the 
sand a long ellipse, representing quite accu- 
rately, the shape of the two ranges ; and he had 
never traveled away from King's river, 

Further, it may be added, this legend and all 
of similar origin, are of vajue in correcting the 
ideas of "city folks" with regard to the Califor- 
nia Indians. Those who have seen only the 
" Digger" in his debauched indolence, as he 
hangs about some stage station, have no right to 
form an opinion, based upon their own experi- 
ence, of those unfortunate people. They do not 
deserve the approbrium attached to the term 
"Digger." They are interesting tribes, that 
have a history. They are falling before the 
advance of a people far better than themselves ; 
but not so much better, that the uncivilized 
cannot point to the civilized as the hasteners of 
the Indian's destruction. " We shall all die 
soon," wails the Yokuts Indian in his dance for 
the dead. " We were a great people once. 
We are weak and little now. Be sorrowful in 
your hearts. O, let sorrow melt your hearts. 
Let your tears flow fast. We are all one people. 
We are all friends. All our hearts are one 
heart." 

To St a Dried Grass. — There are few pret- 
tier ornaments, and none more economical and 
lasting, than bouquets of dried grasses mingled 
with the various unchangeable flowers. They 
have but one fault, and that is this, the want 
of other colors besides yellow and drab or 
brown. To vary their shade artificially, these 
flowers are sometimes dyed green. This, how- 
ever, is in bad taste and unnatural. The best 
effect is produced by blending rose and red 
tints together, and with a very little pale blue, 
with the grasses and flowers, as they dry natu- 
rally. The best means of dyeing dried leaves, 
flowers and grasses is to dip them into the al- 
coholic solution of the various compounds of 
aniline. Some of these have a beautiful rose 
shade; others red, blue orange and purple. 
The depth of color can be regulated by diluting, 
if necessary, the original dyes, with alcohol, 
down to the shade desired. When taken out of 
the dye they should be exposed to the air to 
dry off the alcohol. They then require arrang- 
ing or setting into form, as, when wet, the pe- 
tals and fine filaments have a tendency to cling 
together. A pink saucer, as sold by most 
druggists, will supply enough rose dye for two 
ordinary bouquets. The pink saucer yields the 
best rose dye by washing it off with water and 
lemon juice. The aniline dyes yield the best 
violet, mauve and purple colors. 

The worm and the barrel hoop are very much 
alike in this respect, that they turn when trod 
upon. 



January i8, i8 79 ,| THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 39 



Chaff. 

The violiniat who "carried the house by 
storm" used a rain bow afterward. 

Even a clothes line becomes unsteady when 
it has too many sheets in the wind. 

A musician, George Sharp, had his name on 
the door plate thus: "G. Sharp." A wag of 
a painter, who knew something of music, early 
one morning made the following undentable and 
significant addition : "Is A flat." 

A Florida preacher closed an unsuccessful 
revival meeting recently with the remark: "I 
tell you, my hearers, it don't pay for the gass. " 

A sybarite is already ecstatic at Prof. Edi- 
son's electric-divisibility discovery. He thinks 
cigars will be made with the spark in them. 
When you nip the point off they will light. 

The man who goes to church simply because 
he has nothing else to do may not be a heathen, 
but he is certainly an idle worshiper. 

A GENTLEMAN died not long ago who hadbeen 
addicted to his cups. One who was not aware 
of his habit was making inquiries of the family 
physician in relation to his death, and among 
other matters asked about hi3 spiritual condi- 
tion. "It was excessive," replied the doctor; 
"that was what killed him." 

A young man in this city, who sent a manu- 
script play to a theatrical manager, had it re- 
turned to him with the remark that if he would 
only work it over so as to make the heroine rob 
the bank instead of defend it, and afterward 
climb up a cataract on a slack rope, with a safe 
on her back, while the detectives paused fright- 
ened on the brink, it might do. 

"Dovey, " he said, "I believe I was telling 
you, after I came home last night, about the 
necessity of some retrenchment in our expendi- 
tures, was I not?" "Well, really, I've forgot- 
ton, John," she answered, nonchalantly; "turn 
on the phonograph and see." He turned it on, 
and all it said was: "Whazzer mazzer — (hie) 
— mazzer? Whazzer mazzer?" 

The little folks wanted the head of the fam- 
ily to spend the evening with them. Father 
said he thought of attending a meeting. Va- 
rious measures were discussed for keeping 
father at home, when Tommy, aged five, ad- 
dressed his brother, aged seven, as follows: 
"I'll tell you what we'll do. AVe'll put a sign 
on the front door — 'No admittance to go out of 
this house nights. ' " 

A Heroine of the Southern Plague. — A 
five dollar note would be an extravagant price 
to pay for her establishment and all it contains, 
but if heroic womanhood ever found embodiment 
in human shape, it can be seen nightly upon St. 
Charles street, just below the Academy of 
Music. A week ago Grandma Wilson was in 
Memphis baffling pestilence by her tireless vig- 
ilance. Hailed by a terror-stricken community 
as their guardian angel, Elizabeth, in the zenith 
of her splendor, could not have commanded the 
adulation which spontaneously went forth to 
that plain old woman. For 88 days and nights 
during the frightful harvest of death at Grenada 
those withered hands were often the only ones 
to soothe the burning brow or close dying eyes. 
To her tender care were committed their child- 
ren by dying parents. Appointed by the divine 
mandates of gratitude universal executrix and 
administratrix, in that season of deadly peril 
and death the confidential friend of the highest, 
she now sells peanuts on St. Charles street. 
She did so before, and were another epidemic to 
carry desolation into a thousand homes, after 
another heroic battle with disease, would do so 
again; but is Cincinnatus, returned to his plow, 
much more heroic than Mrs. Mary Ann Wilson 
returned from the devastation of Grenada, Grand 
Junction and Memphis to her peanut stand? 
Mrs. Wilson was a faithful nurse here in 1837. 
During the epidemic of 1853 she was on duty 
the entire summer. In 1855 she devoted her 
time to the sufferers of Norfolk. Another year 
she visited Savannah; and, in short, for 41 years 
this noble woman has flown to the aid of the 
sick and suffering the moment she heard of 
their needs. There is a seat above for her 
among the best of God's children.— New Orleans 
Times. . 

Great Ideas. — What is needed to elevate the 
soul is not that a man should know all that has 
been thought and written in regard to the 
spiritual nature; not that a man should become 
an encyclopedia, but that the great ideas in 
which all discoveries terminate, which sum up 
all sciences which the philosopher extracts from 
infinite details, may be comprehended and felt. 
It is not the quantity, but the quality of knowl- 
edge, which determines the mind's dignity. 
A man of immense information may, through 
the. want of large comprehensive ideas, be far 
inferior in intellect to a laborer, who, with 
little knowledge, has yet seized on great truths. 
I have known very learned men who seemed to 
me very poor in intellect, because they had no 
grand thoughts. What avails it that a man has 
studied ever so minutely the histories of Greece 
and Rome, if the great ideas of freedom, and 
beauty, and valor, and spiritual energy, have 
not been kindled by those" records, into living 
fires into his soul. 

Science in Nature. — "Everything," says 
Hugh Miller, "is writing nature's history, from 
pebble to planet. The scratches of the rolling 
rock, the channels of the rivers, the falling 
rain, the buried fern, the footprint in the snow, 
and every act of man, inscribes the map of her 
march. The air is full of sounds, the sky is 
full of memoranda and signatures which are 
more or less legible to every intelligent human 
being." 



Y©iJflq poLks' C@itJpN. 



The Pancake. 

Once on a time there was a goody who had 
seven hungry bairns and she was frying a pan- 
cake for them. It was a sweetmilk pancake, 
and there it lay in the pan bubbling and friz- 
zling so thick and good it was a sight for sore 
eyes to look at. And the bairns stood round 
about, and the good man sat by and looked on. 

"Oh, give me a bit of pancake, mother dear; 
I am so hungry," said one bairn. 

"Oh, darling mother," said the second. 

"Oh, darling, good mother," said the third. 

"Oh, darling, good, nice, mother," said the 
fourth. 

"Oh, darling, pretty, good, nice mother," said 
the fifth. 

"Oh, darling, pretty, good, nice, clever 
mother," said the sixth. 

"Oh, darling, pretty, good, nice, clever, 
sweet mother," said the seventh. 

So they begged for the pancake all round, the 
one more prettily than the other; for they were 
so hungry and so good. 

"Yes, yes, bairns, only bide a bit till it turns 
itself" (she ought to have said "till I can get it 
turned"), "and then you shall all have some — a 
lovely sweetmilk pancake. Only look how fat 
and happy it lies there." 

When the pancake heard that it got afraid, 
and in a trice it turned itself all of itself and 
tried to jump out of the pan, but it fell back 
into it again t'other side up, and so when it had 
been fried a little on the other side, too, till it 
got firmer in its flesh, it sprang out on the floor 
and rolled off like a wheel through the door 
and down the hill. 

"Holloa! Stop, pancake!" and away went 
the goody after it, with the frying pan in the 
one hand and the ladle in the other, as fast as 
she could, and her bairns behind her, while the 
good man limped after them last of all. 

"Hi! won't you stop? Seize it. Stop, pan- 
cake!" they all screamed out, one after the 
other, and tried to catch it on the run and hold 
it; but the pancake rolled on and on, and in the 
twinkling of an eye it was so far ahead that 
they couldn't see it, for the pancake was faster 
on its feet than any of them. 

So when it had rolled awhile it met a man. 

" Good day, pancake," said the man. 

" God bless you, Manny Panny! " said the 
pancake. 

" Dear pancake, " said the man, " don't roll 
so fast. Stop and let me eat you." 

" When I have given the slip to Goody Poody 
and the good man and seven squalling children 
I may well slip through your fingers, Manny 
Panny," said the pancake, and rolled on and on 
till it met a hen. 

" Good day, pancake," said the hen. 

" The same to you," Henny Penny," said the 
pancake. 

" Pancake, dear, don't roll so fast; bide a bit 
and let me eat you up," said the hen. • 

" When I have given the slip to Goody 
Poody, and the good man and seven squalling 
children, and Manny Panny, I may well slip 
through your claws, Henny Penny," said the 
pancake, and so.it rolled on like a wheel down 
the road. 

Just then it met a cock. 

" Good day, pancake," said the cock. 

" The same to you, Cocky Locky," said the 
pancake. 

" Pancake, dear, don't roll so fast, but bide 
a bit and let me eat you up. " 

" When I have given the slip to Goody Poody, 
and the good man, and seven squalling children, 
and to Manny Panny and Henny Penny, I may 
well slip through your claws, Cocky Locky," 
said the pancake, and off it set rolling away as 
fast as it could, and when it had rolled a long 
way it met a duck. 

" Good day, pancake," said the duck. 

" The same to you, Ducky Lucky." 

" Pancake, dear, don't roll away so fast; bide 
a bit and let me eat you up." 

" When I have given the slip to Goody 
Poody and the good man and seven squalling 
children, and Manny Panny, and Henny Penny, 
and Cocky Locky, I may well slip through 
your fingers, Ducky Lucky," said the pancake, 
and with that it took to rolling and rolling 
faster than ever, and when it had rolled a long, 
long while, it met a goose. 

" Good day, pancake," said the goose. 

" The same to you, Goosey Poosey." 

"Pancake, dear, don't roll so fast; bide a bit 
and let me eat you up." 

"When I have given the slip to Goody 
Poody, and the good man, and seven squalling 
children, and Manny Panny, and Henny 
Penny, and Cocky Locky, and Ducky Lucky I 
can well slip through your feet, Goosey Poosey," 
said the pancake, and off it rolled. 

So when it had rolled a long, long way farther 
it met a gander. 

"Good day, pancake," said the gander. 

"The same to you, Gander Pander," said the 
pancake. 

"Pancake, dear, don't roll so fast; bide a bit 
and let me eat you up. " 

"When I have given the slip to Goody Poody, 
and the good man, and seven squalling children, 
and Manny Panny, and Henny Penny, apd 
Cocky Locky, and Ducky Lucky, and Goosey 
Poody I may well slip through your feet, Gan- 
der Pander," said the pancake, which rolled off 
as fast as ever. 

So when it had rolled a long, long time it met 
a pig. 



"Good day, pancake," said the pig. 

"The same to you, Piggy Wiggy," said the 
pancake, which, without a word more, began to 
roll and roll like mad. 

"Nay, nay," said the pig, "you needn't be in 
such a hurry. We two can then go side by side 
and see one another over the wood; they say it 
is not too safe in there. " 

The pancake thought there might be some- 
thing in that, and so they kept company. But 
when they had gone awhile they came to a 
brook. As for piggy, he was so fat he swam 
safe across; it was nothing to him. But the 
poor pancake couldn't get over. 

"Seat yourself on my snout," said the pig, 
"and I'll carry you over." 

So the pancake did that. 

"Ouf, ouf," said the pig, and swallowed the 
pancake at one gulp; and then, as the pancake 
could go no farther, why — this story can go no 
farther either. 



Why are we Right-Handed ? 

Investigations which were very recently car- 
ried through by a French physician, Dr. Fleury, 
of Bordeaux, have adduced facts showing that 
our natural impulse to use the members on the 
right side of the body is clearly traceable to 
physiological causes. Dr. Fleury, after examin- 
ing an immense number of human brains, as- 
serts that the left anterior lobe is a little larger 
than the right one. Again, he shows that, by 
examining a large number of people, there is an 
unequal supply of blood to the two sides of the 
body. The brachiocephalic trunk, which only 
exists on the right of the arch of the aorta, pro- 
duces, by a difference in termination, an in- 
equality in the waves of red blood which travel 
from right to left. Moreover, the diameters of 
the subclavian arteries on each side are differ- 
ent, that on the right being noticeably larger. 
The left lobe of the brain, therefore, being more 
richly hrematosed than the right, becomes 
stronger; and as, by the intersection of the 
nervous fiber, it commands the right side of the 
body, it is obvious that that side will be more 
readily controlled. This furnishes one reason 
for the natural preferences for the right hand, 
and another is found in the increased supply of 
blood from the subclavian artery. The aug- 
mentation of blood we have already seen sug- 
gested; but the reason for it is here ascribed to 
the relative size of the artery, and not to any 
directness of path from the heart. Dr. Fleury 
has carried his investigations through the whole 
series of mamalia; and he finds that the right- 
handed peculiarities exist in all that have arte- 
ries arranged similar to those of man. At the 
same time such animals, notably the chimpan- 
zee, the seal, and the beavers, are the most 
adroit and intelligent. — The Electic. 



The Use of Tea. 

The following hints concerning the use of tea 
may prove useful. 

1. Whoever uses tea should do it in great 
moderation. 

2. It should form a part of the meal, but 
never be taken before eating, or between meals, 
or on an empty stomach, as is too frequently 
done. 

3. The best time to take tea is after a hearty 
meal. 

4. Those who suffer with weak nerves should 
never take it at all. 

5. Those who are troubled with inability to 
sleep nights should not use tea, or if they do, 
take it only in the morning. 

6. Brain-workers should never goad on their 
brains to overwork on the stimulus of tea. 

7. Children and the young should not use tea. 

8. The over-worked and under-fed should 
not use tea. 

9. Tea shonjd never be drank very strong. 

10. It is better with considerable milk and 
sugar. 

11. Its use should at once be abandoned 
when harm comes from it. 

12. Multitudes of diseases come from the 
excessive use of tea, and for this reason those 
who cannot use it without going to excess 
should not use it at all. 



The Nails. — The growth of the nails is more 
rapid in children than in adults, and slowest in 
the aged ; goes on faster in summer than in win- 
ter, so that the same nail which is renewed in 
132 days in winter, requires only 116 in summer. 
The increase of the nails of the right hand is 
more rapid than those of the left ; moreover, it 
differs for the different fingers, and in order cor- 
responds with the length of the finger, conse- 
quently it is the fastest in the middle finger, 
nearly equal in the two on either side of this, 
slower in the little finger and slowest in the 
thumb. The growth of all the nails on the left 
hand requires 82 days more than those of the 
right. 



Pie for DYsrErTifrt.— Four tablespoonfuls of 
oatmeal, one pint of water; let stand a few 
hours, or till the meal is well swelled. Then 
add two large apples, pared and sliced, a little 
salt, one cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of 
flour. Mix all well together and bake in a but- 
tered pie-dish; and you have a most delicious 
pie, which may be eaten with safety by the sick 
or well. 



Pickled Sheep-Tongues. 

Clara Francis gives the Prairie Farmtr the 
following : Boil the tongues in salted water, 
and when done, which will be in about two 
hours, skin them while still hot. For 50 
tongues put a tablespoon each of whole allspice 
and pepper-corns, and half as many cloves into 
a small bag. Steep for 15 minutes in hot vin- 
egar, them pack the tongues, with the bag of 
spice in the center, in a stone jar; pour over the 
hot vinegar and add enough more cold to cover 
them. They are very good eaten plain, or may 
be served with 

Sauce Tartare. 
Beat the yolk of a raw egg with a mustard 
spoonful of mixed mustard; add nice salad oil 
very slo wly and stir constantly until the sauce 
grows thick and smooth. If put in drop by 
drop, the egg will absorb half a teacup of oil 
and become so thick that a teaspoon will stand 
upright in it. When thick enough put in a tea- 
spoonful of powdered sugar, two of lemon-juice 
and two of vinegar. Many would use double 
or »even triple the above amount of oil and in- 
crease the other seasonings accordingly. ■ This 
is the simple mayonnaise sauce, which can be 
bottled and kept for any length of time. If too 
thick, thin with vinegar, unless already sour 
enough, then sweet cream can be used instead. 
This is the foundation for sauce tartare, which 
is made by the addition of some cucumber 
pickles, parsley and a scrap of onion, chopped 
fine, and a few capers. 



How I Clean My Chimney. 

Editors Press:— Foul chimneys frequently 
cause disastrous fires. Country folks usually 
have no convenient way of sweeping the accu- 
mulated soot from a chimney of any length. I 
treat mine homcepathically; wait for a rainy 
day, make a fire on the hearth, so as to create 
an up draft, take a sheet of old newpaper, light 
it, and let the draft carry it blazing up the foul 
chimney. 

Those who try this method will find it easy, 
effective and safe; but nervous persons must not 
be alarmed at the roaring of the invoked demon 
as he does the sweeping, nor at his exit in yards 
of flame and smoke at the chimney top. 

Edw. Berwick. 

Monterey, Cal. 



Bleaching Feathers, etc. — The Monitew 
hulustrielle states that Messrs. Viol & Duplot 
have recently devised a method of bleaching 
feathers, which, if successful, will be welcome 
to many who have been unable to get at the 
carefully-guarded secret methods used hitherto. 
Their method rests on the fact that feathers 
immersed in resinous essences (such as turpen- 
tines and other hydro-carbureted oils from dis- 
tillation of resinous juices in general, or in like 
oils in lavender, thyme, etc., or in bituminous 
hydrocarbons) are decolorated under the action 
of light and heat. The feathers, especially 
ostrich plumes, are kept in the vessels a longer 
or shorter time, according to the degree of 
bleaching wished, and at about 86° F. , while 
exposed to light as much as possible. In three 
or four weeks they are dried and prepared ac- 
cording to known methods. 

Asparagus and Toast. — Asparagus, the best 
of the greens. Wash, pin up in a cloth, and - 
boil gently in a little pure water about 20 min- 
utes. It goes well with samp and potatoes, 
without condiments, but some people will not 
be content without dressing. The least objec- 
tionable dressing is the white sauce, milk thick- 
ened with wheatmeal and slightly salted. "As- 
paragus toast" is made by cutting wheatmeal bis- 
cuit into thin slices, dipping in hot milk, 
spreading on a platter, laying the boiled aspar- 
agus on it, and pouring over it the white sauce. 
"Asparagus peas" are prepared by just cutting 
into bits the tender part of the raw asparagus, 
boiling in just water enough to cover it until 
done, skimming out, dishing, and pouring 
over it the white sauce 



Baked Tomatoes. — One quart of fresh round 
tomatoes. Scald and peel carefully, so as not 
to break the tomato; put into a deep dish, and 
season with a little salt and cayenne. Roll a 
teaclipful of crackers and spread over the top; 
cover lightly, and bake in a quick oven half or 
three-quarters of an hour. Two or three lumps 
of butter, the size of a Lima bean, may be drop- 
ped into the dish just before dishing up. Slip 
them out carefully, the brown side up, or leave 
them in the baking dish. 



Old-fashioned Cake. — Two cupfuls of 
sugar, one cupful of butter, three cupfuls of 
flour, one-half cupful of sour milk, one-half 
teaspoonful of soda dissolved in it, one teaspoon- 
ful cinnamon, one-half teaspoonful of nutmeg, 
two cupfuls of raisins, one wineglassful of 
brandy. 



Squash Cakes. — Mix graham flour with half 
its bulk of squash, or pumpkin, and add milk 
enough to make a thick batter, about a cup of 
milk to each cup of squash. Put in one tea- 
spoonful cream yeast, mixing it well with the 
flour. Cook on a griddle. 



40 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 



Annual Subscriptions, *4; six months, $2; three 
months, $1.26. When paid fully one year in advance, 
riTTY cknts will be deducted. No NKW names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. C. orders at our risk. 
AvuTiaiNO Ri.tkh. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 25 . 80 *2 00 f 6.00 

Half inch (1 square).. J1.00 $3.00 7.60 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 



Quack Advertising positively declined. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DBWST. W. B. EWIR. Q. B. 8TRONG. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 18, 1879. 
TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— Leghorn Fowls; North and South; 
Old Probabilities; Poison Cheese, 33 The Week; Ka- 
leidoscopic California, 40. Observations on the Fruit 
Worm; The Medlar; The Pneparturiens Walnut, 41. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Centennial Premium Brown 
Leghorn Fowls, 33. A California Grown Medlar; The 
Prcsparturiens Walnut; Transformations of the Codling 
Moth, 41. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY. — Healdsburg 
Grange and Grangers' Business Association; What of the 
Year in the Grange Work T Election of Officers, 36 

QUERIES AND REPLIES— The Nickajack Ap- 
ple; Railroad Lands in Colusa County; Orange on Lime 
Stock; Growth of California Fruit Trees; Stone Fruit in 
California. 40. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 36-37. 

ARBORICULTURE — The Cone-bearers, or Ever- 
green Trees of California— No. 1, 34. 

POULTRY YARD. -Points on Puultry— White Leg- 
horns, 84. 

HORTICULTURE.- The Salmon Berry and Other 
Wild Fruits, 34. 

FLORICULTURE — Potted Plants, 34-35. 

HOME CIRCLE — The Farmer's Legend (poetry); 
Finding the Corners; A Stanislaus Maiden's Exploit; 
Regularity; The Unexpressed Thank-you; Agricultural 
Art and Newspapers; The Society of Ladies; Why the 
Sierra Nevada is Larger than the Coast Range; To 
Stain Dried Grass, 38. Chaff ; A Heroine of the South 
ern Plague; Great Ideas; Science in Nature, 39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -The Pancake, 30. 

GOOD HEALTH— Why are wo Right-Handed? The 
L'se of Tea; The Nails; Pie for Dyspeptics, 39 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. —Pickled Sheep-Tongues; 
How 1 Clean my Chimney; Bleaching Feathers, Etc. ; 
Asparagus and Toast; Baked Tomatoes; Old-fashioned 
Cate; Squash Cakes. 39. 

MISCELLANEOUS. —Foothills of the Sierra, 35. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

^Neville & Co. , Bag Manufacturers, S. F. i-i? Black 
Point Packing and Slaughter House, Merry, Faull & Co., 
Prop's, S. F. laTPuultry and Berkshire's, Wm. Niles, 
Los Angeles, Cal. f'\ M W. Dunham's Oaklawn Stud of 
Percheron-Norman Horses, M. W. Dunham, Wayne, Ills. 
faTUhiifa Seed For Sale, Eisen Bros., S. F. iSTTo Cheese- 
Makers — The Union Dairy Cheese Vat, J. G. Anderson, 
Oakland, Cal. £aTOrange and Lemon Trees, D. C. Hay- 
ward, Sacramento, Cal. $3F Thoroughbred Poultry For 
Sal*. £5TElectric Belts and Bands, Pulvermacher Gal- 
vanic Co., S. F. 



The Week. 

The weather is still the prevailing topic, and 
coal and blankets are heaped higher then ever 
before, within easy memory, in California. It 
is true that now and then the turn in the 
weather vane has brought slightly warmer air 
and a shower, but those who went late to bed 
aad rose early, found the same moon shining 
imperturbably. And yet enough rain has fallen 
in|most partsjto set the plows agoing, and where 
there is a chance to work, hope asserts her 
sway, and anticipation wipes her spectacles. 
Thus it has been for several weeks in the lower 
coast counties. During the last few days the 
line of cheering prospect has crept higher, and 
on Tuesday of this week ground began to turn 
rapidly in the Salinas valley, and in the regions 
northward, including the bay counties. Even 
Sail Joaquin has had a dash of rain, and the 
Livermare valley has workable soil and snow on 
the embracing hills. Figures of the rain at dif- 
ferent points are scanty as yet, but we note the 
following: 

This Season. Last Season. 



Marysville 2.38 Inches. 0.39 Inches. 

Stockton 2.27 ** 2.78 " 

Livermore 1.84 " 2.58 " 

Modesto 2 08 " 2.07 " 

Salinas 1.76 " 

Santa Barbara 10.07 " 

Los Augeles 7.48 11 .... 



As we write the clouds are set for rain, and 
thus a promise is outheld. We trust next week 
to have large figures to marshal into the rain 
tables. 

The Carson papers report ex-Governor L. R. 
Bradley as seriously sick with hemorrhage of 
the lungs. 



Kaleidoscopic California ! 

If we have not in this term applied a new 
adjective to California, let those older than we 
in adjectival iniquity claim the distinction of 
applying it. "Panoramic California" might 
suit some minds, but a panorama is a dull 
thing at best; redolent of paint perfumes, and 
either squeaky as a rusty hinge, or else notably 
balky in its movement. Not so the kaleido- 
scope. Its forms are ever marshaling into new 
linen with the speed of a light-flash. Noiseless, 
of infinite variety, perfect in symmetry, the 
pictures of the kaleidescope are symbols of 
boundless resources, of limitless diversity in 
the use of them, and of business-like celerity 
in striking balances between thought and its 
material embodiment, which are characteristic 
of California and her men. The only trouble 
which we meet in showing California as a 
kaleidescope, is that we must turn the observer 
and not the apparatus. And even this diffi- 
culty gives another simile: for in fact Califor- 
nia stands still. Her riches of soil and clime 
were just as great perhaps when the first 
sequoia won its first dew drop, but we are just 
beginning to perceive them. The change is in 
us; not in our fields. Thus we shall turn our- 
selves so that the new forms shall come to 
view. Thus shall we say, as some old orator 
said of Pennsylvania, when called upon to 
eulogize his native State: There stands Califor- 
nia — look at her. 

We are just beginning to look at California 
aright. Years ago when no color pleased the 
eye but the yellow gleam in the dirt, it is cer- 
tain that California was but narrowly judged. 
And later, when the gleam of the green of the 
grain field and the pasture range appeared as 
letter A in the alphabet of California agricul- 
ture, the judgment was but little widened. It 
was not long, however, before wonderfully great 
and perfect growths of varied products began to 
impart some adequate idea of the vast and va- 
ried agricultural resources of our State, and, 
from that time to the present, each year has 
disclosed many new possibilities and few limita- 
tions. This feature of our progress is the one 
most frequently commented upon, but there is 
another hardly less gratifying which is each day 
coming into plainer view. We refer to the 
great desirability of lands, which in our earlier 
years were either overlooked, or wrongly pro- 
nounced unfit for agricultural purposes. Illus- 
trations of this awakening may be seen in the 
tule lands; and the greatness of their possibility 
is doubtless but temporarily obscured by the 
difficulties and dangers in attaining it. Whether 
the present systems of reclaiming tule lands will 
ultimately attain success, or whether very differ- 
ent policies and methods must prevail, it matters 
little; the future will see the State enriched by 
this immense and long neglected area of frnitful 
soil 

Not less important and much nearer realiza- 
tion, is the new prospect which has come to the 
dry lands in some parts of the San Joaquin val- 
ley. Time and again pronounced worthless, 
except for the transient winter support of roam- 
ing herds, these lands are now coming forward 
into the very front rank of productive power, 
needing but the thread of the ditch, from 
stream or artesian well, to lead them out of the 
darkness of the past to the light of tne present, 
which shows them qualified for many lines of 
profitable culture. 

Another new eye-opening to our resources is 
the desirability of the Sierra foothills for agri- 
cultural purposes. The view which is now had 
of them is caught in the light of many actual 
accomplishments, and the carefully prepared re- 
view of foothill facts and observations by Hon. 
B. B. Redding, which we print upon another 
page of this issue, will be read with much inter- 
est by all students of California resources. It 
is both poetic justice and practical advantage 
that the lands which have won such mining re- 
nown should enter an honorable career of agri- 
cultural production, and thus maintain their 
place in the minds of men. It is, indeed, a 
matter of congratulation that the sacrifices 
which the miner made to bring water from afar 
to bear upon the gold fields, should now gain a 
new value in developing grain fields and 
orchards upon the waste places of the mines. 
This view of foothill progress is but akin to the 
general idea which California-lovers cherish, that 
a State so favored by the Creator in situation 
and clime should demonstrate its title to per- 
manent eminence — eminence in agriculture 



which it may maintain as long as the world 
shall endure, providing men but do their duty 
in continually restoring the fertility which they 
draw upon. 

And this suggests another turn which the 
gazers at California's kaleidescope must make. 
The old idea that manure was valueless in Cali- 
fornia has been shown by a host of experiences, 
to be fallacious. The example of a few enter- 
prising cultivators in turning fertilizing matter 
to account has revolutionized the whole idea 
and practice of their neighborhoods. It is true 
that, owing to conditions of air and soil, 
methods of manure application which prevail in 
other parts of the world will not yield success 
here; but the fact that proper condition of ma- 
terial and wise selection of time and method of 
application will yield success, opens to us the 
way to restore to our soils their early produc- 
tiveness, and thus forces a new view of the per- 
manence and profit of agricultural operations in 
this State. 

Again we are brought to new visions of Cal- 
ifornia, by the progress which is being made in 
the art of tillage. Cultivation aa a conserver 
of moisture is a comparatively new idea in Cal- 
ifornia practice, though the general truth has 
been long recorded. The application of this 
principle to California conditions is fast simpli- 
fying the art of irrigation, by reducing the dan- 
gerous use of the water during the growing sea- 
son, and substituting therefor a full drenching of 
the soil in winter, and culture to hold this mois- 
ture available during the summer months. We 
state this as a general principle; of course there 
are some exceptions and some advantages, in 
certain cases, from the artificial flow of the wa- 
ter at other times during the season. But had 
the analogies from nature's time of giving water 
been earlier drawn, many a disappointment 
through unseasonable irrigation would have 
been avoided. And then the relation between 
moisture and cultivation is capable of further 
application to practice, as shown by the instan- 
ces which have come forward of late, where a 
light rainfall has been so conserved by cultiva- 
tion, that irrigation has been found unnecessary. 

The facts and tendencies which we have 
stated, and others not less important which we 
have not space to enumerate, serve to show the 
spirit of progress and development which char- 
acterizes California agriculture. Old points of 
view have been forsaken and new points are 
continually yielding new visions. As our re- 
sources increase our practices vary to meet the 
new needs. As their diversity increases the 
way is opening for the introduction of a world's 
products, and their cultivation calls for all the 
truth which a world of patient investigators 
and experimenters can disclose. 

Pacific Coast Cone-Bearers. — We begin 
this week the publication of a series of articles 
on the cone-bearers of California, written for 
the Press by Prof. J. G. Lemmon, of Sierra 
Valley. Prof. Lemmon is well known to our 
readers as a botanist of high standing, and as a 
writer whose love of nature, brilliant imagina- 
tion and warm heart lie near his pen point and 
give a glow to all his composition. The series 
which we now have in hand will be found of a 
more popular character than the essays on the 
subject, by Prof. Asa Gray, which we published 
last summer. They will, however, be no leas 
accurate as scientific reviews of the subjects 
advanced. Prof. Lemmon has lived for years 
among the trees which he presents to his readers, 
and has studied them as familiar faces. To be 
sure of his accuracy on scientific points, the 
series has been examined by Dr. Kngelmann, of 
St. Louis, who leads the van in this branch of 
botany. We trust that all our readers who are 
interested in trees (and who is not?) will study 
this series of articles carefully and acquire an 
accurate knowledge of this division of local 
botany, which will be always of educational 
and practical advantage to them. Prof. Lem- 
mon does public service by his writings of this 
kind, and we trust his reward for his honest 
work will come in due time, from the pockets, 
as well as the hearts of the people. 

Santa Rita. — A correspondent informs us 
that the crop of beans grown by Jessie Hill, 
amounting to 23 tons from 20 acres, were pro- 
duced in Santa Rita and not Lompoc, as stated 
by our correspondent, B. W. C, in the Press 
of Dec. 21st. Santa Rita must therefore be 
credited with this satisfactory yield. 

The ice blockade in the Columbia and Willa- 
mette rivers, Oregon, still continues. 



QJe^ies /\nd Relies. 

The Nickajack Apple. 

Editors Press:— Please tell me the name of 
the apple sent herewith!— H. F. Evans, Ana- 
heim, CaL 

The apple is the Nickajack, a handsome, large 
fruit, excellent keeper and a favorite in this 
market. The name of the apple has, according 
to Downing, 48 synonyms, so that the fruit is 
differently called in different localities. It is 
widely disseminated and has the power of re- 
producing itself so truly by seed that it ia im- 
possible to distinguish the seedling from fruit of 
the original stock. In case any readers may 
like to know whether they have this apple 
under a different name, we quote Downing's de- 
scription as folio W8: "Fruit, large. Form, 
roundish to roundish oblate, slightly conic, 
sometimes oblique. Color, yellowish, striped, 
shaded and splashed with two shades of red 
and with a grayish appearance as if covered 
with a thin bloom, many areole dots. Stalk, 
short. Cavity, large, medium depth. Calyx, 
partly open. Basin, medium, slightly corru- 
gated. Flesh, yellowish, compact, moderately 
tender and juicy, negative subacid. Core, 
small, closed. Season (at the East), December 
to April." 

Railroad Lands In Colusa County. 

Editors Press i — Please state whether the 
land situated in Colusa county, and for which 
the C. P. R R. Co. is or has been sued by the 
Ciovernment, has been sold, or can yet be taken 
by pre-emption or homestead; and what kind of 
land it is. — Reader, San Jose. 

[At our request the Colusa Sun replies to the 
above question as follows : "Pre-emptions or 
homesteads have been filed on all this land 
worth anything. The lands lie from 3 to 12 
miles west and nrrth of Colusa, and a great deal 
of it ia first-class farming land, and some of it is 
flat alkali land. With a good title it would be 
worth from $5 to $40 an acre. Of course such 
land, near the town of Colusa, and lying between 
the river and a railroad, would not long lemain 
subject to pre-emption or homestead. Some of 
it is in contest between the R. R Co. and 
swamp land claimants." 

Orantre on Lime Stock. 

Editors Press: — I wish you would inform me 
through your paper, how the orange does on 
the lime stock. Does it not tend to dwarf the 
tree and throw it into . early bearing ? — L F. 
Tabor, Newcastle, Placer Co. 

The orange would doubtless grow on lime 
stock, but just how it would grow and the in- 
fluence which the stock would exert we do not 
know. Perhaps some reader who has tried it 
will tell us his experience. We presume the 
same objection would prevail against working 
the orange on the lime, as against the use of 
lemon stock, and this is generally condemned, 
and has nearly gone out of practice, although 
once common in this State. The best author- 
ities on grafting and on the special culture of 
the orange, name only seedlings of the orange, 
or the bigarade variety, as the proper stock to 
use for orange scions. 

Growth of California Fruit Trees. 

Editors Press: — In your last issue you ask 
how fast our fruit trees grow. I have just 
measured one of my budded peach trees. Just 
one year's growth, four inches above where the 
bud was put in, shows a measurement of four 
and one-naif inches around. The main stock is 
30 inches long. I only measured the three 
lower limbs. The first is 34 inches long, the 
second is 59 inches long, and is a fraction over 
two inches in circumference ; the third is 47 
inches long. I have plum buds that grew over 
seven feet this last season. — A. T. Coburn, El- 
mira, Solano Co. , CaL 

Stone Fruit In California. 

Editors Press: — Please inform me whether 
you have stone fruit in market as late as this. 
I mean, of course, jast as they are picked from, 
the tree. If you have, please state what kind 
or kinds they are, and the information will be 
thankfully received.— Leonard Faunck, Brock- 
ton, Mass., December 31st 

There is no fresh stone fruit now in market 
The latest were Coe's red plums, and they were 
sold up to December 15th last 

Percheron-Norman Horses.— These horses 
have won a good name on this coast and many 
will read with interest the advertisement of M. 
W. Dunham, who is the leading breeder and 
importer in this country. We expect next 
week to give a portrait of a fine animal of thii 
breed, with some interesting facts concerning it. 

The Japanese are apprehensive that Russia 
intends to annex Yesso. 



January 18,51879.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



41 



Observations on the Fruit Worm. 

Editors Press: — We send you a circular, 
which we have published in interest of the fruit 
growers, to which we respectfully call your at- 
tention, and wish you could get the fruit growers 
to discuss the matter presented, as it is impor- 
tant to them. Our large orchards in this vicin- 
ity are nearly destroyed ; last season from 
10,000 to 15,000 boxes of fruit were lost. Our 
examination has extended over nearly two years ; 
therefore, we are perfectly satisfied that we 
advance the right description of the habits of 
the insect and an effective remedy for it. Fruit 
growers have each a theory of their own, and 
as what we advance is different, many of them 
are still in doubt. For instance, Mr. F., owner 
of a large orchard, called upon us this morning, 
and stated that he had read our circular, and since 
had examined his trees but could not find any 
caterpillars ; and also that he had lost his crop 
of nearly 5,000 boxes last year. If our state- 
ment was correct, there would be some in his 
trees. Not finding any he thought, as he did 
previously, that the so-called worm was depos- 
ited on the tree and remained in egg all winter. 
In his company we drove with him to his or- 
chard, and our examination resulted in finding 
caterpillars, one or more, in every tree — in one 
tree eight and another seventeen. (These two 
trees were pear ; variety, Vicar. ) Mr. F. is 
now perfectly satisfied that we are correct. We 
are confident that the solution we propose is 
properly made, and, if applied, will destroy the 
caterpillar. Knowing that you are interested 
in any information concerning the farm and 
orchard, we take the liberty of writing you, 
though not for publication. Any information 
we have will be freely given to any person 
writing us or otherwise. — -Cooke & Son, Sacra- 
mento. 

We print the above letter, though not in- 
tended for publication, because it well intro- 
duces the subject which we wish to comment 
upon. The alarming increase which the "apple 
worm'' (Carpocapsa pomonella) or codling moth 
has attained during the last three years, is 
known to most fruit growers, especially in the 
central part of the State. The pest, as we 
have frequently urged, is the greatest scourge 
which now hangs over our orchards, and it 
should be fought intelligently, persistently and 
perseveringly, or the ruin of our fruit will be 
the price we shall pay for neglect. 

Some time ago we gave an engraving show- 
ing the natural history of this insect, and we 
repeat it upos this page, because the minds of 
our orchardists are now awake to the evil and 
the engraving will help them to understand 
just what the evil is of which we speak. We 
have given heretofore the points on the history 
of the insect as detailed by Eastern observers, 
and Messrs. Cooke & Son, of Sacramento, have 
now done public service by studying it in Cali- 
fornia, and publishing the results of their in- 
vestigation. Many insects vary their habits 
somewhat, according to the climates under 
which they grow, and local observations are of 
the greatest value. Therefore we shall present 
at length the results reached by our Sacramento 
friends, and urge further study and experi- 
ment on the part of all orchardists to test their 
conclusions and the efficacy of the treatment 
they propose. 

It will be noticed that in their letter above 
they make especial point on the insect remain- 
ing in the worm state through the winter. 
This is true, as it was distinctly stated in our 
description of the insect in the Press of Octo- 
ber 27th, 1877. It does not pass the winter 
either in the egg or pupa state. Messrs Cooke 
& Son record their observations as follows: 

1st. The moth belongs to the family Tortriees, 
the worm, the larva of the Carpocapsa pomo- 
nella, or codling moth. 

2d. The egg hatches in our usual spring 
weather, in from seven to ten days. 

3d. The larva attains its full size in about 20 
days, and generally assumes the pupa state before 
the thirtieth day. 

4th. It remains in the pupa state from 9 to 
12 days. 

5th. The moth deposits the eggs in the hollow 
of the blossom end of the fruit (see No. 6), the 
larva is hatched in a few days, and immediately 
commences burrowing towards the carpdlary 
ovarium, or hulls containing the seeds. It then 
gnaws its way through the pericarp (before or 
after the premature fall of the fruit) to assume 
the pupa or chrysalis state. 

6th. That the egg is not deposited on the 
blossom as generally supposed, but after the 
fruit is well formed. 

7th. The first appearance of the moth is 
generally from 1st to 25th of May. 

8th. The eggs deposited by the early moth 
become moths and lay eggs for a second genera- 
tion, and these for a third, which will arrive at 
perfection by the latter end of August (see 16). 

9ch. They generally remain in the caterpillar 
state throughout the winter, semi-dormant. 

10th. The larva is somewhat of a borer, as 
seen by his preparations for winter quarters, 
and from refuse in his nest apparently obtains 
sustenance from the tree. 



11th. The larva can be found in trees affected 
the previous season, under the loose bark, and 
in some cases in holes bored in the solid bark, 
and generally on the side of the tree facing the 
south. 

12th. Neither larva or pupa could be found in 
the ground around the trees affected last season, 
nor in the weeds or shubbery near them (see 15). 
A careful examination of the body and limbs of 
those trees, with the aid of a powerful glass, 
failed to detect any egg deposit. 

13th. The larva taken from the apple and 
pear tree are the same. 

14th. The specimens we collected are full 
grown, and move lively, apparently ready to 
assume the pupa state as soon as the tempera- 
ture of the season permits. 

15th. In one case a piece of paper was found 
near a tree, containing a chrysalis or pupa, but 
cannot say at present if of this family — we think 
not. 

16th. That as each generation of these moths 
arrive at perfection, they deposit their eggs on 
the fruit throughout the season. Thus late 
pears and apples are more liable to be destroyed, 
from the rapid increase of the moth, than the 
earlier varieties. 

From the observations stated, we are led to 
believe that the destruction of this pest must be 
consummated while it is in the caterpillar state. 
We have a collection of these caterpillars, full 
grown, also the nest they were taken from, at 
our office, taken from the trees (pear and apple) 
January 3d, 1879, which can be seen at any 
time — lively fellows — which we think is suffi- 
cient proof that the moth remains in the cater- 
pillar state all winter, as we found some i 



sprinkled by a brush or watering pot. This 
solution is cheap. It is not only harmless to veg- 
etable life, but a benefit to trees, grounds, etc., 
where it is applied. Parties using paper on 
their trees, should saturate it with this solution, 
so that any larvae under it will be destroyed, 
and saving time in taking off the paper. 

Fruit-growers whose orchards are free form 
these moths, should not have any boxes return- 
ed to their orchards from markets, where they 
have been in contact with boxes containing 
wormy fruit. This has virtually been the cause 
of the rapid spread of this destructive moth in 
various sections of the fruit-growing districts. 
Sheds and return boxes in all orchards should 
be thoroughly saturated with this solution. 

The engraving of the insect on this page shows 
the manner of its work and the various forms 
it assumes: a represents a section of an apple 
which has been attacked by the worm, showing 
the burrowings and channel of exit to the left; 
b, the point at which the egg was laid and at 
which the young worm entered; e, the full 
grown worm; h, its head and first segment mag- 
nified, i, the cocoon which it spins; d, the 
chrysalis to which it changes;/, the moth which 
escapes from the chrysalis. The worm of the 
codling moth, when young, is whitish, with 
usually an entire black head shielded on the top 
of the first segment. When full grown it ac- 
duires a flesh-colored or pinkish tint, especially 
on the back, and the head and top of first seg- 
n ment becomes more brown, being usually mark- 




A California Grown Medlar. 

every tree we examined. We are also certain 
that it leaves its winter residence before it as- 
sumes the pupa or chrysalis state. The trees 
should be thoroughly washed before budding, 
then when in bloom, and also when the fruit is 
well formed, or as soon as any sign of the larvae 
in the fruit, so that any caterpillars escaping in 
their nests may be destroyed by the effects of 
the solution when leaving them. Enough liquor 
will fall off the tree to saturate the ground 
around it. By constant application during the 
early part of the season, the usual late broods 
will be effectually destroyed. The application 
should be general with fruit growers, whether 
their orchards are affected or'not, so as to pre- 
vent any further spread of the worn., as it is 
commonly called. We know of one large 
orchard last season that in the month of J uly 
was supposed to be perfectly free from these so- 
called worms, and in three weeks the crop was 
totally destroyed. 




Transformationa of the Codling Moth. 

The following composition will be found an 
active insecticide, and will come within the 
reach of all to use extensively, and cost less 
than three cents per gallon for material: Flour 
of sulphur one pound, fresh lime (in pow- 
der) one pound, water 20 pounds. Boil to- 
gether for 20 minutes. When the liquor is 
taken from the fire, it should be put into a bar- 
rel, and stirred daily until it acquires a fetid 
smell, the more fetid, the greater its efficacy. 
The barrel should be carefully stopped after 
each stirring. 

Vegetables, small shrubs, and grape-vines 
may be sprinkled by a brush, such as plasterers 
use for dampening walls. Trees of ordinary 
size (pear and apple) should be sprinkled by a 
small force pump, with hose and sprinkler, 
such as is used in gardens and orchards, or'by a 
syringe with perforated end. When the liquor 
is ready for use, it should be drawn from the 
barrel in which it was made, so as to leave the 
sediment in the bottom, to prevent discoloring 
the tree. Melon and cucumber vines should be 




The Proeparturiens Walnut. 

ed, as at h. It is sparsely covered with very mi- 
nute hairs which take their rise from minute 
elevated points, of which there are eight on 
each segment. The cocoon is invariably of a 
pure white color on the inside, but is disguised 
on the outside by being covered with minute 
fragments of whatever substance the worm 
happens to spin to. The chrysalis is a yellowish 
brown, with rows of minute teeth on its back, 
by the aid of which it is enabled to partly push 
itself out of its cocoon, when its time to issue 
as a moth arrives. The moth is a most beautiful 
object. Its fore wings are marked with alter- 
nate, irregular transverse wavy streaks of ash- 
gray and brown, and have on the inner hind 
angle a large tawny brown spot, with streaks of 
bright bronze color or gold. 

The Medlar. 

An engraving on this page shows the medlar 
( Mespilus Oermanica), a fruit well known 
abroad, but which has not yet been turned to 
very wide practical account in this State. The 
fruit somewhat resembles the smaller apples, 
and has a very acceptable flavor when fully 
ripened, but before full ripeness, it has an 
astringent flavor, as has the persimmon. In 
Europe it is generally picked from the tree and 
ripened in the house. The medlar is believed 
to be a native of the south of Europe, but the 
largest fruit is the German variety shown in the 
engraving. 

The medlar tree is of good size and branches 
well. The branches, according to Rhind's 
description, are wooly and covered with an ash- 
colored bark, and the wild tree is armed with 
stiff spines. The leaves are oval, lanceolate, 
serrate ; towards the point somewhat wooly and 
set on very short channeled petioles. The 
flowers are produced on small natural spurs at 
the ends and sides of the branches. The bracts 
are as long as the corolla, the calyxes termina 
ting fleshy, the petals white. 

The engraving which we give, was made from 
a medlar produced by Felix Gillet, of Nevada 
City, Cal. , who imported the original stock from 
Europe. It is of a variety named "Monstrueuse,' 
which is the largest and most productive of the 
medlars. On Mr. Gillet's place the fruit ripens 
in January, and is ready for eating all through 
the winter. 



The Proeparturiens Walnut. 

Editors Press: — I send you a small package 
of samples of the proeparturiens walnut, which 
I introduced some time since, and have been 
propagating and testing its qualities. I trust 
you will be pleased with it. — Felix Gillet, 
Nevada City, Cal. 

The proeparturiens is indeed a handsome nut, 
and will return Mr. Gillet much credit for his 
enterprise in securing and making the variety 
known. That our readers may be familiar with 
its external appearance, we give an engraving 
of one of the nuts, which is true to nature and 
size of the specimen. Its interior is just as 
handsome. The shell is thin, and the kernel 
full-fleshed and exceedingly well flavored. The 
skin which surrounds the kernel is also notably 
thin; and, as this skin contains the bitter prin- 
ciple, its thinness is very desirable. It is owing 
to this thinness of inner skin that the kernel 
owes its almost unalloyed sweetness. 

We learn from an advance copy of a new cata- 
logue, just issued by Mr. Gillet, that he intro- 
duced this variety in 1871, and the first trees 
that bore fruit of this variety are on his place 
in Nevada county. He has trees three years 
old, which are bearing nuts. Mr. Gillet makes 
the following deductions from his experience 
with this variety: 

It bears earlier than any other kind, bearing 
sometimes when three years old ; hence its 
name, proeparturiens — fertile, or precocious. 
It blossoms late, three weeks later than the 
English walnut, its blossoms being thus less 
liable to be killed by late frosts, and rendering 
its crop secure every year. It is a very hardy 
kind, like the American black walnut, and can 
endure severe climate, its wood never being 
frostbitten, while that of the English walnut is. 
It reproduces itself most faithfully from the seed 

Mr. Gillet's largest tree, four inches in dia- 
meter, has been bearing for four years, it doub- 
ling its crop every year in this ratio: First year, 
30 nuts ; second year, 70 nuts ; third year, 165 
nuts; fourth year, 260 nuts. A three-year-old 
tree — one year from the bud and two years 
from the root — budded on black walnut, had 
one nut on this year (1878). 

Mr. Gillet considers this new variety as most 
valuable as a nut tree to our young State. To 
those counties that are out of the reach of late 
frosts, the proeparturiens recommends itself 
highly for its precocity in bearing, and also for 
the size and superiority of the fruit and easy 
way of propagating. In the mountain counties, 
where the climate is more severe and late frosts 
quite common, the proeparturiens may be re- 
garded as the most valuable fruit tree to raise 
on account of its hardiness, late blossoming and 
early bearing. The walnut and chestnut, in 
fact, are at home in the mountains, though 
growing to large dimensions also in the lower 
country. 

We understand that in Nevada county people 
have cut down 20-year old English walnut trees 
which never bore, and are putting the proepar- 
turiens in their place. The nut is certainly 
one of great promise. 



A natural mammoth cave has been discover- 
ed near Columbia, Tuolumne county. 



Handsome Trees and Shrubs. — We had a 
run through the greenhouse and yard of Thomas 
Meherin, on Battery street near Washington, 
the other day. We found a fine lot of trees, 
shrubs and plants of all the leading kinds. The 
magnolias (grandiflora) were the handsomest we 
ever saw, and the assortment of hardy palms 
was fine. Mr. Meherin rightly believes our 
planters of ornamental trees should pay more 
attention to t.he beautiful deciduous trees in- 
stead of running so closely to evergreens. He 
has therefore endeavored to cultivate taste in 
this direction by carrying a good stock of de- 
sirable deciduous species. His white birch are 
exceedingly fine, and lindens and others hardly 
less so. He has a full forest of desirable 
growths on a little space, and behind him he 
has the large resources of B. S. Fox, of San 
Jose, for whom he has been agent in this city 
for 16 years. 



Slaughtering on Commission. — Readers 
living at a distance from the city, who may wish 
to place their animals on this market, will be 
interested in the announcement of Merry, Faull 
& Co. , proprietors of the Black Point Packing 
House, which appears in this issue. This firm 
purposes to receive and slaughter animals on 
consignment, and return to producers the best 
prices the market affords for each class of meat, 
etc. This firm is one of high standing, and has 
facilities for doing this kind of business to the 
best advantage. 



42 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO CAL. 

Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 



OFFICERS: 

President G. W. COLBY. 

Manager and Cashier, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEft. 
Secretary FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, foi 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rates. 

GRANGERS' 

Business Association. 

Incorporated February 10th, 1875. 

Capital Stock, - - $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND HIRECTORS.-Dasiei. Inman, Pres- 
ident ; I. ('. Stkei.e, Vice President; Amos Ai»amn, Secre- 
tary; John Lkwki.limi. Treasurer. DIRECTORS- W <;. 
Colby, W I,. Ovkrhiser, A. D. Lihian, R. S. Ci.av. A 
T Hatch, O. Huhbell, Thos. Flint. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 

GRANGERS' BUILDING, 

106 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, 
Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and Advances 
made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, 
Produce, Merchandise, Farm Implements, Wagon6, etc., 
solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our 
rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through 
us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Asso- 
ciation, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 

Farmers' Union. San Jose. 

O. T. SETTLE President. 

H. E. HILL Manager. 

W M. UiNTY Cashier. 

Authorized Capital - - - - $200,000 OO 
Paid up in Gold Coin - - - - 95,000.00 
Surplus - ------ 23,571.87 

Directors -William Erksou. L. F Chiimian. Horace 
Little, C. T. Settle. David Campbell, Jmiiea Singleton, Thoa. 
K. Snell, W. L. Manly. J. y. A. Ballou. 

Will do a (ieueral Mercantile Biujinega, also, receive De- 
posits, on which such Interest will be allowed as may be 
agreed upon. Cold, Silver and Currency exchanged. Will 
also, on commission, make purchases ami sales (at home and 
abroad) at low rates. 

Farmers and other Citizens are invited to examine 
our constantly large and varied stock of first-class goods, 
including Teas, Coffee, Croceries, Provisions, Crockery, 
Hardware, Farming Implements, Wagons, Barbed Fence 
Wire. Household (iootls. etc. 

All of our patrons can depend upon low cash prices and 
square deal in reliable article*. 

Cor. of Santa Clara and San Pedro Sts. 

A CARD 

To Grangers and Farmers. 

The undersigned is now prepared to receive and sell 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE, 

That may be consigned to him, at the HIGHEST MAR- 
KET RATES, and will open a trade direct with the con- 
sumer 

Without the Intervention of Middlemen. 

He also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock 
Buyers to co-operate with him, and thus have but ene 
commission between producer and buyer. Address 

S. H. DEPUY, 
Noa. 11 & 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 

Grangers' Co-operative Business Ass'n 
Of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K & loth Sts., Sacramento, Cal 

Dealers in GENERAL PRODUCE, RETAIL GRO- 
CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the co-operation 
and trade of fanners in general. Pay the highest market 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smallest profit. Our 
orders are cash on delivery. Goods shipped; marked C. 
0. D, W. H. HEAVENER, Manasrer. 



MONEY FOOD 

For Farmers. For Hogs. 

CHEAP PORK, 

The Brazilian Artichoke. 

Is the cheapest and best food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. UK) to 1.000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No harvesting. No feeding, The 
Hogs will help themselves if allowed to do so. I have a 
limited quantity of seed to sell. Send for Circular giving 
full information to 

J. H. F. GOFF, 

San Felipe. Santa Clara County, Cal 



A PEW DEVONS AND GRADES 

FOR SALE 
Address R. McENESPIE, Chico, California 



Pirchaskks oy Stock will find is tuis Directory tiik 
Names of ko.uk of tiik Moht Kki.iahlk Brkkdkrs. 

Our Rates. Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line j>er mouth, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Durham Cattle, Spanish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 323 Front street, San Francisco 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Runs and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, $15 each. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 

Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Kocks, 
Pekin Bmcks, etc. 



A- O RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



BURBANK & MEYERS, 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
DoffB, etc. Eirgs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



W. & J ROBINSON, Hanford, Tulare Co., Cal., Im 
porters and Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshire Swine 
and Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. Trios a specialty. 



Poultry. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 



116 Acres 

DRV0TED TO 

FANCY 

POULTRY- 




Unlimited Range. 

Healthy Stock. 

Largest Yards 
K on the Coast. 



Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, Bronze Tur- 
keys, Geese, Pekin Ducks, Guinea Pigs, Etc. 

t3~Safe arrival of Fowl* and Eggs Guaranteed."^ 

fVPunpMet on the care of fowls— hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc. , adaptkb especially to thk 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal 



EVERYBODY KNOWS 

That Mrs. C. H. Sprague, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sendini' orders to her. 



NEW MUSIC! NEW MUSIC! 



At Gray's No. 106 Kearny Street, 



On receipt of the amount In jmstage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, poBt-paid: 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, 35 cts 

BABY MINE, (Schottische) Stuckenholz, 35 cts. 

EMMETT'S LULLABY, (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 35 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schottische) Far West, 35 cts 

THE SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song) Harriott, 35 cts 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chauncey, 75 cts. 

GOLDEN OPHIR, (Galop). Yanke, 60 cts 



Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 



Seedsmen. 




tS~ State where you saw this advertisement. "SI 



TRUNKS! TRUNKS ! 
Joh.li ITorgrove, 

Manufacturer, Importer and Dealer in 

Trunks, Valises, and Traveling Bags, 

At prices to suit the times. Repairing promptly done. 
12 Geary Street, - - San Francisco. 



That excellent and widely circulated journal, the Pa- 
cific Rural Press. ^» Ventura Signal. 



R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers In 




FLOWERINO PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC C0A8T. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*»*"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will he sent frkk to all Cibtohers. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



1878-9. 

W. E. STRONG & CO., 

FIELD, GARDEN, LAWN and TREE 

SEEDS. 



Our stock is full, fresh and reliable. In these essential 
particulars we claim to be unexcelled. 

We have largely increased our list of varieties, having 
imported from the very best growers both in the East and 
Europe 

Garden and Flower Seeds 

Put up in small packages for the RETAIL TRADE, as 
also in bulk. All DEALERS IN SEEDS will find it for 
their interest to send their orders to us. We make 
specialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER, TIMOTHY, 

Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian 

Grass, Millet, Lawn Grassess, Etc. 
Also, FLOWERING BULBS of every description. 
^"Catalogues furnished free on application. "d 

— we also do A — 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California Green and Dried Fruits, 
Nuts, Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 

Nos. 6, 8 & 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO. Cal. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES. 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers in and 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable, 
FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS. 
Also, Flowf.rino Plants, Bi-lbs, Friit and 
Ornamental Trees, Etc. . 
JAPANESE PERSIMMON TREES for sale at $50 per 
100; two to four feet in hight 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices. All seeds warranted 
fresh, pure and reliale. lyTrade 
price list on application. 

*,* We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable 
and Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast, it is 
Handsomely Illustrated, and contains full descriptions of 
Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full in- 
structions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO. 

P. 0. Box 1023. ] 607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



H AXT2T A V S 

IsrURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I wish to invite attention to my large and well assorted 
stock if 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Consisting in Part of Apple, Pear, Cherry 
Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricot, Almond, 
Nectarine and Olive Trees 

Also, a full assortment of 

Small Fruits, Shade and Ornamental 
Trees and Plants. 

My Trees are Healthy, Stalky and well grown. 

JOHN HANNAY. 

Successor to Hasnav Brothers), San Jose, California 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 
Seed Warehouse, 

409 & 411 DAVIS STREET, 

San Francisco. 
ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

Keep constantly on hand the largest stock of FIELD 
GARDEN, CONIFER, or 

CALIFORNIA TREE SEEDS, 

On the Pacific Coast. Seeds all FRESH and GENUINE 
Our Stock is large, especially of the following varieties 

ALFALFA, BLUE GRASS, 

Red and White Clover, Red Top, Timothy, 
Australian Rye Grass, Mesquit Grass, 
Lawn Grass and Millet Seeds 

Of different Varieties. Field SeedB, Mangle Wurrel and 
Sugar Beets, Rutabagas, Carrot Seeds of all Varieties, 
Peas, Beans, etc. Our assortment of GARDEN and 
FLOWER SEEDS are full and complete. Also, FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES at Nursery Prices. 

30.000 Three-year-old JAPANESE PERSIMMON 
TREES for sale at Lowest Market Rates. For Catalogue, 
Price Lists, etc. , apply as above. 



EXOTIC GARDENS 

— AND — 

CONSERVATORIES. 

Mission St.. Opposite Woodwards' Gardens, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

F. A. Miller & Co., - - Proprietors. 

Have the most extensive collection of 

RARE PLANTS, TREES & SHRUBS. 

SEEDS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, BULBS AND 
BULBOUS PLANTS, AND A GENERAL VARIETY 
OF GARDEN AND HOUSE PLANTS. 

/arOur NEW CATALOGUE now ready for Mailing. 

Send for It 

Cut Flowers, Bouquets and Funeral Work furnished on 

short notice and in the best style. 

E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 

A General Assortment of 

GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS 

Neatly put up in papers and packages with description of 
variety, general directions for cultivation on each paper, 
and bearing my name, are for sale by responsible mer- 
chants throughout the Pacific States and Territories. 
My stock of 

CLOVER, GRASS, 

VEGETABLE, and Miscellaneous SEEDS, in bulk, is also 
large and complete. 

E. J. BOWEN, 

Seed Merchant and Importer, 
815 & 817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZOUITE and other Grosses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer ia Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 




LATIN 
EXTENSION SPRING BED. 

MANITACTORT, 

1029 Market St., San Francisco, 
C. B. RICHMOND, PROP'R. 

Prices from $4 to $9, according to Size. 

We Challenge the World to produce a Bet- 
ter, Cheaper. Simpler, more Durable 
or Cleaner Bed than Ours. 



MANSION HOUSE, 

Comer of Huhter Street and Wbbir Ave.ncr, 
STOCKTON, CAL. 

A Strictly first-class Lodging House. Rooms nest and 
clean, by the day, week or month. 
MRS M A. HOLDEN, Proprietress 



tlt\ Chromo, perfumed. Snowftake ft Lact' canU, name on all 
DU 10c. Game Authors, 15c. Lymau ft Co., UUntoutilla, ft, 



January 18, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



43 



Nurserymen. 



PRICES REDUCED! 

DIOSPYROS KAKI 

— OR — 

JAPANESE PERSIMMON. 




This new aud popular fruit at prices to suit the times. 
Nine best varieties. Also Plants of the 

VEGETABLE WAX (Rhus Succedanea.) 

For Sale by HENRY LOOMIS, 
Nos. 419 & 421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

Send for Circular. Good and reliable Agents wanted. 

Pacific Nurseries, 

Baker St., between Lombard and Chestnut, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

FREDERICK LUDEMANN, - Proprietor. 

P. O. Box 910, San Francisco, Cal. 

CAMELLIAS, PALMS, CYPRESS, PINES, CEDARS, 
RARE JAPAN AND AUSTRALIAN EVERGREENS, 
AND BLUE AND RED GUMS, (ASSORTED), 
ROSES OF ALL VARIETIES, 

Acacias, and Hardy Ornamental Plants. 

Our Specialty, PANSIES of the finest and latest German 
and French varieties. 

Orders carefully filled, packed and promptly forwarded 
at reasonable prices. 

For particulars and Catalogue apply as above. 




J. Hutchison's Nurseries. 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1852. 

An immense stock of new and rare Plants, Evergreens, 
Hardy and Ornamental Shrubbery. 

Cypress, for Hedges. 

ROSES, FUCHIAS, PINKS, ETC., ETC, 
In endless Variety, 

AT BEDROCK PRICES. 
SEEDS AND BULBS OF ALL KINDS. 

42TSend for Catalogue. "SI 




TREES ! 
'Trees and Plants, 

In large or small lots, both wholesale and retail at lowest 
rates at the CAPITAL NURSERIES. SACRAMENTO 
We have a large and complete assortmc.it not only of all the 
Deciduous Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, E.ergreens. 
Flowering Plants. Vines, etc., also, a complete assortment of 
Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Citron, etc , both seedlings and 
grafted of the best known varieties, ranging in price from 20 
cts. to §1.75 each. Many of our grafted trees uow have fruit 
on them, and most of them may be expected to bear fruit 
the first and second year from planting. Sample Grounds, 
U and Sixteenth Sts. Tree Depot, I Street, near Court 
House. Branch Yard at Auburn, Cal., also at our 
New Branch Nursery, known as Orange Hill, near 
Penryn. Send for Catalogue and Price List. Address, 
Capital Nukskkies, Box 4i7, Sacramento, Cal., and at 
Auburn or Penryn, Placer County, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON & Co., Proprietors. 

SHiNN'S NURSERIES. 

NIL.ES, ALAME DA C OUNTY, CAL 

We invite attentibn to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also, Coffee, Cork Oak, 
Olives, Guavas, English and Black Walnuts, Magnolias. 
Loquats, Butternuts, Small Fruits, Evergreens, Etc. We 
have a choice stock of the Diospyros Kaki (Japanese Persim- 
mon,; of our own growing, and also, grafted stock imported 
direct from several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. 418 California St., San Francisco, 
Or JAMES SHINN, Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 



GOOD CURE FOR HARD TIMES. 

A PLANTATION OF EARLY PROLIFIC 
and RELIANCE Raspberries. 

lOn flOn Plants F0R SALE; also, 20O,0OO Cin- 
■ \J\J,\JU\J derella and Continental Si ruu-bemi 
Plants. Millions of other Plants, Trees, etc. Everything 
nsw, novel and rare. Prices Low. Send for Descriptive 
Cirtular to GIBSON & BENNETT, Nurserymen 
and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, New Jorsey. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES ! TREES ! 

I offer for sale this Season a large and full stock of 
market varieties of 

Pear, Apple, Cherry, Plum, Prune, 
and Peach Trees, 

Which will be sold CHEAP to all those that buy largely. 
Japanese, American and Italian 

PERSIMMON. 
Orange and Lemon Trees. 

MONARCH OF THE WEST STRAWBERRY PLANTS, 
KITTATINNY BLACKBERRY PLANTS, GRAPE- 
VINES AND SMALL FRUITS IN VARIETY. 

SHADE and ORNAMENTAL Trees. 

EVERGREENS AND PALMS. 

FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS. 

For a full list send for a Catalogue, which will be mailed 
FREE to all applicants. 

JOHN ROCK, 

San Jose, California. 



500,000 Blue 

TREES, ETC., 

— For Sale by — 

BAIL'EY & 

OFFICE and 
DEPOT, 

No. 1161 
Seventh St. 



Gum 




[Eucalyptus Globulus, or mue Gum Tree.] 
Cars from San Francisco Stop at Depot 
every Half Hour. 

Also, Nursery at Berkeley, at Dwigbt Way Station. 



MOUNTAI N_ PLANTS. 

We offer for sale a large and fine stock of pure 

Strawberry Plants. 

"Crescent Seedling," wonderfully productive, said to 
have yielded 15,000 quarts to the acre. "Miners' Great 
Prolific," extra large, late and firm; very productive. 
"Cinderella" and "Continental." Figured in Rural Press 
last season. "President Lincoln," eleven inches in cir- 
cumference. "Monarch of the West," "Great American," 
"Prouty's Seedling," "Duchesse," "Capt. Jack," "Kerr's 
P-olific," "Granger," "Star of the West," Duncan "Cum- 
berland Triumph," Somer's Ruby," "Seth Boyden," "Pres- 
ident Wilder," Springdale," etc. 

"Herstine," the most productive, "Highland Hardy, 
the earliest, RASPBERRIES. "Silva's Koning Clau- 
die," the earliest and best early Blue Plum in the world. 
New early and late Peaches. Send for descriptive circu 
lar to c. M. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal 



To Fruit Growers and 

NURSERYMEN ! 



— SEND TO- 



Washburne & Reynolds, Ferndale, 
boldt County, California, 



Hum 



For Roots of 



THE SALMON BERRY. 

Easily cultivated. Larger than the Blackberry, and 
equal to the Strawberry in flavor. Ripens from March to 
June, and grows in any soil. For particulars apply as 
above. 



CORK OAKS FOR SALE. 

We call attention to our large stock of CORK OAKS 
two years old, Also, FRUIT TREES and ORNAMEN 
TAL Trees. 

SHINN &. CO., 

Niles, Alameda County, Cal 



Buy Seeds Direct 



— FROM NIK — 



FEESNO SEED FARM ! 

W. A. SANDERS, Prop'r. 



Delivered on board of Cars or at Express Office, at the 
following prices: 

China Corn. lOctsperlb 

White Egyptian Corn, (clean seed) 5" " 

Brown " " " " 5 " " 

Broom Corn.com var'ty " " 4 " " 

Broom Corn, dwarf ... . " " 6" " 

Broom Corn, evergreen " " 15 " " 

Kemudy's Amber Cane, (in hulls) 20" " 

Red Imphee Cane, (clean seed) 50" " 

Sorghum Cane, " " 10" " 

Penicillaria, (East India Millet), in hulls,. . 1 00 " " 

Chufas, best Spanish 40" ". 

Artichokes 15 " " 

Spring Wheat, earliest, Sherman 5 " " 

By mail, 20 cents per pound additional. 

I have also some choice, thrifty, year-old Trees, which I 
will deliver on cars at 25 cents each, or §2.50 per dozen. 

Oranges, from best Tahiti Seed. 

Black Mulberry, large, sour-fruited, from Tennessee. 
Oleanders, Giant of Battles, Double Red and Single 
White. Black Walnuts, native of California. 
<3TKend for Circular of Instructions. 
Address, W. A. SANDERS, Fresno, Cal 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, - - - Proprietor. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Shrubs and. Greenhouse Plants 

Comprising everything NEW and RARE in my line. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Lemons, 

AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

I have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nativity in Europe, and having 
propagated large quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms. 

SULTANA.— A good stock of the SEEDLESS SULTANA 
grapevines for raisins. This is an important specialty, 
and will be sold at the same rates as ordinary stock. 

tW Send for catalogue and further information. 



ESTABLISHED IN 1858. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

An unusually fine stock of trees is offered for sale at low- 
est market rates for reliablu nursery stock, comprising all the 
leading kinds and varieties of hardy fruits. Also a general 
assortment of evergreen trees and shrubs, blue- gums, Monte- 
rey cypress, etc., in boxes for hedge and forest planting. 

My*tnes are grown in a sandy loam, without irrigation; 
can bv no finer rooted trees grown; wood ripens early, andean 
be safely transplanted as soon as sufficient rain falls for lift- 
ing the stock. Karly planting recommended. Catalogues 
with list of prices ready for distribution October 1st. 

Address, W. II. PEPPER, 

Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



SEXTON'S NURSERIES, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

We offer for sale this season of cood growth a general 
assortment of Fruit Trees, Fruit Bushes, Ornamental Trees, 
Evergreen Trees and Flowt ring. Shrubs at the lowest market 
rates. Our Trees are grown on sandy loam, without Irriga- 
tion, and matures the wood early. 

We also offer a larve stock of JAPANESE PERSIM 
M< »NS, transplanted. Monterey Cypress, for hedges, Blue 
Cum and Pines for forest planting, .Japan Mandarin, Orange, 
Camellias and Camphor Trees at low figures. Address for 
Catalogue and Price List, WM. SEXTON, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

Burbank's Seedling. 

This alrealy famous Potato is now for the first time 
offered by the originator for trial on this Coast. For de 
seription see American Agriculturist, for March, 1878. 
PRICES: 1 lb. by mail, 50 cts.; 3 lbs. by mail, 81.00; 25 
lbs. by express, §5.00. 

LUTHER BURBANK, Nurseryman. 

Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

S. NEWHALL - Proprietor. 

A large and general assortment of FRUIT and ORNA- 
MENTAL TREES, Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses 
Greenhouse Plants, Grapevines, Small Fruits, etc. I offer 
for sale a large and well assorted stock. Low-topped 
stalky Fruit Trees a specialty. Address 

S. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. 



Blackberry and Cranberry Plants. 

100,000 Plants of new varieties of BLACKBERRY Plants 
—the Early Cluster and Vina Seedling, Missouri Mammoth 
and Deering Seedling, the earliest and the most productive 
of all. I will give satisfactory proof that these berries have 
realized #750 per acre. It paid more than double the 
amount as the old late varieties. Price by mail, $2 per 
dozen, $8 per hundred, and £80 per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry plants for $150 per acre, 
planted, not less than 10 acres in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAND, Boulder Island, San Joaquin Co., Cal 



FOR SALE. 
30,000 Kittatinny Blackberries, 

Strong Plants, grown by irrigation. Also, 
3,000 GENUINE ZANTE CURRANT CUTTINGS. 
I. A. WILCOX. Santa Clara, Cal. 



FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO. S 
Semi-Tropical Nurseries, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

FIRST PREMIUM received for two successive years for 
Best Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. We have all the 
varieties, both Foreign and Native. Great reduction iu 
Apple, Pear and Peach Trees, as we wish to close them out 
the coming season, and devote our entire energies hereafter 
to the Semi Tropioal Department. faj'Smd for Catalogue. 
P. O. Box 876. 



ESTABLISHED IN 1853 

SANTA CLARA VALllY" 

NURSERIES. 

Trees. Plants. Shrubs. 

I offer for sale this season a large and well assorted 
stock of FRUIT TREES, SHADE TREES, EVERGREENS 
and SHRUBS. Also, PALMS, CAMELLIAS, JAPAN 
PERSIMMONS, AZALEAS. ROSES and GREENHOUSE 
PLANTS in great variety. 

Pear Seedlings, fine .$15 per 1,000 

Roses, in variety, fine §15 per 100 

Japan Persimmon, five varieties $25 per 100 

Magnolia, Grandiflora, 8 to 10 in $18 per 100 

Lauristimis, to 10 in §10 per 100 

Chinese Magnolias, 2 ft $8 per dozen 

Special Inducements to Large Purchasers. 

iSTCatalogue Free on application. "®H 

BERNARD S. FOX, Proprietor, 
SAN JOSE. CAL 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 

516 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



ZiOMFOC 
Temperance Colony. 

45,654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF SALE— 25% cash, and the remainder in eight 
equal annual installments with interest at 10% per annum, or 
full payment and Deed immediately. 

Rich Soil and Healthful Climate. 

Located in the Western part of Santa Barbara County, 
California, embracing 10,000 acres of the Finest Bean Laud 
in the State; as high as 3,700 lbs. of Beans to the acre have 
been raised the present year, while 3,000 lbs. to the acre is not 
an uncommon yield. 

DAILY MAIL 

And TelegTaphic Communication with all parts of the State. 
Tin- Telegraph Stage Co.'s Coaches now run daily, each 
way, directly through the town of 

LOMPOC. 

E. H. HEACOCK, President. 

IRVING P. HENNING, Secretary. 

November 6th, 1878. 



CHOICE 

Farms and Orchards 

In Santa Clara County. 

212 Acres, 2 miles west of Sonta Clara, considered one 

of the best Farms in the County, at $90 per acre. 
41 Acres, 30 acres iu Almonds and English Walnuts, 

part in bearing, at Los Gatos, i mile from R. R. depot; 

no frost; Price, $6,000. 
1,040 Acres, in Santa Ana Valley, 6 miles east of Hol- 

lister; is one of the best farms in San Benito County; 

Price, $30,000. 

164 Acres, 8 miles S. W. of San Jose, rolling hills, all 

fenced, small orchard, running water; very cheap, $5,000. 
2,650 Acres, stock ranch, 20 miles south from San 

Jose; good pasture, plenty wood and water; $18,000. 
832 Acres, 22 miles from San Jose; stock ranch; $6,000. 
160 Acres, in the warm belt, 1J miles above Alma, on 

R. R. ; Price, $3,000. 
337 Acres, 3 miles from San Jose, at $70 per acre; No. 

1 farm. 

731 Acres, 5 miles from San Jose; house, barn, etc.; 

at $55 per acre. 
191 Acres, 4 miles from San Jose; choice farm, at $90 

per acre. 

Several fruit orchards in vicinity of San Jose, from 3 to 
20 acres, on easy terms. Also, improved places in San 
Jose and Santa Clara. Title good in all cases, or no sale, 

JAMES A. CLAYTON, Real Estate Agent, 

288 Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 

A Good Dairy Ranch For Sale 

On Bear River, Humboldt County, Cal., 

containing 600 acres of as good grazing land as any in the 
State. New Dairy and Dwelling House. The land is well 
watered, and plenty of timber for firewood and Bhelter, 
and well fenced. I will also sell with the ranch 100 head 
of choice dairy cows and five horses. Price, $13,000, one- 
half down, the remainder on easy terms for one, two or 
three years. Apply either in person or by letter to Rich- 
ard Johnston, Post-office address. Myrtle Grove, Hum- 
boldt County, Cal. , or to R. J Johnston, No. 1,324 How- 
ard Street, San Francisco. 

C. C. RODGERS, 

CALIFORNIA LAND AGENCY, 

Office, 276 First St., San Jose, Cal. 

GENERAL LAND, REAL ESTATE, U. S. PEN8ION 
AND BOUNTY AGENT. 
Will buy and sell Land Warrants; Locate and 8urvey Pub- 
lic Government Land, Pre-emption Homesteads, Soldier's 
and Sailor's Homesteads, Timber and Wood Lauds, Desert 
Lauds, Etc. 



San Francisco Shopping. 

MRS. M. B. SMITH will purchase and forward 

goods of every description at reasonable commission. For 
Circulars giving full information and unexceptionable ref- 
erences, address her, No. 200 Stockton St., San Francisco, 



44 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



[January 18, 1875. 



Fine Stock at Low Rates.— An auction sale 
at San Jose last week, by J. A. Clayton, auc- 
tioneer, of tine stock, formerly the property of 
C. B. Hensley, resulted in transfers at very low 
prices. "Mason Duke," a Short Horn bull, im- 
ported by Cyrus Jones & Co., some years ago, 
was sold to A. McCord for Woodward's Gardens 
of this city for $240. "Mason Duke" has taken 
a number of prizes at the fairs and has sired 
many fine animals. The following horses were 
sold at prices said to be much below their value : 
"Navigator," a thoroughbred Patchen stallion, 
eight years old, to Mr. McCord, for $270 ; two 
Patchen colts, to John Tully, one for $49 and 
one for $40 ; one to E. R. Wilbur for $50 ; one 
to Coleman Younger for $42; " Cigaretta " sold 
for $42.50, the blood mare, " Dougherty," went 
for $72, and the Patchen mare, "Flora," for 
$90. These are but a few prices, and the very 
highest paid. The entire sale only produced 
the sum o f $1,940. 

Chief Joseph, of the Nez Perces, is in Wash- 
ington, to confer with the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs. 

The Idaho Legislature has assembled at Boise 
City. 



FOR THE WEAK, 
NERVOUS AND 
DEBILITATED! 

The ajflieted can now be restored to per- 
fect health and bodily energy, at home, with- 
tut the use of medicine of any kind. 

PUL.VERMACIIER'8 

ELECTRIC BELTS 

A>I> BANDS, 

For self-application to any part of the body, 
meet every requirement. 

The most learned physicians and scientific- 
men of Europe and this country indorse them. 

These noted Curative appliances have now 
stood the lest for upward of thirty years, and 
are protected by Letters-Patent In all the 

Srlnclpal countries of the world. They w ere 
ecreed the only Award of Merit for Electric 
Appliances at t he m eat World s Exhibitions— 
Paris, Philadelphia, and elsewhere— and have 
Jeen found the most valuable, safe, simple, 
and efficient known treatment for the cure 
of disease. 

READER, ARE YOU AFFLICTED? 

and wish to recover the same degree of 
health, strength, and energy as experienced 
in former years 7 T)o any of the following 
symptoms or class of symptoms meet your 
diseased condition? Are you suffering from 
ill-health in any of its many and multifari- 
ous forms, consequent upon a lingering, nerv- 
ous, chronic or functional disease? Do you 
feel nervous, debilitated, fretful, timid, and 
lack the power of w ill and action ? Are you 
subject to loss of memory, have spells of 
fainting, fullness of blood in the head, feel 
listless, moping, unfit for business or pleas- 
ure, and subject to tits of melancholy ? Are 
your kidneys, stomach, or blood, III a disor- 
dered condition? l>o you suiter from rheu- 
matism, neuralgia or aches and pains? 
Have you been indiscreet in early years, 
and find yourself harassed with a multitude 
of gloomy symptoms ? Are you timid, nerv- 
ous, and forgetful, and your mind continu- 
ally dwelling on the subject? Have you lost 
confidence in yourself and energy for busi- 
ness pursuits? Are you subject to any of the 
following symptoms: Restless nights, broken 
sleep, nightmare, dreams, palpitation ol the 
heart, bashfulness, confusion of Ideas, aver- 
sion to society, dizziness in the head, dim- 
ness of sight, pimples and blotches on the 
face and back, and other despondent symp- 
toms? Thousands of young men, the middle- 
aged, and even the old suffer from nervous 
and physical debility. Thousands of fe- 
males, too, are broken down ;n health and 
spirits from disorders peculiar to their sex, 
and who, from false modesty or neglect pro- 
long their sufferings. Why, then, further 
neglect a subject so productive of health 
ana happiness when there is ut hand a 
means of restoration ? 

PULVERMACHER'S 
ELECTRIC BELTS AND BANDS 

cure these various diseased conditions, after 
all other means fail, and we offer the nvxst 
convincing testimony direct from the af- 
flicted themselves, who have been restored "<o 

HEALTH, STRENGTH, AND ENERGY, 

after drugging in vain for months and years. 

Send now for Dkscrii'i ivk Pamphlet and 
Tiik Elkctkic akteiily, a large Illus- 
trated Journal, containing full particulars 
and information worth thousands. Cop- 
ies mailed free. Call on or address, 

PULVERMACHER GALVANIC CO., 

513 Montgomery St., 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



M. W. DUNHAM'S 

OAKLAWN STUD OF 

PERCHERON- NORMAN 

HORSES. 




WINNERS OF THE 

Grand Prizes in Europe and America, 

Awarded Grand Medals by the French Government, and 
also Grand Medal, Diploma and Special Report at the 

CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The largest and most Complete Establishment of the 
kind in America. 
Since 1872 it has been replenished by 

One Hundred and Sixty-Six 

IMPORTED 

Stallions and Mares. 

M. W. DUNHAM, 

Wayne, DuPage County, Illinois. 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable arid 

Flower Seeds for 1879, rich in engravings, will be 
ready in January, and sent FREE, to all who apply. Cus- 
tomers of last season need not write for it. I offer one of 
the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever sent out by 
any seed house in America, a large portion of which were 
gmwn on my six Seed Farms. Printed direction* for 
cultivation on each package. All seed warranted tit be 
both fresh and true to name: so far, that should it prove 
otherwise, / will refill the order gra ti*. The original in- 
troducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's Melon, Mar- 
blehead Cabbages, Mexican Com, and scores of other Veg- 
etables. I invite the patronage of all who are anxivtm to 
have their Seed directly from the grower, fresh, trtte, and 
of the very best strain. 

NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

James J. H. Gregory, Marblehead. Mass. 

□ I A Mft beautiful Concert Grand Pianos, flDP AU 
rlAIMU Cl ,st $1,600, only $425. Su- UHUHn 
perb Grand Square Pianos, cost $1,100, only $255. 
Elegant Upright Pianos, cost $800, only $155. New 
Style Upright Pianos, $112 50. Organs, $35. 
Organs. 12 Stops, $72. 50. Church Organs, 16 stops, 
cost $390, only $115. Elegant $375 Mirror Top Or- 
gans, only $105. Tremendous sacrifice to close out 
present stock. Immense New Steam Fac'ory soon to be 
erected. Newspaper with much information about cost 
of Pianos and Organs, SENT FREE. Please address 
DANIEL F. BEATTV, Washington, New Jersey. 



BENNETT, PATTERSON & CO., 

Manufacturers and Dealers in 

Furniture, Bedding, Etc. 

Walnut, Marble Top and Cottage Sets a 
Specialty. 

Salesroom, 422 and 422J 1st Street, Auzerais building, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Orange and Lemon Trees. 

The best budded varieties. I have established a tree 
depot at 

211 & 213 J ST., SACRAMENTO, 

Where I am shipping Trees direct from my ranches in 
Los Angeles County by car-load. And by the reduction 
in freights, 1 am enabled to sell Trees at less than one- 
half the former prices. Come and see the Trees or address 
D. C HAY WARD, Sacramento. 



CHUFA SEED FOR SALE. 

EISEN BROS , 12 Stevenson St., 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



TO CHEESE MAKERS. 

THE UNION DAIRY CHEESE VAT 

Made and for sale by J. G. ANDERSON, 1249 Broadwav, 
Oakland, Cal. Sizes from 100 to 600 gallons. Prices from 
8100 to $375. Send for Circulars. 

J. Q. ANDERSON. 



_ ' Avoid bogus appliances claiming elec- 
tric qualities. Our Pamphlet explains now to 
distinguish the genuine from the spurious. 



FOR SALE. 

For want of room I will sell the following Thoroughbred 
Poultry, cheap: 

24 Black Java Games (1 pair imported;. 

1 Trio of B. B. Red Games, and a lot of Partridge Co 
chin and Brown Leghorn Hens. 

'Address J. M. H., this office. 



WIRE 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized — 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 




BUYBB 

COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

The undersign ed after an experience of forty years in the 
(imcery )■■■■■-■< «•• • has opened an office at No 24 CALIFOR- 
NIA STREKT, corner Drunun, for buying and selling all 
kinds of Hoods. Parties throughout the States and Territo- 
ries wishing an Agent in this Market for the transaction of 
their business, by entrusting the same to me. lean have 
special rates made, with full guarantee of satisfaction, or no 
charge for services. 

With twenty-live years' experience in this Market, I think 
I can suit one and all, both as a buyer and seller. All I ask 
is atrial. I will also have a Ladies' Department, under the 
management of a lady of experience and taste, who will fill 
ail orders for your wives and daughters. Orders for this 
this Department should be endorsed: "For Lady Buyer." 

All parties ordering will be required to send funds with 
order or satisfactory reference. Respectfully, 

WHEELER MARTIN, 

24 California Street, San Francisco. 

REFERS BY PERMISSION. 

Rouutree & MeClure 401 Front Street. 

J. M Pike & Co 101 and 103 California Street. 

Marcus 0, Hawley ti Co Corner Market and Beale Sts. 

Cutting 1'acking Co 17 to 41 Main Street. 

W. W. Montague * Co 112 to 120 Battery Street 

K. Martin 4 Co 408 Front Street. 

WeUman, Peck ft Co. 416 and 418 Front Street. 

Wheaton & Luhrs 219 Front Street. 

Iteming, Paluter a Co, 202 and 204 Davis Street. 

Armes & Dallam 115 and 117 Front Street. 




OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following* varieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brahmas, Buff 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 

Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish, Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
tams, Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 
£3-SAFK ARRIVAL OF EGGS GUARANTEED. TES 

No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
ISTFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box 1918, San Francisco, Cal. 

M. COOKE. R- J. COOKE. 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit & Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

43" Communications Promptly Attended to. TS1 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooks II Grkoory 



FOR SALE. 

Black Hamburg Fowls, 

From stock of J. B. Lambing"* latest importations. 
Hardy. Non-sitters. Best Layers. Beautiful. Warrant- 
ed pure. 

Per Pair, 310. Cocks, each, $5. Eggs, per dozen, $3. 

M. COLLINGRIDGE, 

San Leandro, California. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

After dipping the sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F. , Sole Aj'ent for Pacific Coast. 



Commission Merchants. 

DAVIS &. SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

KKrsKKRCl. —Tradesmen's National Banc, N. Y. ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. T. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. ; A Lusk ft Co. , San Francisco, Cal. 

C. & F. NAUMAN & CO., 

227 and 229 Washington St, San Francisco. 

Produce Commission Merchants. 

Solicit Consignments of 

POULTRY, GAME AND EGGS, 

Oo which the highest market rates will be returned. 

DALTON & GRAY, 
Commission Merchants, 

WHOLESALE DEALERS IK 

All Kinds of Country Produce. 
404 & 406 Davis Street, San Francisco. 
t&~ Consignments Solicited TH 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South lOtb 
St , Philadelphia St 59 Gold! St., |N. Y. 



Kern Valley Colony. 

LOCATION, KERN COUNTY, CAL. 

Irrigated Lands, in 40 & 80 Acre Farms. 

The Finest Body of Land ever Opened to 
Colony Purposes. 

CLIMATE. —Semi-tropical, dry, and adapted to the 
widest range of agricultural productions. 

SOIL. — A rich friable loam, of great depth and inex- 
haustible fertility. 

LA ND —Level, freefrom underbrush, cultivation easv. 

WATER FOB IRRIGATION— Unfailing and 
abvindant during all seasons of the year. 

FLOWING ABTESIAN WELLS, of great 
volume, In the vicinity. 

TIMBEB, for fire-wood and live fence posts, abundant. 

THE GBOWTH OF FBUITS, both temperate 
and semi-tropical, has been fully tested on these and ad- 
joining lands, with most successful results. 

OBANGES, LEMONS and LIMES, free from 
the mildew attending iu more humid climates, will reach 
here a state of surpassing excellence. The long dry rain- 
less season is specially adapted to the curing of Raisins 
and figs, and the Olive, Walnut and Almond flourish in 
perfection. i;r.\.) the elements for profitable Farming, 
successful Fruit-Raising, and delightful homes, exist here 
to an extent not excelled in any portion of the globe. 

TEBMS EASY. For Pamphlets with full particu- 
lars apply at the office of 

HOBATIO P. LIVEBMOBE, 
631 Market St., San Francisco. 

Or to C. BROWER, Local Agent, at Bakcrsfleld, Cal. 



T. B McFABLAND. 
Attomey-at-Law, late Register 
Sacramento Land Ofiice. 



G. W. FABB, 
Late Clerk of Sacra- 
mento Laud Office. 



McFARLAND & FARR, 

Attorneys for Land Claimants. 

Office, Capital Bank Building, Rooms 4 and 7. 8. W. Cor. 4th 
and J Sts., near U. S. Land Office, SACRAMENTO. 

We would respectfully call attention to our facilities for the 
prosecution of Land and Mining Cases before the U. 8. Land 
Offices of this State, and the General Land Office at Washing- 
ton, 1). C. Contt -f < and Ex Parte, Homestead, Pre emp- 
tion, Town Site and Mining Cases promptly and efficiently 
conducted . Special attention given to Applications for Pat- 
ents to Mines; to Suspended Pre-emption, Homestead and 
Mineral Entries before the General Laud Office at Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; to cases in which additional proof Is required, and 
to procuring title under the late law for the disposal of tim- 
l>er lands. Will also attend to business before the State Land 
Office. Land and Mine Patents procured; Blanks and In- 
structions furnished Claimants. Land Warrants and Scrfc> 
for sale. Title to land Bubject to Homestead and Pre-emp- 
tion Entry, procured without residence or improvement. In 
any quantity desired. We will also conduct any litigation 
entrusted to us in the Courts, involving the right to agricultu- 
ral lands and Mines. 

McFARLAND & FARR, Sacramento, Cal. 



THOS. MEHERIN. 

fig* 516 Battery St.. 0pp. Postotfice. JjJ 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



aoen r FOR 



B. S. FOX'S NURSERIES. 

We offer for sale this season a large and choice collection 
of FRUIT, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES and 
PLANTS. Comprising everything skw and rare is oi'R 
mm. JAPAN PERSIMMONS. Large Palms. ORANOE 
and LEMON Trees, grafted, from 1 to 4 years old. BLUE 
GUMS, MONTEREY CYPHESS, Pines. Acacias, Roses, 
Etc. 43"Send for Price List. 



Chance in the Nursery Business. 

There Is a good chance in Tehama County for a skilled 
man who will go to work and start a nursery. The loca- 
tion is one mile from Vina station, in Tehama County, in 
a good growing region of country; the land Is first-class 
and water abundant A man is wanted, with good refer 
ences, who will start a first-class nursery' "> partnership 
with the owner of the land. Address, 

S. C. DICUS, 
Vina Station, Tehama County, Cal 



INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FAIR 

ONE DIPLOMA !&K f ^t 

Weils, Rlchardsag & Go's PERFECTED 

BUTTER COLOR 

nrer SU Comptlilor,, for " Superior Purity, Strength, 
rerfrrtion of CWor.and rermanenee." Much of the 
Prize Butter wan colori'il with it. . 
Till A L Ask your DriiKyist or Merchant for it ; or to 
know what it is, what it co B t*^vhere to fret it. write 
Wells, Ricuabdson It Co.,Pro].rs.,BurUngton,\t 



January 18, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FB1SS. 



45 



INSURE IN THE 




ASSOCIATION. 

The only HOME COMPANY not 
exempting its Stockholders from 
Individual Liability for 
Fire Losses. 

Cash Capital paid up, - - $200,000 

Assets, $326,617 

Surplus to Policy Holders, - $324,000 

And Unlimited Liability of Stockholders. 

THOS. FLINT, President. F. K. RULE, Secretary 

I G. GARDNER, Vice-Pres't and Gen'l Agent. 
OFFICE: 

209 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

ORGANIZED 1863. 
Losses Paid Since Organization, 
$3,365,237.85. 




itSTThiei favorite Home Company has won an enviable 
reputation and large patronage by its methods of business, 
liberality In contracts, and prompt payment of losses— large 
as well as small. 



New Opera! Cantatas! 

II. M. S. PUT AFORE. 

Comic Opera by Arthur Sullivan, 

Is the most popular think of tho kind ever performed in 
this country. Music excellent and easy, and words unex- 
ceptionable, making it very desirable for amateur per- 
formance in any town or village. Elegant copy, with 
words, music and libretto complete, mailed anywhere 
for $i.OO 

Trial h'/ IlirU ' 8 a laughable operetta by the 
Midi 13 f JUI y same author. Price, 50 Cents 



JOSEPH'S BONDAGE, 

BELSHAZZAR, 

ESTHER, 



By Chadwick, $1 CO 

" BlJTTKR FIELD, l.OO 

" Bradbury, .50 
Three Cantatas which are magnificent when given with 
Oriental dress and scenery. The last one is easy. 

"PAULINE," ($2. "PALOMITA." ($2.) "DIAMOND 
CUT DIAMOND" ($1.) "GUARDIAN ANGEL" (50 Cts.) 
"LESSON IN CHARITY" (80 Cts.) "MAUD IRVING" 
(60 Cts.}, are Operettas requiring but a few gingers, and 
are capital for Parlor Performances. The last three are 
Juveniles. 

In Press: "THE SORCERER," by Sullivan. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Ditson & Co , 711 & 843 Broadway, N. Y. 



FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Newcastle, Placer County, Cal.. 

Containing 240 Acres, 
160 Acres under Good Fence, 30 Acres of Alfalfa, 
good Buildings, good Water. Title Perfect. 
TERMS EASY, and free Water Trom Bear River 
Ditch for five years, to irrigate ORANGE and 
LEMON TREES. Address WM. J. PBOSSER, 
Rocklin, Placer County, California. 



A NEW AND PERFECT HORSE SHOE. 

Made of welded Steel and Iron 
with continuous ralk. 

Acknowledged to bo the best 
choe in the world. Prevents 
interfering. Lameness usually 
caused by shoeing entirely pro* 
vented by .Its use. Horses 
having quarter-cracks, tender 
feet, and Corns travel with 
ease. Trial set with nails seut 
on receipt of $1.00. 

Send for free Illustrated pam- 
phlet to 
The 

John D. Billings Patent Horse Shoe Co., 
161 and 163 Bank St., New Voi k. 




In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated lo deceive the Public, Lea and Pemus 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 

c 



which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA <&* PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
<5rV., &c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen thron-hout the Wo id, 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO.. San Francisco. 



JOE POHEIM 



THE TAILOR. 

203 Montgomery St., 

AND 

103 Third Street., S. F. 

Has just received a large as- 
sortment of the latest style 




Suits to order from $20 

Pants to order from 5 

Overcoats to order from. . 15 

itSTThe leading question is 
whore the best goods can be 
found at the lowest prices 
The answer is at 

JOE POHEIM'S, 

203 Montgomery St. , and 103 
Third St., San Francisco. 
Samples and Rules for Self-measurement sent free to 
any address. Fit guaranteed. 




Farmers ! Notice ! ! 

THE BEST PLACE TO BUY 

Razors, Shears, Pocket Knives, 
Hunting 1 Knives, Table Knives, 
Carving Knives, 

Our own manufacture, and every description of Cutlery 
is from the' manufacturers. All our Goods War- 
ranted the Best. 
£3TCountry orders promptly attended to. 

WILL & FINCK, 

LEADING CUTLERS, 

769 Market Street, San Francisco. 

jtSTCutlery of every description Ground and Repaired. 




BUSINESS 

COLLEGE, 
24 Post Street 
Near Kearny, 
San Francva,. Cal. 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structions given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladiks' Department. — Ladies will be admitted for 1- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Department.— In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



J. P. Jones. J. Thompson. 

JONES &, THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Say, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Bates. 

COUNTRY CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, and will 
receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 
above, 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 



50 



Perfumed, gilt edge 4 chromo Cards, in elegant case, name 
in gold, 10c. Atlantic Card Co., E. Walliugford, Ct. 



DAY'S 

Automatic Incubators 

—OF— 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Very Best Incubating and 
Rearing Machines Made, 

200 Eggs, requiring only 10 minutes attention per day. 
Simple, any Child can attend it. From 70 to 90 per cent 
is realizad from all fertile Eggs. Address 

STYLOGBAPH CO, 

12 California St., San Francisco. 



SAMUEL JELLY, 

Watchmaker and Importer of Jewelry, 

Watches, Diamond Work, Silverware, 
Etc., Etc. 

No. 120 J Street, between Fourth and Fifth, South Side, 

SACRAMENTO. CAL. 

Particular attention given to Manufacturing Jewelry 
and Repairing Clocks, Watches, Jewelry, etc. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By N. H. and H, A Kino. The latest work on the 
Apiary, embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for $1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome Street, S. F. 




BARLOW J. SMITH, M. D., announces to his friends 
and former patrons that he has resumed hygienic medical 
practice at the Smithsonian Medical and Phrenological 
Institute, 636 California street. The institute provides all 
forms of Electro-Medical baths and Hygienic boarding. 
Terms reasonable. Phreno-Physiological examinations in 
regard to health free. During the past 30 years Dr. 
Fmith has developed a System of Phreno-Physiology that 
shows the relations that exist between the brain and body 
and claims that the organs of the brain show the strength 
of the spine, heart, lungs, stomach, bowels, liver and kid- 
neys, also the reproductive organs, and the tendency of 
each and all to disease. The most powerful Electroized 
Magnet ever used in the treatment of nervous and chronic 
diseases is employed in this Health Institute. Mrs. Dr. 
Smith has charge of the Female Bathing Department. 
Phrenological examinations daily. 



HERRMANN'S HATS 

ARE THE BEST I 




Try one and you will Wear no other. 

Fall and Winter Styles All In! 

— AT — 

336 Kearny St., bet. Bush and Pine, 

— AND — 

910 Market St., above Stockton. 

CLOAKS and SUITS. 

SULLIVAN'S 
CLOAK and SUIT House, 

No. 120 Kearny Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



The Cheapest and Best Assortment in San 
Francisco. 



J. Pitcher Spooner, 

PHOTOGRAPHER, 

Nos. 171, 173 and 175 Main Street, Kidd's Block, 

STOCKTON, CAL 

Animals, Landscapes and Patent 
Model Photographing a Specialty. 

Special Photographer tor the Pacific Rural 
Press for San Joaquin County. 



MONEY TO LOAN 

AT LOWEST RATES, 

ON FIRST-CLASS COUNTRY REAL ESTATE AND 
OTHER APPROVED SECURITIES, 
McAFEE BBOS., Real Estate and Loan Brokers, 
202 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 



Croat SlaugL 

IN SEWING MACHINES. 

We are now offering for sale, at $10 EACH, the fol- 
lowing machines : 

FLORENCE, 

WHEELER & WILSON, 

GROVER & BAKER. 

THESE MACHINES ARE 

Guaranteed to be in Perfect Order, 

And many of them NEW. 

Parties in the country can have them packed and 
shipped free of any extra charge. AddreBs, 

WILCOX & GIBBS Sewing Machine Co., 

No. 124 POST STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

GREAT REDUCTION! 

—AT— 

MORSE'S 
PALACE OF ART, 

417 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Notwithstanding the great expense attending the pro- 
duction of the first-class and artistic Photographic work 
of our Gallery, GREAT REDUCTIONS have been made, 
as follows: 



CARD 
FICTUBES, 

$3 per dozen. 


CABINET 
PICTTJBES, 
Full and J length, 
$5 per dozen. 


CABINET 
PICTUBES, 

Large Heads 
$6 per dozen. 


SOUVENIR 
CABINETS, 

Full and j length, 
$7 per dozen. 


SOUVENIR 
CABINETS, 

Large Heads, 
$8 per dozen. 


BOUDOIR 
PICTUBES, 

$10 and $12 
Per Dozen. 



There will be no change in the excellence or perfection 
of our work. GEOBGE D. MOBSE. 




FOE. EVERYBODY ! 



WE WILL SELL THE 

CELEBRATED FISCHER PIANO 

At Prices that Nobody can Beat. 

The "FISCHER" is one of the leading Pianos, and ha g 
been before the public for 40 years. We sell no bogus 
Instruments. Send for Catalogue and terms to 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

Nos. 137 and 139 Post Street, San Francisco. 
DIVIDE ND N OTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
seven and one-half (7£) per cent, per annum, and on Ordi- 
nary Deposits at the rate of six and one-fourth (6J) per 
cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and payable on 
and after the 15th day of January, 1879. By order. 

GEORGE LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, December 31st, 1878. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

Office of the HIBERNIA SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCI- 
ETY, northeast comer Montgomery and Post Streets, San 
Francisco, January 6th, 1879.— At a Regular Meeting of 
the Board of Directors of this Society held this day, a 
dividend at the rate of seven per cent, per annum was 
declared for the period ending with the 31st day of Decem- 
ber, 1878, free of Federal tax, and payable from and after 
this date. EDW. MARTIN, Secretary. 



DIVIDE ND N OTICE. 

SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION, 532 California 
Street, corner Webb.— For the half year ending with 
December 31st, 1878, a Dividend has been declared at tho 
rate of seven and two-tenths (7 2-10) per cent, per annum 
on Term Deposits, and six («) per cent, per annum on 
Ordinary deposits, free of Federal tax, payable on and 
after Wednesday, January 15th, 1879. 

December 28t'h, 1878 LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gae and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Boom. 

A PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS. 

At 1031 Market St.,' San Francisco. 



46 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Agricultural Articles. 

The Famous "Enterprise," 

(PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
d ouoii bearing* forthecrank 
to work in, all turned and 
nin in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating, 
with no coil apringor springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 




mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMOKE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, RICF 
<Sc CO., 401 Market street. 



MATTESON 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
n the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so tnat the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can he relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



F. ALTMAN'S 




Foundry and Machine Shop. 

Manufacturer of all kinds of Steam and Agricultural 
Machinery. 

GANG PLOWS A SPECIALTY. 

Sheers and Mould Boards always on hand. 

SAN JOSH. CAL. 



Peerless Corn Sheller 



It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only sm. that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
so rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels per hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It weighs only IS 
pounds and is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, address 

WEISTER & CO. 
17 New Montgom- 
ery St. , S. F. 




CALIFORNIA 

(Patent) 

WINDMILL. 

Self- Regulator. 

This is the cheapest and t>est 
1 Windmill in the country. Has 
| 78 fans, 10 futt in diameter. 

N Price. $75. 

Every mill is warranted. Be- 
5 fore you buy. Bend for a circu- 
I lar, Kiving full description to 

- BERRY & PLACE, 

Market, head of Front street. SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 




THE BOSS PRUNER. 

Patented January 8th, 1878. 

ENTIRELY NEW ! 

Works on a cog principle. Smallest size cuts one inch, 
nd largest BUM two inches in diameter. Has b^-en thor- 
ughly tested, and given uerfect satisfaction. Sold by 

GEORGE LARKIN, 
Newcastle, Placer County, California. 

THE BEST HAY PRESS. 

IHK ERTEL ECONOMY HAT PRESS IS TUB BEST 

and cheapest, Opera- 
led with l horse and 
2 men. 10 luns of its 
hay can be loaded in 
' my ordinary box oar. 
'The oidy strictly por- 
table prene ui \Se. no warranted or money refund- 
ed. Before buying get my circulars. GEO. 
UUTKL, Patentee and Manufacturer, Quiricj. 111. 




THE RANDALL 

PULVERIZING HARROW. 

Unequaled for Cross-Plowing. 




Self-Sharpening by Use. 

Local agents wanted. Descriptive Circular and Pric 
List free on application. 

Address GRIFFITH & BURKE, 



Yolo, Yolo County, California. 



Sole Agents. 



The LAWRENCE ENGINE 




The Best Farm Engine EWorld. 

AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF, 

Leas Fuel, Less Water, Less Repairs than 
any other Portable Engine 

No Commission to Ayentu! bottom Price to Purchasers! 

Kn^ines for all purposes, with and without Wagons. 
You can save money by buying 1 direct of us. Order early 
for next season's use. Send for Illustrated Catalogue and 
Price List. 

ARMINGTON & SIMS, Lawrence. Mass. 

ARMINGTOX ft SIMS were lately with the J. C HoadleyCo 



Sacramento City. 



Sacramento, the capital city of California, is centrally 
located to the great and rich agricultural and mining fields 
of the State. It is the second city in trade and importance 
on the western aide of the continent. Saoramentans through- 
out the history of California have honorably competed for a 
fair share of trade, and are well noted for their indomitable 
■ : ' ■ 1 1 i -■ in establishing and perpetuating the growth, sub- 
stantial improvement and good reputation of their capital 

CITY. 



CAPITAL WOOLEN MILLS, 

248 J St., Sacramento, 

CARRY A LARGE STOCK OF CASSIMERES, DOE- 
SKIN'S, TWEEDS, FLANNELS, BLANKETS, READY 
MADE CLOTHING AND FLANNEL WEAR 
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION FOR THE 
WHOLESALE TRADE. 
Generous Discount on San Francisco Prices 

In our Tailoring Department we 
have an attractive assortment of 
our own manufacture, together 
with the finest display ol French. Scutch. German and Eng- 
lish goods to be soon in the City. We make Buits to measure 
of every description, from the commonest working pants to 
the finest cloth suit. 

A^TCountry gentlemen, fanners and mechanics should take 
notice that our facilities are really superior for furnishing 
standard anil durable goods at LOW CASH RATES. 



TAILORING 



QTUDEBAKEP 

E. E. Ames, General Agent. 

49 & 51 J STREET, SACRAMENTO 

S3" Send for Catalogue and Price List. *S1 



ORLEANS HOTEL, 

Second St., bet J and K, SACRAMENTO, Cal. 



This large, POPULAR and FIRST-CLASS Hotel (lately ni- 
proved) is only one block from the depot. It has Mos- 
quito Proof Rooms, hot and cold Water Baths, 
Free. Prices of room and hoard reduced to 
i2, $2 50, and g:i per day. Guests con- 
veyed t<< and from the Hotel, 
free of charge. 

RICHARDSON & PRESBURY, Prop's. 



p URIMITURE, 

— AT — 

VAN HEUSEN & HUNTOON'S, 
204 J STREET, SACRAMENTO. 

£?T Prices always the Lowest, and the heat assortment. 'u^ 



TO FARMERS AND SEED MEN. 

If you have an extraordinary Winter or Spring Wheat 
(for seed) send sample, name of Wheat anil price, delivered 
at your nearest Railroad Station. 

E. J RUSSELL, 
No. 60b Carroll Aveuuc, Chicago, Illinois. 



San Jose. 



This popular City of Homes is the largest business center 
south of the Golden Gate. It is surrounded by the most 
thickly settled fanning district in the State — owing largely tc 
the combined advantages of rich soil, mild ami healthy cli 
mate and nearness to market. Cl»>ap and healthy living, 
with favorable facilities for transportation, favor the com 
mercia! and manufacturing interests of the enterprising citi- 
zens of this early settled, appropriately termed "Garden City." 



H. J. HASKELL, 




MANUFACTURER OF 



CARRIAGES, 
BUGGIES, 

— AND — 

SPRING WAGONS, 

At the Lowest Rates. 

Corner of Alameda and White Streets, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Finch's Horse Medicines. 

FINCH'S Cl'RK ALL — Warranted to cure all sores, old 
or fresh, on man or heart. 

FINCH'S CELEBRATED IIORSK RENOVATING MED- 
ICINES— Used by Montgomery Queen for many years. 
Testimonials. 

Mr. S. Finch.— Vmr Sir:- 1 have given your Horse Medi- 
cine a fair trial, and nml that it works satisfactorily, and feel 
fully warranted in recommending it to the public — Geo. B. 
McKer, San Jose, October 10th. 1878. 

I fully concur in the above testimonial, having given it a 
thorough test - S. A. Bishop. Pres't S. J. & S. C. R. R. Co. 

Mr. S, Finch.- Sir:— I have used your Cure All on sores 
of all kinds, and can say it is the best I have ever had in my 
barn for man »>r beast. I have also used your Renovating 
Medicine, ami can fully recommend it to the public. It 
should be kept in every stable, even to feed occasionally to 
keep horses in good condition. I keep it in my stable all the 
time, and would recommend it to all horsemen especially to 
those keeping livery and railroad horses.— R. K. Ham, Santa 
Clara. Cal., October 10th, 1878. 

I hereby certify that I have sold Finch's Cure All in Michi 
gan for 10 years, and it has always given good satisfaction 
And for the last three or four years nave sold it in San Jose, 
and can truly say that it is one of the best mvparations for 
healing all manner of sores on man or beast I have ever sold. 

s. H. Waonkr. Druggist, San Jose, October 1Mb, 1878. 
For sale, wholesale or retail, by 

3. FINCH. 661 Seventh St , San Jose. 

Or at Warner's and Rhodes Drug Stores, San Jose, Cal. 



KEPT ON THE EASTERN PLAN. 

LICK HOUSE, 

Comer First and San Fernando Sts.SAN JOSE, Cal 

J. L. HILL, PROPRIETOR. 

$1.50 to $-J |>er day. $0 to $10 per week. Carriage at- 
tends all trains. 



FREE WATER 

— FOR — 

ORANGE AND LEMON GROVES, 

In Placer County, Cal. 

Notice is hereby (riven by tiro owner of the BEAR 
RIVER, NORTH FORK and COLD HILL DITCHES, that 
be will supply, 

Free of Charge, 

For five years, from June 1st, 1878, all the water needed 
to irrigate 

Orange and Lemon Plantations, 

Provided each party claiming water under this offer has 
fifty or more trees in growing condition. 

He will also furnish free water for the first year to irri- 
gate Fruit Trees, Vines and Vegetables to all persons 
startiirg new places and improving the same, provided 
they make application in advance to 

S. WASHBURN, Sup't. 

Or to any local agent. Auburn, Placer Co., Cal 



CLYDESDALE AND HAM BLETONI AN 

STALLIONS. 

Mares and Colts. 

holstein" cattle. 

All of the finest breeding to be found in the United States 
or Europe, several of which w<*re prize animals at the recen 
New York State Fair. PKICKS AND TF.RMS KASY. 

Also, a large Nl'KSKHY STUCK of best quality. Cata- 
logues free. Special inducements offered on Horses and 
Cattle to go west of the Rocky mountains. 

SMITH &. POWELL, 

193 West Genesee Street, Syracuse, New York. 



Stock Notices. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince, 
"Sambo," and ''Bob Lee" families of Berkshire*. 
Also, pure Suffolk bogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Alderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animala sold are 
guaranteed as represented and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Ruse House, San Francisco, 



BERKSHIRE A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States aud Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none brrt pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rate*. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 

lMh and A streets, Sacramento Citj , Cal. 



FOR SALE. 
Berkshire Boar, "Blackbird." 

"BLAI'KBIKIJ" was farrowed April 4th, 1S7U, and is of 
the celebrated "SAMBO" family. 

Sirk — "Sambo," bred bvO. W. Shriver, Iowa. 

G. SIRE — "(ilaston's Sambo," bred by .Irro. Snells & 
Sons, Canada. 

O. 0. Sire - Jiro. R. Craig's "Sambo," A. B. R. , 761. 

Dam. — "Taplash, Jr . ," bred by A. Rankin, Illinois. 

•2xii 1>am. -"Taplash, 2SB A," imported from Knglarid, 
and cost $500 when a pig. 

'BI.AI'KBIRU" is a splendid specimen of the Berkshire 
breed, with great length of body and depth of sides, short 
legs, broad shoulders, good bams, dished face a fine coat 
and handsomely marked. He has been used in my herd 
with good success for two years. Object in selling: to 
prevent inbreeding. 

Price. $75, if taken at once. 

I have also several fine Tigs of both sexes, different ages 
and distinct families, for sale at prices to correspond with 
the times. Address, 

ALFRED PARKER, 

Bellota, San Joaquin County, California. 

SPRING VALE FARM, 

Three Miles N W. of San Bernardino, Cal. 




Thoroughbred Berkanire and Poland China 
Swine. Light Brahma and Black Cochin 
Chickens for sale. T. C. STARR. 



JOHN ROGERS & CQ., 
General Stock and Sale Yard, 

Corner of Market and 9th Streets, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Horses and Milch Cows Sold on 
Commission. 

ALSO, DEALERS IN HAY AND GRAIN. 

Parties consigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and quick returns. 

COMMERCIAL HOTEL. 

«'os. 273, 275, 277 and 279 Main Street, Smith's Brick 

Building, STOCKTON, California. 
FRED. C. HAHN, - - PROPRIETOR. 

Rates, SI 25 and .*2.00 per day. This popular Hotel has 61 
well-appointed rooms, has bcerr refurnished and refitted in 
the most elegant maimer, and is the most comfortable and 
commodious Hotel in the City. Large, pleasant rooms for 
amilies A Coach will be at all Trains to carry Passengers 
ree to the Hotel. 



SWEET 

dotal 



NAVY 



Awarded hi'jhal prix at Centennial Exposition for 
tine ehr.cina qmlitiei and exrrllent* and lulling cAar- 
aeter »f .„,;.,, and Jtavnri"}. The bc*t tobacco 
over made. A* our blue strip trade-mark Is dowry 
Imitated o-i Inferior Roods, pee that J-trkM>n'* Bert Is 
on everv pine. Sold hv all de«l»r«. Send for wimple, 
tr?c, to'C. A. Jackson A Co., Mfrs., Petersburg, Vfc 

L & E. WERTHHEIMER, Agts. San Francisco 



60 



Chromo and Perfumed Cards (no 3 alike], name in 
Gold and Jet, 10c Clinton Bros., Clintonville, C*. 



January 18, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



47 



Winchester Repeating Rifle, 



MODEL 1873. 




The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, QiJ . , , , . 

' 5» » String measuring from center of tar- 

get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, ^J^lTm^ 1 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Bound barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 



Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



Olilandt & Buck, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Animal Charcoal, Ivory Black, Bone Ash, 

AND NEATS FOOT OIL. 

Willow Charcoal for Rectifying Always on Hand. 

PURE BONE MEAL AND SUPERPHOSPHATES, 

For Fertilizing the Soil and insuring Good Crops. GROUND BONE, the best Feed for Poultry 
and Stock. Highest Market Price Paid for Animal Bones. For particulars apply to above 
parties, 

Second Long Bridge. Potrero, San Francisco, Cal. 



MAKE NOTE OF FACTS AS NOTED BELOW. 




The great popularity of the SCUTT PATENT STAR BARBED WIRE arises from the following peculiarities: 

1st. —Owing to its being plaited (not twisted) it is stronger than any other Wire made. All other Wires, and especially 
close twisted Wires, are weakened; IT MUST BE SO. because the fiber of the metal is broken in twisting. 

2d.— Our Patent Machines are the only ones that form a Barbed Wire Cable without twisting the single strand of Wire. 

3d.— We use STEEL made by the Slemans & Martin process, for Barbs, the best in the world. Our Wire is made 
entirely by Machinery, and is perfectly uniform. 

4th.— It is coated with our own weather-proof Iron Cement Coating—rust proof. It has been imitated, but never 
equalled. Weight— 17 ounces per rod. 

5th.— It costs from 20 to 40 percent less than an equally good board fence. 

6th.— 1,440 pounds will make a fence one mile long four Wires high. 

7th.— The wind will not blow it down; tire will not burn it; boys will not climb it; in fact it is a four-pointed argument 
that both man and beast will heed. 

8th.— For a Hog-tight fence use one board and three Wires, posts 6 to 10 feet apart. For Cattle and Horses, three 
Wires, posts from 8 to 20 feet apart. 

9th. — It is lighter, will reach farther, last longer, turn stock better, and look handsomer than any other Wire on the 
market. If these are not found to be facts return to 

GRANGERS' UNION Wire Fence Department, Manufacturers, Stockton, Cal. 



Boswell Pure Air Heater Company, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 
Eugene L. Sullivan, Prest. T. C. Winchell, Vice-Pres't. S. R. Lippincott, Sec'y 

Authorized Capital, $100,000. Cash Capital, paid up, $32,000. 

o 

Manufacture and have (or sale any size or capacity 

BOSWELL'S PATENT Combined Cooker. Heater and Drier. 

ALSO, BOSWELL'S COMMERCIAL FRUIT DRIER. 

ALSO, BOSWELL'S VENTILATING HEATER. 

Office, 606 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



I MUSICAL BOXES 

For Holiday, Birthday and Wedding Presents. 



UJ 
K 

in 
ui 



J". 



CO., 



o 

CO 



PAILLAK;D &c 

Manufacturers and Importers, 

No. 120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 



Si 



3> 

a 
o 



m 

30 




More than One Hundred Thousand Dealers and Con- 
sumers Testify to its Superiority. 

In answer to numerous inquiries with reference to Patent Barb Fencing, we respectfully 
submit the following: 

1st. Barb Fencing must remain rigid and inflexible, after being once properly put up. This 
can only be insured with at least two main mires, twisted together. 

2d. Two Wires twisted together afford much more strength, for the same weight, than 
one Wire. 

3d. To insure the greatest strength with the least weight, Steel is much superior as a 
material for the main Wires to any other. 

4th. The sharp puncture at the moment of contact is what gives Barb Fencing its efficacy, 
and makes it at once, the dread of every Animal. 

5th. Therefore the Barb should be made of round Steel Wire, cut obliquely, which in- 
sures the highest degree of sharpness. 

Gth. After the essentials of sharpness and stiffness are secured for the Barb, the remaining 
necessary condition is that of its being _/?./■«/ firmly upon the fencing, so that it cannot he detached 
without destroying the Fencing itself. This can only be accomplished by fastening the Barbs 
upon one of the two main Wires before they are twisted together. 

The strongest and most efficient Barb Fencing must be made of two separate and independent 
Steel Wires firmly and evenly twisted together, upon one of which has been fixed at regular in- 
tervals a round Steel Wire Barb with beveled points, so that while one main Wire sustains the 
Barbs, the other tends to bind them firmly and unalterably in place. It necessarily follows when 
this is done that the Barb points will project in every direction from the fencing. 

Barbs presenting /bw? - points in a group cannot be effective, as the points will inevitably pre- 
sent themselves in pairs, thus destroying the efficiency of either, the result being to scratch mere- 
ly and thus invite contact, rather than to puncture and repel. 

All Barbs stamped or cut from Sheet or Flat Metal should be avoided, as they cannot be 
made uniformly sharp enough to warn and drive away the Animal. Also avoid all styles of 
Barbed Fencing where the main Wires are fastened or clamped together by the Barbs, as this tends 
to destroy the power of the fencing to remain taut and rigid between the posts in all temperatures, 
which is the great advantage gained by the use of two separate and independent Wires twisted 
together. 

The GLIDDEN PATENT is the only Barb Wire including the features demonstrated above 
as essential. 

We are prepared to supply demand both for Galvanized and Japanned at reduced prices. 
Send for Circulars. 

JONES & GIVENS, 

Pacific Coast General Agents, 



10th and K Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 




For Crippled and Deformed Persons, 

Is the largest Institution »f its kind on the Continent. The'Medical and Surgical Staff comprises the best talent in 
the country. There have been more cases of human deformities successfully treated than by any similar Institution. 
More than 50,000 cases have been successfully treated. Diseases which are made a specialty — Curvature of the Spine, 
Hip Disease and all Diseases of the Joints, Crooked Limbs, Club Feet, Piles, Fistula, Nasal Catarrh and Paralysis. 
Send for Circulars and References to the 

Western Division, 319 Bush Street, San Francisco. 

PACIFIC 

Bone Coal and Fertilizing: Material Co. 

Office, 21 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Pure Bone Meal, Superphosphate, Animal Fertilizers, 

Bone Meal for Chicken and Stock Feed. 

In order t r> introduce our fertilizers, and to prove that we are using nothing but pure materials, and being positivo 
that when properly used they will double the yields of most crops, and at the same time enrich the soil, wc are willing 
to furnish small lots, of 100 pounds and upwards, at ton prices. 

For Circulars, Bring information concerning the use of the fertilizers on different crops, apply to or address the 
Company's office, No. 21 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

A. HAAS, Manager. 

CRAPE CRAPE 

THE WATERPROOF CRAPE AND LACE REFI WISHING COMPANY. 
(Shriver's Patent Process.) 

The only Process by which old Crape can he made good as new. Crape reflnished on Bonnets and Dresses without 
takingoff. CITY AND COUNTY RIGHTS FOR SALE. 

OFFICE, 114 TURK STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



TOUR NAME PRINTED 
Ten Centa. 



Forty Mixed Cards for 
STEVENS BROS. , Northford, Conn. I 



Perfumed, Snowflakc, Chromo, Motto, Cards, name 
OU in gold & jet, 10c. G. A. Spring, E. Wallingford, Ct 



48 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 18, 1879. 



Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Co., 



-OF- 



CALIFORITIA. 



J. H. CARROLL, President. GEO. A. MOORE, Vice-Prea't. 

J. C. CARROLL, Secretary- 



This substantial Company, the only Life Insurance Corporation organized upon the Pacific 
Coast, is now offering to the insuring public its new 

LOW RATE POLICY, 

The Most Attractive Form of Insurance Ever Presented to the Public. 



Reliable agents wanted in every town and County. Applications for explanatory Circulars or 
for Agencies may be made to the Principal Office of the Company in SACRAMENTO, or to any 
of the General Agents. 




Poultry and Berkshires. 

Orders received for all kinds ot THOROUGHBRED LAND AND WATER FOWLS AlfO, EGGS for 
HATCHING from IMK1KTED STOCK. General Pacific Coast Agent for 

AMERICAN POULTRY FOOD. 

It will make your hens lay. It will prevent and cure nearly every common disease For raising 
young Chickens it is invaluable. Price, trial package by mail, ft" Cents. Ask your grocer for it. 

BERKSHIRES. 

Mv Breeders have been selected and Imparted at great mane direct from England, and are not excelled by any 
stock of the same class on this Coast. A limited number of choice Pigs for sale at prices to suit the limes 

^"Safe Arrival of Stock and Eggs Guaranteed."^ 

Letters of inquiry, enclosing stamp, cheerfully answered. Address 

WILLIAM NILES, 

Importer and Breeder, P. O. Box 250, LOS ANGELES, California. 



"FIR^HSTOIS SMITH &c CO., 

MANUFACTURERS ®F 

THE PATENT CHANNEL IRON WHEELBARROWS, 



7i 

o 




CO 

I 
m 
m 
H 



"0 

m 



The Strongest Barrow Made. These Barrows are made by Superior Workmen, and of the best material. 
All sizes kept constantly on hand. 

Lap-Welded Pipe, all Sizes, from Three to Six Inches. Artesian Well Pipe. Also, Gal- 
vanized Iron Boilers, from Twenty-five to One Hundred Gallons. 

Iron Cut Punched, and Formed for making pipe on ground, where required. All kinds of tools supplied for 
making pipe. Estimates given when required. Arc prcjared for coating all size of pipes with a composition of 
Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

Office and Manufactory. 130 BEALE STREET, San Francisco. Cal. 



Greo. !F\ Silvester, 

03 IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 

Q 

w 



*3 

r 
o 



Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. jg 



Z 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 



03 
W 
W 
d 

in 



Q In large Quantities and offered in Lots to suit Purchasers. 

<j GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES. 

O 

Seed Warehouse. 315 & 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



,k DAVI8" 

VERTICAL FEED. 

(Best Sewing Machine in the World for 
DURING THE Cfe-cd-^"^ HOLIDAY SEASON 



On receipt of the above amount I will send to any address nicely packed for transportation, one new "DAVIS 
VERTICAL FEED" Lock-stitch Family Sewing Machine complete, with a long list of practical attachments and a 
splendidly ILLUSTRATED INSTRUCTION BOOK, showing unmistakably by wood cuts the exact position of each 
attachment when adjusted for different kinds of work. 

MAKE YOUR WIFE A PRESENT Of the LIGHTEST RUNNING SHUTTLE MACHINE in the 
market. Entire satisfaction guaranteed to every purchaser. 

MARK SHELDON, General Agent. 130 Post Street. San Francisco. Cal. 

P. S.— Remit by Express or Postal Honey Order. At least one-half cash must accompany order; balance may be 
paid upon receipt of Machine C. O. D. 



J. M. NEVILLE. 



GEO H BRYANT 



NEVILLE & CO., 

Bag Manufacturers, 

ALSO MANUFACTURERS AND DEALEH8 IN 

Awnings, Tents, 

And a General Assortment of this Line of Goods. 



We take pleasure in in- 
forming tin public that 
we have removed from 
our old stand, No. 113 
Clay street, to our new 
and commodious store. 
Nog. 31 and 33 California 
street, and Nos. 16 to 30 
Davie street, corner of 
California and Davis St*., 
where we have completed 
arrangements that make 
it one of the best ap- 
pointed Bao Mamfac- 
toriks on the American 
Continent, We are now 
prepared to All orders at 
prices that defy competi- 
tion, and in a style of ' 
finish KqUAL, if not supe- 
rior, to any Bag Factory 
on this Coast. 

We have recently im- 
ported 

New Presses for 
Printing 

Floor, Meal, 

SALT. 

Grocers and other 
J3AGS, 

Made expressly for us, 
Mid especially adapted to 
the requirements of the 

business, being capable 

of doing BETTER WORK, 

and in leas time, than 
any other presses on the 

Pacific Coast, and possessinj^all the improvements that have been suggested iu the interest of Bag Printing for trie 
|>ast twenty -five j ears. FLOUR BAGS, all sizes and gr.idcs. FLOUR BAG BRANDS supplied to suit. 

We have also made arrangements as ••Selling Agents ot the Cable Flax Mills, of Troy, N Y.," 
for a full supply of the host TWINES in the world, of which we shall constantly carry full lines. 

Wc specially call the attention of Millers, and others, to any and all branches of our business, and we confidently 
think that it will he particularly to their interests to communicate with us as to prices and Qualities, before mak- 
ing purchases elsewhere. 

We shall keep constantly on hand a full line of TENTS, of all kinds and styles, and make to order anything in 
the line of TENTS that can p ssihly be required AWNINGS of all the different styles and designs, on hand 
and made to order. ORE BAGa from all grades of Duck, Canvas, Burlap, Etc. 

Dundee and Calcutta GRAIN BAGS, of all sizes. 

WOOL BAGS, imported and otherwise, of all sizes and weights. All numbers of Duck and Canvas in store 
Horse. Wagon and Floor Covers on hand and made to order. 

iT*OKDKRS ARE KESPECTFl'U/V SOLICITED, AND SATISFACTION GUARANTEED "«» 

NEVILLE &, CO., 

31 & 33 California St., San Francisco. 

January 1st. 1879. ' 




California Furniture Manufacturing Go 



224 &. 226 BUSH STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Manufacturers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



EH JRNITUKI^, Etc 



fl^»LATEST STYLES AND LOWEST PRICES.-*^ 



OFFICE OF THE 



T PACKI 




L 



MERRY, FATJLL & CO., Proprietors. 
TO OWNERS OF LIVE STOCK! 

We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP and HOGS, charging mod- 
erately for killing, delivery anil guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied with every convenience. We assure our customers a 

SQUARE DEAL and FUEL MARKET PRICES 

For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the best on the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office. No. 415 Front Street. Cor. Merchant. San Francisco. 



riauiou JL Pa J 202 San - p aT p n t An'tc I OH KLEGANT CARDS, A1.LCHROMOS, Name in Gold 

uewey a 00 ^ Bome st. ; • aieni a° is 1 jjj B , K , Jet> 10c . gu»> card co., Wivo**. a. 




Volume XVII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1879. 



Number/4. 



DOUBLE SHEET— 24 PAGES. 



A Foe to the Lumberman. 

Scientific investigators are continually coming 
to the aid of practical workers with explana- 
tions of the evils which hedge about their work 
and endanger its results. These explanations 
we seek for publication, because often a knowl- 
edge of the evil suggests a remedy, and where 
this happy result does not follow, there is still 
the satisfaction of being acquainted with the 
occult agency which crosses the worker's path- 
way toward success in his avocation. A very 
interesting case of timber destruction by a fun" 
gus, which penetrates the growing tree and 
honeycombs its heart without leaving any ex- 
terior marks by which the lumberman can tell 
the worthlessness of the timber beneath the 
bark, was brought to the attention of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, by Dr. H. W. 
Harkness. As the case is of such wide practical 
interest to lumbermen and tree growers gen- 
erally, we have made engravings to show 
the way in which the fungus attacks the fiber 
of the tree. These engravings will be fullv ex- 
plained in the course of the paper which Dr 
Harkness read at the Academy of Sciences, and 
which we print herewith: 

During the past few years the study of the 
fungoid diseases affecting vegetation has proved 
to be one of much importance, not alone owing 
to the scientific interest attached to the subject, 
but also to the farmer as well, whose best efforts 
are often thwarted by the presence of a pesti- 
lence he is powerless to control. The Peronos- 
pora, affecting the potato, Puccinia and Ery- 
siphe. amongst wheat, are capable of destroying 
the fairest fields in a single night, while the 
Sphmria morbosa, upon our fruit trees, and the 
Merulius and Polyporws, amongst those of our 
forests, are but types of a large order of para- 
sites which arc silently at work converting many 
of our forest trees into their original elements. 
In many instances it is probable that the tree 
has completed its growth before it is attacked 
yet the external signs are so obscure as to mis- 
lead the observer, valuable trees being lost be- 
fore the appearance of disease is even suspected. 

A notable example in point is to be found in 
the Douglass spruce of our mountains; this is 
well known as one of our most beautiful trees, 
while for many purposes the timber is of great 
value. The lumberman suffers, however, a great 
loss from a form of dry rot which attacks the 
living trees, the presence of which disease he is 
often unable to detect until after much labor 
has been expended in preparing the lumber for 
market. The disease of this tree is owing to 
the presence of a new species of Dtedalia, for 
which I propose the name, D. vorax, which 
first finds lodgment beneath some dead limb. 
Following the course of the limb as it enters the 
heart-wood of the tree, the mycelium begins 
immediately to branch upward and downward 
along the line of the longitudinal cells. Rami- 
fying among these it saps the cell contents and 
destroys the vitality of the structure. On mak- 
ing a section of the tree the line of devastation 
may be easily traced by the minute channels 
filled with the decaying wood. The tree once 
fallen, the work of the fungus does not cease, 
but, on the contrary, is greatly accelerated, 
owing to the greater amount of moisture it im- 
bibes when in recumbent position; and hence it 
is that our fallen spruces so soon disappear. 

But let us pass to another, the fir trees of our 
Sierras, for a still further proof of the work of 
destruction wrought upon our living trees by 



fungi. In the case of the fir, the fungus (with 
little doubt Polyporus revolutm — Cooke) at- 
taches itself to the bark of the tree; its mycel- 
ium soon penetrates to the cambium beneath; 
there it spreads over a considerable space, and 
begins to force its way directly through the sap- 
wood toward the heait. The tree does not, 
however, readily yield to the influence of its 
foe, but commences to develop new tissue, in 
order to arrest the extension, or partially encyst 
the fungus. Layer after layer of new tissue is 
formed, until great bulbous expansions are pro- 



length. These openings are shown in the 
smaller engraving (Fig. 2). 

These cavities are filled with the dead wood, 
pervaded with threads of mycelium. The wood 
so affected becomes contracted in the cavity, is 
very friable and easily powdered between the 
fingers; the medullary rays and fibro-vascular 
bundles, together with the cell structures in 
general, maintaining their proper relations to 
each other. A singular fact must in this con- 
nection be noted, which is this, that along the 
line of this decayed wood, or in other words, 




FIG. 1. CROSS-SECTION OP CEDAR, HONEY-COMBED BY THE FUNGUS. 



duced upon the trunk; the parasite all the while 
is eating its way like a cancer, slowly but 
surely, into the heart, until finally, after years 
of contest, the tree falls a prey to its deadly 
enemy. So general is this disease amongst the 
firs that, as Mr. John Muir asserts, few, if any> 
die from any other cause. This fungus, like 
the one before mentioned, continues its work in 
the fallen trees. 

In the fungus I am now to speak of there is a 
marked exception, however, to this rule. I al- 
lude to the fungus which is at work upon our 
Libocedrus decurrens, a tree of great value for 
timber, the consumption of which is constantly 
increasing as its good qualities are becoming 
better known. In some localities, as can be 
shown, one-half or more of the trees are 
diseased, and yet no external signs appear by 
which the lumberman may determine the dis- 
eased tree from that which is sound. The 
method, too, by which the fungus invades the 
tree is most singularly perplexing. If we ex- 
amine a transverse section of an affected tree, 
we shall find numerous small openings, as shown 
in the larger engraving (Fig. 1), and which 
create the impression of being the work of some 
animal. Frequently 50 or 6'0 such openings 
may be seen in such a section. These openings 
vary from one-half to one inch in diameter. A 
longitudinal section of such a tree reveals the 
fact that these openings are not continuous 
throughout the body of the tree, but are simply 
elliptical cavities of from three to four inches in 



the borders of these cavities, there seems to be 
no partially decaying or decayed wood. Be- 
tween any two such cavities there is a consider, 
able portion of perfectly sound wood, the myce- 
lium in some unaccountable manner, finding its 




UWraNlHflliWI 

Fig. 2. Section Cut "with the Grain. 

way through the living wood, leaving behind 
not the slightest microscopic trace of its prog- 
ress. The cavities always appear in the dry 
hp art-wood, and, thougn I have diligently 



sought for them, I have never yet seen one in 
the sap-wood. 

Under treatment with suitable reagents, the 
affected wood shows abundant branching 
threads of mycelium traversing the entire mass. 
Along with these are found a considerable 
number of zoospores. Thus far I have been 
wholly unable to detect the presence of any 
germspores. There is abundant evidence, in 
my. judgment, however, that these spores must 
be sought for among the roots of the tree. Yet 
their discovery will depend, in a great measure, 
upon accident, as the germ may have developed, 
fruited and disappeared a century before its 
mycelium had finished its work. There is as 
yet no apparent law governing the distribution 
of this fungus among the trees of this genus, 
As I am informed by Messrs. Towles & Co., 
who have had large experience with the tree, it 
attacks equally well those trees which grow 
either in moist or in dry soil. Another striking 
peculiarity of this fungus, and one wherein it is 
an exception to those previously mentioned, is 
to be found in the fact that when the tree dies 
its ravages cease entirely. 

In the cases of fungi destroying the Douglass 
spruce and the fir tree of the Sierras, before 
mentioned, we have seen the fungus continuing 
its work after the death of the tree, and be- 
coming the most active agent in completing its 
destruction. In this instance, however, if the 
wood is not so far honeycombed as to crush 
under weight, it makes a durable railway tie. 
Again, if sufficiently sound to hold a nail, it is 
as durable as any kind of timber for the pur- 
pose of fence posts. Once fallen to earth, the 
giants of the forest bid defiance to every form 
of parasitic growth. 

Bagging Grapes. — Poor Eastern grape grow- 
ers! They have a disease there which causes 
fhe berries of the clusters to rot instead of 
ripen, anditishailed as an "important discovery" 
that an Ohio man has found out that by en- 
casing each cluster in a paper bag as soon as 
the young grapes set upon the stem, he is able 
to produce good fruit, while one-half of that 
not] sacked is ruined by the disease. This 
grower bagged 7,000 bunches during the last 
year with perfect success. He used the com- 
mon manila paper bags of the groceryman, and 
kept them in place with pins. What an amount 
of work such a precaution woukl entail upon a 
California vineyardist if he were obliged to do 
it. Fortunately he is not. The bright pros- 
pect before the grape interest in this State now, 
indicates that the only sack the vigneron will 
need is a coin bag. 

The Effects of the Frosts. — Readers will 
find many allusions in this issue to the effect of 
the late heavy frosts upon the orange trees in 
the southern part of this State. Letters from 
residents in the regions visited, will be found 
on pages 51 and 59. These show plainly that 
the first reports of damage were greatly over- 
estimated. These letters will be read with 
interest by all orange growers, because they 
contain notes of general, as well as local value. 
It is perhaps as well on the whole, that the 
early exaggerations were made, because they 
have brought many readers to their pens, and 
useful facts are now on record, which otherwise 
might have gone unheeded by. 

Mrs. Josefa Livermore, wife of the late 
Robert Livermore, one of the oldest residents 
of Alameda county, died Thursday, last at Liv- 
ermore. Deceased was born in the Livermore 
valley in 1810. 



50 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS 



[January 25, 1879. 



mORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinion* of correspondents. — Eds. 



Irrigating Canals of Fresno County. 

Late Cold Spell. 
Editors Tress : — The object of this letter is 
to give your reailers some idea of the location, 
character, and the extent of the irrigation works 
already completed in Fresno county. Except 
the Miller & Lux canal, completed more than 

00 miles, which heads in San Joaquin river 
just below its junction with Fresno slough — the 
outlet of Tulare lake — and the short canal, four 
miles in length, taken from Fresno river, and 
which with its side ditches irrigates a small 
amount of land around Borden, all Fresno 
county ditches now finished, are supplied with 
water from Kiug's river. There are of these, 
four main ditches with several branches, and in 
their regular order, going up Kiug's river or 
across the county from south to north, are : 
1st. The Emigrant ditch. 2d. The Fresno 
Canal and Irrigation Co. 's ditch, also called the 
Church ditch, with its Kiugsburg branch, and 
three other branches irrigating the Washington, 
the Central, the Church or Nevada, and the 
Scandinavian colony. 3d. The Cent<>rville and 
Kingsburg ditch. 4th. The Could ditch. 

Emigrant Ditch 
Is taken from the north bank of Cole slough. 
The latter is quite a large stream which leaves 
King's river little more than a mile below the 
railroad bridge. It takes its name from an 
early settler. This slough, if I am correctly 
informed, is subdivided into several other 
sloughs, one of which finds its way back to the 
river, about nine miles below the railroad 
bridge ; a second, two miles farther down ; a 
third, about two miles below ; while the main 
slough, after several minor divisions, empties 
into Fresno slough. The main Emigrant ditch 
runs some ten miles in a southwesterly direction, 
an extension of it known as Flint- Ijock ditch, 
continuing about three miles farther. It has 
been constructed during the last two years, and 
about 50 farmers now irrigate their lands from 
it successfully. Much of this land being a loose 
sandy loam, irrigates by seepage very much like 
the Mussel slough lands. Their crops have 
generally been good the past year, ami their 
district is rapidly settling up with a desirable 
class of people, as are other irrigated parts of 
Fresno county. 

The Centerville and Kingsburg' Ditch 

1 a next in order. Like the Emigrant ditch, it 
has been constructed during the last two years 
by the farmers on adjacent lands. Fortunately 
for them, they own the ditches and water rights 
on which they must depend for irrigation. 

This canal is taken from the north bank of 
King's river, about two miles above Centerville 
— the name most commonly given to King's 
River postoffice. Its general direction is nearly 
southwest. After an unbroken course of about 
ten miles, it is subdivided into four brandies. 
Between eight and nine miles from its source, 
the first branch is taken out and runs south- 
east near King's river and about parallel to it. 
About a mile beyond its headgate is a main 
junction, from which the Kingsburg branch ex- 
tends ten miles farther to the railroad, about a 
mile northwest of that town ; a second branch 
eight miles long crosses the railroad midway 
between Kiugsburg and Fowler's station, or five 
miles from each ; a third branch runs due south 
for six or seven miles. The aggregate length of 
these main ditches, is about 40 miles, to say 
nothing of numerous side ditches. Emigrant 
ditch is now irrigating about 0,000 acres, with 
an estimated capacity for about '25,000 in all. 
The Centerville and Kingsburg will probably 
irrigate lO.UOO acres the coming season, and 
with extensions now being made on the west- 
side of the railroad, will perhaps eventually 
irrigate as much as 50,000 acres. 

The Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company's 
Ditch, 

Or as it is now more familiarly known, the 
Church ditch, from the name of its present 
owner, has a much larger capacity than any 
other canal now constructed in Fresno county. 
Its upper portion is estimated to carry over 800 
cubic feet of water. Its ownership has been 
greatly involved by well-known litigation, and 
as yet it is irrigating only some 4,000 acres, in- 
cluding the colonies dependent upon it. This 
canal uses as part of its channel some 12 or 14 
miles of Fancher creek, its upper portion con- 
sisting of a cut of four miles, which leads the 
water from King's river into the creek. When 
the lower portion is enlarged and extended as 
proposed, it can no doubt furnish water enough 
to irrigate successfully at least 100,000 acres. 
The headgate of this canal is about three miles 
above Centerville. 

Its Kingsburg Branch 
Is taken out three or four miles below its head, 
extends southwest about nine miles and ter- 
minates on the Endicut ranch, about a mile anil 
a half north of Kingsburg. The length of the 
Church ditch proper is not far from 20 miles, 
and it furnishes water for the Church or 
Nevada, the Washington, the Central, and the 
Scandinavian colonies. 

The canal highest up the river is known as 
the 

King's River and Fresno Canal, 
Or the Gould ditch. Its headgate is about five 



miles above Centerville. It extends some 20 
miles to the McNeil or Gould ranch, about two 
miles northeast of the town of Fresno. It irri- 
gates now only 3,000 or 4,000 acres, but such 
enlargement and extension are now proposed as 
to give it a capacity of 500 cubic feet per sec- 
ond. According to usual estimates, this would 
furnish water enough to irrigate more than 50,- 

000 acres. 

From this brief summary your readers will 
see that Fresno county is already well supplied 
with irrigating canals, and the good and all-im- 
portant work of securing certainty for its future 
crops is moving steadily onward. Its indus- 
trious people are as fully alive to the necessity 
of irrigation as are those of its sister county, 
Tulare. And well they may be, for all branches 
of agriculture have suffered enough from want 
of irrigation in the past; and there are, accord- 
ing to a late estimate of their County Surveyor, 
Mr. Davis, at least 

600,000 Acres of Irrigable land 

In the county. As a former land holder and 
farmer in Fresno county, as far back as July, 'OS, 

1 can rejoice with those who can now reap the 
benefits of irrigation here. Could it have been 
so, when a number of us came 10 years ago, to 
what was then truly a dry wilderness, and by 
the representations of others, staked all we had 
upon its lands, totally unreliable without irri- 
gation, we would have had a different record to 
show than that of continued misfortunes and 
hardships. 

Hut tor those now here a better time has 
come. Success to the many who are seeking new 
homes on the irrigated lands of Fresno county. 
I have read with much interest the letters of 
Mr. Kauntze, from Kiugsburg, in the IU'ral, 
and cordially indorse what he says of climate, 
crops, and prospects in the southern part of 
Fresno county. No county in the State offers 

Better and Surer Inducements 

To-day to new settlers than Fresno. 

The late cold spell of more than two weeks 
has been as severe as any for 10 years in this 
valley. I learn from Mr. Geo. H. Stebbins, 
who keeps a regular register for the Signal De- 
partment, that on the morning of December 
15th the mercury was lfi\ being afterwards 17 
and 18' on different mornings. Sixteen degrees 
above zero is as low, to my certain knowledge, 
as a standard thermometer has been registered 
in San Joaquin valley since '08. If my memory 
serves me right, this was in the winter of '71 
and '72. Young orange and lemon trees have 
suffered severely, but so they have iu Los An- 
geles county. The extent of the injury cannot 
be thoroughly known for a month yet. Oranges 
are ripening in Fresno county in the open air 
this winter for the first time. Mr. Hazelton, 
five miles above Centerville, on King's river, 
has quite an orchard of them. Mr. Fresh, in 
the Central colony, has two budded trees seven 
years old, with fine oranges on them, some 
measuring 1 1 inches around. 

For the main facts about canals I am indebted 
chiefly to Mr. S. C. Poage, Secretary of C. A 
K. ditch, and to Prof. Wm. A. Sanders. 

Another letter will tell you of the latter's ex- 
perimental farm, Mr. B. Mark's model piggery 
and the progress of the colonies. 

Fresno, December 20th. J. W. A. W. 



Tr|E ^pi^lY- 



The Question of "Standard" Frames. 

Editors Press: — In the Rural of 4th inst., 
under the heading "Standard Frames," "U. K. 
Lyptus," takes me to task. I do not propose to 
back down on any statement that I make, unless 
convinced that I am wrong entirely. I do not 
pretend to be a professor, only a pupil in "Bee 
Culture." In a former number I mentioned 
that I did not think it possible to have a stand- 
ard frame in a literal sense, owing, as I still be- 
lieve, to the different light in which the human 
family view their own ideas as an improvement 
on the rest of mankind. Having a diagram of 
the principal frames in use before ine, I will give 
you an idea of their sizes, viz.: Quinby, 18J by 
11}; Quinby, closed end, 194 by U; Langstroth, 
17§ by 9J; Adair, 13J by 11}; American, 12 by 
12; Gallup, 11} by 11}, all in inches and all 
favorites of those who use them principally. 
I won't dispute the good points of either size, 
nor do I think that a brood frame for comb 
honey should be over 10 inehes deep from top 
to bottom, and it might be an improvement to 
diminish the length of the Langstroth, say, to 
about to 15 inches, if comb honey is wanted in 
small frames. But in my vicinity, working for 
extracted honey (not strained), good results may 
be had without reducing length, as the queen 
has an abundance of room in the brood chamber 
or lower part of the hive ; and in case of close 
extracting (though I would not extract from 
combs containing brood), there will not be so 
much danger of starving. 

This summer I only extracted from combs 
entirely capped over, and found some frames 
tilled with brood in all stages, from top to bot- 
tom of brood frame, excepting about three 
inches of rear part of brood frame, which was 
capped honey. I had on two stories of main 
frames, also story of section frames above them, 



on several hives. The second story was all 
sealed, except, occasionally, a little brood in 
one or two of the middle frames. 

I had but little natural swarming, though 
occasionally have found two queens in one hive. 
W hen a swarm did come out, I looked on the 
ground near the hive for the queen (hives are 
about five feet apart), and found her in all cases, 
as she had one wing clipped. I either put her 
back, and cut out queen ceUs and made more 
room, or left one queen ceU and divided, mak- 
ing two ont of oue. With a smaller frame I 
should have had more swarms than I could have 
attended to, without help, as I have only Ital- 
ians. They don't stand on ceremony in the 
swarming season. 

When I commenced I had the Gallup frame, 
besides the Harbinson. I have laid them 
aside, preferring the langstroth. I don't say 
that the Langstroth is the best hive, but I 
prefer it, as far as I have tried it. In the year 
1877, or winter, my hives were in very bad con- 
dition, swarms were small and weak, covering 
but few frames. It being a very wet winter, 
that part of the frame that was not covered by 
the bees got moldy ; but this season not being 
so wet, and swarms being stronger, and having 
Italians instead of blacks, not a comb shows a 
sign of mold. 

Instead of making holes through the combs 
for bees to go from comb to comb, put small 
-trip.- across the frames on top, several inches 
apart, and cover with old oilcloth, carpet or 
duck, or even grain sacks (burlaps). I generally 
till the top of hive with old sacks, to keep in 
the heat and soak up what rain might beat in 
at the top. In case of the wet getting in, one 
good warm day will dry them as well as ever. 

Having never seen an American hive, I cannot 
speak of it knowingly ; the same in regard to a 
frame for a cold climate. I Bhould think, 
though, a frame 15 long by 10 deep, outside 
measure, would give good results in a colder 
climate, by having a passage over the frames. 
At the East many winter out of doors, as I 
understand, by making a box several inches 
larger than the hive and higher, filling the space 
with cut straw or chaff, which keeps the heat 
within the hive ; of course leaving an opening 
for the bees to fly. 

The Harbinson frame, which did not mold (as 
"U. K." states "my style," comparing it with 
the American), was one that was transferred in 
January, from a strong swarm of blacks, and 
helped, by adding brood from other hives ; all 
drone comb cut out. They had a better chance 
than the others, but one of the others gave even 
a better return than that one, and was ouly got 
iu working order in June, which gave me 150 
pounds of honey, 50 of which was in small 
frames, all capped over. 

"U. K. Lyptus" tries to prove that "my 
style" of frame (12x12), as he is pleased to call 
it, though 1 have discarded it, would suit the 
north, also a little farther south, and re- 
commends me trying a frame 12x10. I do not 
like to chase swarms, as I am sure I would have 
to, with that size of frame. With the hive I 
have, 1 have been ahead of swarming; but with 
the size he recommends, swarming might get 
the best of me. I have opened hives the past 
season and found or 8 frames out of 10 full of 
brood (all workers), from top to bottom, and 
from front to rear, with the exception of about 
three inches of the rear part of the frame. I 
cut out all drone size, except in outside frames 
in second story, and in such hives as I want my 
choice drones raised from. 

I don't say that I am not in favor of a 
"Standard" frame if it could be practicable, but 
let us have one big enough so that wc can 
keep down swarming, in a measure, and at the 
same time secure a good crop of honey. When 
houey is coming fast they must have room, or 
they will swarm; and, in extracting, I would 
prefer to extract from five to seven-pound 
combs instead of smaller ones. 

I shall make a few frames 15 by 10 outside 
measure for experiment, eight to a hive, the 
coming season. Many experienced beekeepers 
agree that the main part of a hive should have 
from 2,000 to 2,500 cubic inches. One of 9 
frames 12 by 10 contains about 1,700 cubic 
inches, allowing the hive to be about 13 inches 
square inside. For invalids and ladies who like 
to handle the pets and manage their own hives, 
that size might do well witli a small apiary; but 
an able man could manage a larger hive as 
easily and control swarming more conveniently. 

A beekeeper of much experience says: "A 
hive that swarms does well, but one that does 
not swarm does better" — aU things considered. 
As for moths, Italians can take care of them 
best, ouly make all spaces in a hive so that 
a bee can penetrate. I have not been troubled 
with them this season. 

I find the Langstroth hive having a broad 
base, does not get blown over as easily as a tall 
hive. Last winter my four of five Harbinson's 
were all blown over one night during a south- 
easter, while the others stood staunch; though 
all had rocks to keep the covers down. One of 
the hives had a pure Italian, the rest blacks. 
Some frames ^ere piled up; some scattered. I 
found the Italian queen all right on the frames 
and soon had her housed safely, though the 
swarm was somewhat reduced. There was one 
which suffered most, though all were more or 
less drenched and chilled. I picked up a pint 
or more of drenched bees, the queen among 
them, apparently dead, took them into the 
house to warm them. After awhile she came 
too, with many of the bees, when they were 
put into their hive and she got along as well as 
ever. J- I>. Enas. 

Sunnyside, Napa, Jan. 11th, 1879. 



^,r\BO?\ICdLTdF\E. 



The Cone-bearers, or Evergreen Trees of 
California— No. 2. 

[Written tor the Rural Press by J. G. Lrmhon. ] 

Classification. 

One of the earliest and most elalx>rate authors 
to treat of conifers was Loudon, who (1st Edi- 
tion in 1838) published his renowned "Arbor- 
etum." In it he describes all the genera and 
species known at the time, and distributes 
them as follows: North America, 40 species; 
Asia, 19; Europe, 14; Africa, 2; South America, 
2; Australia, 2; Europe and Africa, 1; total, 
80 species. It will be noticed that 40 species, 
one-half of the whole number, was ascribed to 
North America. Of these, 18 species were 
found in the United States. 

Later, in 1853, Lindley's great work appear- 
ed, in which the number of i species described 
was more than doubled, so actively had the 
work of exploration and scientific description 
been carried on during the preceding decade. 
These species were found to be distributed in 
about the same ratio — one-half of them being in 
North America. 

One of the latest and most voluminous enum- 
erations of the conifer family is by George 
Gordon, of England, in his splendid work, 
"The Pinetum." In it he describes 52 genera 
and 400 species. 

But all these authors have followed precedent 
too much, and been limited in their researches 
by want of instruments and other helps, par- 
ticularly good and abundant specimens, they 
being so difficult to prepare and so unwieldly to 
transport. Within a few years the discovery 
and application of the microscope has rendered 
necessary a thorough revisal and rearrangement 
of most of our sciences, especially those relat- 
ing to natural history. 

Scientists, aided by these helps, are arising 
here and there with special ability to grapple 
with most abstruse and formidable subjects. In 
the realm of botany alone, no one mind, either 
in Europe or America, is equally familiar with 
all its fields. The strongest minds are content 
with the mastery of a small class, a genus, or 
even a single species of plants. Compilers unite 
the work of these masters, and thus give to the 
world what would be a superhuman effort if 
contemplated by any one mind. And thus 
each of these specialists becomes an authority 
in the field of his exhaustive research, to whom 
all others must defer. To become such an 
authority it is only necessary to excel all prece- 
dent. 

Authorities. 

A few of these "authorities" may be men- 
tioned: Sir Joseph D. Hooker, of England, 
forest trees; Dr. George Engelmann, of St. 
Louis, American forest trees; Prof. Asa Gray, 
of Cambridge, yamopetabe, and especially of the 
immense order of eompomt<r; Prof. Daniel C. 
Eaton, of New Haven, lilies and ferns; Prof. 
W. G. Farlow, of New Haven, fungi and sea- 
weeds (alijw ); Prof. George Vasey, of Washing- 
ton, grasses; Prof. H. N. Bolander, of San 
Francisco, cryptogams and grasses of California; 
Mr. Anderssen, of Copenhagen, Eastern wil- 
lows; Mr. M. S. Bebb, of Illinois, Western 
wUlows; Dr. H. W. Harkness, of Sacramento, 
fungi of California; Dr. C. L. Anderson, of 
Santa Cruz, sea-weeds of California; Leo Les- 
quereax, of Columbus, Ohio, mosses; Prof. 
Sereno Watson, of Cambridge, apelabt; Prof. 
William H. Brewer, of New Haven, polypttala. 

Orders of the Gymnospermee. 
Authorities differ widely in the limits pre- 
scribed for the conifera; and as the rest of the 
ijymnoaperm* are but few, it will be best to 
present the whole great class of gymnosptrnur., 
or naked-seeded plants, comprising four orders: 

1. Pinacea; — Containing the three large tribes 
of abktinta, cuprexkmt and junipereas. 

2. Taxacetr - The yew family, mostly found 
in the Eastern hemisphere; two species in Cali- 
fornia. 

3. On etacece— The joint-stem family, mostly 
Asiatic; two species in California. 

4. C'ycailaeea — Palm-pine; tropical; propa- 
gated in greenhouse; none indigenous. 

Order 1. Pinaceae (true conifers) Tribe 1, 
Abietineue. Pine Jfamily. Fruit, a cone or stro- 
bile of numerous carpellary scales from the axil 
of a bract, arranged spirally around a more or 
less elongated axis. Contains four large genera. 
1st genus— Pimm (from "pin," a point). Cone- 
scale on an elongated axis, leaves acerose, per- 
sistent, in fascicles, (single in oue species), 
sheathed at base, each fascicle composed of 2, 3 
or 5 leaves. 

Species of Pine. 

The entire number of species of pine through- 
out the globe is 92; in United States, 18; in 
California, 15; mostly discovered and named by 
the English explorer, David Douglas. 

Species conveniently arranged by their leaves 
into three divisions. Species in each division 
distinguished by their cones, barks, etc. 
Division A. Monse- 1-Leaved, Double 

1. Pinug monophylla, Torr. "Nut pine,'' of 
Nevada and eastern California foothills. Cone 



January 25, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



51 



email, 2 to 3 inches thick, globular; esteemed 
for food by Indians. Timber very resinous. 
All parts of. the tree strong-scented. 

Division B. Binse— 2-Leaved, Short. 
2. Pinus contorta, Doug. Improperly called 
"California tamarack;" high valleys; bark very 
thin; cone very small, 2 to 3 inches long. 

2. (a) Pinus contorta, var. Bolanderi, "Bo- 
lander's pine; coast; cone smaller; thick, scaled, 
2 inches long. 

3. Pinus muricata, Don. "Bishop's pine;" 
coast ; cone medium, very spiny, three inches 
long. 

Division C. Ternatse -3-Leaved Long. 

4. Pinus ponderosa, Doug. ' ' Yellow pine ;" 
common; bark, yellowish; cone, medium ; four 
to six inches long. 

4(a). Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffrey!; "pitch 
pine ; " high slopes ; cones large, 6 to 8 inches 
long. 

4 (b). Pinus ponderosa, var. BentJmmiana. 
" Black pine ; " near water ; bark black; cone 
large, 6 to 8 inches long. These varieties run 
into each other imperceptibly, on the Sierra. 

5. Pinus imUjnis, Doug. "Monterey pine;" 
coast and cultivated ; cones medium, 3J to 4 
inches; close and hard; close-scaled, gibbous. 

6. Pinus tuberculata, Don. "Knob-cone;" 
foothills ; cones medium, 3 to 5 inches long ; 
hard, close-scaled, gibbous, narrow. 

7. Pinus Sabiniana, Doug. "Big cone" or 
"gray-leaf ;" foothills ; cones very large and 
heavy, 8 to 10 inches long ; spines large and re- 
curved. 

8. Pinus Coulleri, Doug. " Spur cone "; 
southern coast; cones very large, 7 to 10 inches 
long; spines, curved upward. 

9. Pinus Torreyana, Parry. "Torrey's pine" 
(rare). Southern coast; cones medium, close, 
spurless, 3 to 5 inches long. 

Division D. Quinae.— 5-leaved, Short. 

10. Pinus Lambertiana, Doug. "Sugar pine. " 
Common; cones very large, 15 to 24 inches long, 
and soft-scaled. 

11. Pinus monticola, Doug. "Mountain pine, " 
or "white pine." High slopes; cones similar, 
but much smaller, 5 to 7 inches. 

12. Pinus albicaulis, Engel. "White-stem" 
(rare)j High peaks; cones small, 2 to 2^ inches 
long; globular, few seeded. 

13. Pinus flexilis, James. "Bull pine" of 
Nevada. Cones medium, conical, 3 to 4 inches 
long. 

14. Pinus aristata, Engel. "Bristle cone." 
Peaks; cones very small; spiny. Rare in Cal- 
ifornia. 

15. Pinus Balfouriana, Jef. "Balfour's pine" 
(rare). Shasta; cones medium; (little known). 

[To be Continued.] 



f LO^IcJlJlJ^E. 



The Penstemon. 

Editors Press: — One of the most beautiful 
of the half hardy perennials is the penstemon, 
being graceful in habit and appearance, and 
bearing an abundance of flowers which are re- 
markable for the beauty of their coloring and 
the delicateness of their texture. It combines 
many eminent characteristics of a perfect flower- 
ing plant; and although the seeds are adver- 
tised in almost every seedsman's catalogue, and 
plants offered for sale by all florists, yet, strange 
to say, the plant has never become popular as a 
garden bloomer. 

We have often wondered at this, but have 
come to the conclusion that the delinquency is 
justly due to the impatience of the American 
people, who are not aware of the beauty of the 
plant, and do not like to wait a whole year 
after sowing the seed to be regaled with blooms. 
Then, again, the plants offered by the profes- 
sional florists are almost always held at such 
figures that there is not much inducement for 
the amateur to make a trial of their culture. 

The penstemon is of long duration of bloom, 
the flowers just appearing in early June, in 
some parts of our State early in May, and re- 
maining in constant bloom until October. In 
color they range through many shades and 
hues, such as white, scarlet, maroon, blue, yel- 
low, purple, and variegated. 

The name, penstemon, is derived from the 
words pente, five, and sterna, stamen. This 
will seem strange to our amateur botanists, who 
no doubt are aware that the penstemon is 
placed in the class Dydinamia, of Linnaeus, by 
botanists, which class has but four stamens — 
two long and two short ones. But the mystery 
is solved by reference to the flower, where we 
find the rudiment of a bearded filament be- 
tween, and shorter, thau the too longest 
stamens. 

The penstemons are natives of this continent, 
principally from Mexico, Texas, Utah, and 
several varieties from our own State, but they 
are nevertheless well worthy of culture in our 
pleasure grounds. In our climate, if a little 
pains are taken to start the seed early in a hot- 
bed, many of the seedlings will bloom during 
the first summer. 

We hope to see the day when the penstemon 
will be more popular, as it certainly is a more 
worthy flower than many now in our choice 
category. W. C. L. Drew. 

El Dorado, Cal. 



Tl|E Stable. 



Breeding Horses in California— No. 12. 

[Written for the Press by JosErn Cairn Simpson.] 

"Breaking the colt." This common phrase 
has been happily selected to express the usual 
manner in which the young horse is taught the 
duties which he is hereafter expected to per- 
form. Breaking flax was an operation which 
nearly all were acquainted with in the country 
when I was a boy. The ro f ted stalks were 
grasped in handfuls, held over an instrument 
in which were grooves with sharp edges, and 
into these grooves came planks which fell with 
force from a load on the end. 

The tough fibers could stand this pounding, 
but the enveloping material was crushed into 
small fragments. 

In the usual method of breaking colts there 
is the same desire to use nothing but brute 
force, and the animal is broken in spirit, and 
frequently in constitution, by the severity of 
the treatment. Let us substitute edueating the 
colt, by easy lessons limited to his understand- 
ing, and endeavoring beyond everything else to 
acquire his confidence so that he will be a will- 
ing pupil. Had we a knowledge of equine lan- 
guage, sufficient to express in sounds, which he 
could fully understand what, we require of 
him, there would be little trouble. But unfor- 
tunately this is not the case, and at the best, we 
must expect that timidity will misconstrue our 
intentions, and violent efforts, inspired by fear, 
will result. 

It may appear a needless repetition to be con- 
tinually insisting on kind treatment; but I am so 
thoroughly impressed with the value of uniform 
kindness to the owner, as well as rescuing this 
animal from abuse, that I am anxious to have 
it f«lly stamped on the minds of my readers. 

A man who loses his temper is not fit to have 
anything to do with young horses, and is nearly 
as unfit to have the charge of old. The thor- 
oughbred is resolute in whatever it undertakes 
to do, and if harshly handled will resent the in- 
fliction so long as it can respond. But the 
raee are also the most sensible of the equine 
genus, and can be taught anything which comes 
within the scope of their understanding. 

If the previous instructions have been acted 
upon, the young animal has an implicit con- 
fidence in his attendants, and with care in the 
subsequent lessons, there will be little trouble. 
The head-stall of the halter should have rings 
on either side, in which the bit can be buckled 
with short straps. A straight bit, or rather, 
one with a slight curve, and of medium size, 
should be used at first, and when put in the 
mouth it should hang moderately loose, so as 
not to touch the angles of the lips. Until the 
colt is thoroughly accustomed to have it in his 
mouth, no attempt should be made to make use 
of it. Lead him by the halter, and when bridle 
reins are attached, let them rest on his withers. 
After having been accustomed to a circingle, 
they may be fastened to that, but taking care 
that there is plenty of slack in the reins, so as 
not to interfere with the easy carriage of his 
head. 

The old practice of bittiug is a horrible tor- 
ture, and many are still so wedded to old cus- 
toms, that they continue to practice it. I 
have seen colts completely bathed in perspira- 
tion, every muscle quivering, and a glassy stare 
in the eye, after having been subjected to the 
"bitting rigging" for a short space of time. 
Neither does it effect the object, as well as more 
humane treatment. After the animal has be- 
come accustomed to the bit (and a very good 
plan is to let them eat, with it in the mouth, one 
of their daily feeds), attach a pair of driving 
reins, run them through loops in the circingle, 
at a point where the loops to hold the shafts on 
harness would be, and walk behind the colt. 
This will bring the reins across the quarters near 
the stifles, and is a great aid in teaching the 
animal to observe the indications of the bit. 
The reins across the quarters keep the animal 
straight, and the bow and stern are equally 
under control. The bridle should be without 
blinds so that he can see everything clearly, and 
a whip be carried, as a touch of the lash is bet- 
ter than a continual slapping with the reins. 
Plenty of time taken in this stage will expedite 
the business, and until the animal will heed 
every touch of the bit, the lessons should be 
continued. When this is accomplished the har- 
ness may be put on, all the time being careful 
not to alarm the colt, and after that, hitch him 
by the side of a steady, quiet horse. This should 
be one he is acquainted with, and in nine cases 
in ten the harnessing to a wagon will give little 
trouble. Although with the young thorough- 
Ved the object is to teach him to gallop, I am 
.veil satisfied of the advantages there are in giv- 
ing him a harness education at the outset. By 
this he is taught more effectually, than when a 
saddle and rider is put on his back before he 
has become fully accustomed to being guided 
by the reins. A man is the tutor in place of a 
small boy, and the future benefit will appear as 
his training is continued. The wagon should b» 
light, and the whifHetree of the horse fastened 
back so that he will draw all of the load. By 
the adjustment of the reins so as to come across 
his stifles he will not be afraid of the traces 
touching him, and if he endeavors to swing to 
either side the touch will straighten him. He 
may be a trifle alarmed when he sees the 



vehicle following him, but the companion 
will give him confidence, and the trep- 
idation soon overcome. Every part of 
the proceedings should be fully inculcated, 
and when he drives kindly, and not until then, 
the saddle may be put on. The saddle should 
be an easy one, not too small, but covering 
enough of the colt's back, so as to give bearing suf- 
ficient to carry the weight without undue pres- 
sure, which would result from a small one being 
used. Lead him by the side of a horse a few 
times before the rider mounts, and have the 
rider use every precaution not to alarm him. 
He should not mount in the same manner he 
would on an old horse. Let an attendant stand 
on the off side of the colt, and by bearing on 
the stirrup the weight of the rider will be bal- 
anced. At first he may rest his breast across 
the saddle, and when the colt is used to that, 
the boy can get up quickly and with as little 
flurry as possible. The chances are favorable 
that he will not attempt to rear or buck, and, if 
he does, the former lessons have put him under 
control so that he can be handled. The rider 
should be a good-sized boy, and I would much 
rather trust to one of over a hundred-pound 
weight than to take the chances of a lighter 
one until the colt is thoroughly conversant with 
the incumbrance. He should still have a com- 
panion in a quiet horse, and this will have a 
potent effect in giving him assurance. While 
driving him he should be trotted, but at first 
his work under the saddle should be confined to 
walking, and at that pace never long enough for 
him to become uneasy. When the exercise is 
faster it will come under the head of training, 
and this will be the subject of the next chapter. 



Carp Culture.— No. 4. 

Editors Press: — In concluding my notes on 
this subject, I willmakesomeremarksonthefeed- 
ing of carp in close ponds. It is not every pond 
that has the essentials of a good soil at the bot- 
tom to produce sufficient food for the fish, and 
if these conditions are wanting the fish must be 
fed. But they must be fed never more than 
they will consume, and late in the evening is 
the best time to give it to them. The carp 
likes above everything else, vegetable matter, 
such as boiled cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, tur- 
nips, pumpkins, melons, etc. Corn, wheat and 
barley are good, after they are soaked soft. 
The curd of clabbered milk is excellent for the 
young fish. The scraps from the kitchen are 
first rate. Middlings and wheat bran, the refuse 
of malt from breweries and distilleries, are also 
very good food for carp; and whenever such 
food can be had it should be given to the fish. 
The small pisciculturist having a pond near his 
house, will be able to feed his fish on refuse from 
his kitchen and stable. 

In conclusion, I earnestly recommend the cul- 
ture of carp to all pisciculturists. As soon as 
the value of the carp for table use becomes 
recognized, its culture will yield a larger profit 
than the expensive trout or the petted pig. For 
instance, the lowest estimate that I see, calcu- 
lates that it takes five pounds of meat to make 
one of trout; if so, trout must cost some 20 or 
30 cents per pound to produce it. I also see an 
account of a trial with the pig and carp, and the 
result was, that what it took for one pig was 
enough for 1,000 carp. The pork maker keeps 
his pig for two years and it weighs 300 lbs. He 
puts up one more, keeps it some time with the 
same result, making GOOlbs.of pork, andatG cents 
per lb., he has $36 as the result of pig growing. 
But what about the carp. The result was a 
little over 3, OOOtbs. , and at 20 cents per lb. , would 
be $600. The difference in favor of carp, would 
be $564. This was accomplished in four years. 

Mr. Hesel gives a still better report. He 
says that he assisted at the fishing out of a 200- 
acre pond near the town of Pleitz, Germany. 
The pond was the property of a competent cul- 
turist. He says: "To my surprise I found 
that the greater number of fish were fine 
specimens of about three pounds weight, though 
they were but in their second year, having 
weighed no more than one and one-fourth 
pounds five months before." According to his 
figuring, this pond of 200 acres had 48,000 
pounds of carp in it. Now, if the carp were a 
fish of inferior quality, like the buffalo fish for 
instance, its sale would be limited to the sea 
port towns of Europe, such as Vienna, Berlin 
and Paris. In the latter city, in spite of an 
abundant supply of salt water and different 
kinds of fresh water fish, the carp is ever pre- 
ferred to these; and, with the exception of trout 
and salmon, it frequently commands a price 
three times as high as that of all the rest. I 
maintain my assertion that the carp is one of 
the best fresh water fish, and its introduction 
will be of great value in point of national econ- 
omy; especially on account of the ease of its 
culture and the enormous extent to which this 
may be carried on. 

The carp and its value as a fish for culture 
will, before long, be fully appreciated, so that 
we may be enabled to compare favorably the 
results of its culture in America, and the extent 
attained, with any other country to our com- 
plete satisfaction. 

I have now given a short outline of the sub- 
ject, and will close by saying that the young 
fish for stocking ponds c»n now be had much 



cheaper than when they were first ini 
in the State. Young fish can be had at o s 
each; year-old at $1 each; two year-old at 
$2.50 each; and large numbers at a slightly 
lower rate. 

I hope that these very scattering remarks 
may cause the readers of the valuable Rural 
Press to investigate this subject more thor- 
oughly, as every year's delay is that much time 
lost. Levi Davis. 

Forestville, Sonoma Co. 




Frost and Orange Trees in Southern 
California. 



Riverside. 

Editors Press :— In the Rural Press of 11th 
inst., is a letter written by Wm. R. Olden, of 
Anaheim, December 29th, 1878, in which is 
stated that all the orange trees not in bearing 
in southern California, with the exception oi 
one place, are all killed, or nearly so. The facts 
in the case will not bear him out in his state- 
ments. The localities in which orange trees in 
orchards are killed, are the exceptions, and not 
the rule, as stated by Mr. Olden. It is true 
that nursery stock, in most places in southern 
California is badly damaged, but not killed. 

I shall speak of my own locality, and of things 
that I know, and can prove by 50 men to be 
facts; and that is, that at Riverside, the dam- 
age to orange trees is very little, with the 
exception of the southwest corner of the settle- 
ment, where about 200 acres of low land was 
planted to budded trees last year. These are 
badly damaged, and some of them killed ; but 
the greater portions of Riverside are not damaged 
to any extent. In fact, all the older portions 
are not hurt at all, and in places at Riverside, 
the nursery stock is not hurt. I have on my 
place 20,000 one-year-old buds of orange and 
lemon, which are not hurt but very little, and 
most of them not at all. 

The facts are, that Riverside can produce very 
fine oranges. Mr. Twogood of this place, a 
short time since, shipped a small lot of this 
fruit to San Francisco, for which he received 
three and a half and four cents each, and there 
is more here of the same sort, and in a few 
years we will send them to your market by 
the millions. P. S. Russell. 

Riverside, Cal., Jan. 14th. 

Tustin City. 
Editors Press: — In your issue of Jan. 11th, 
I notice a communication from Wm. R. Olden, 
written from Anaheim, in which he makes the 
declaration that Anaheim was the only place in 
which the orange trees did not suffer from the 
frost (qualifying his remarks as to Orange). 
Mr. Olden in writing that communication was 
either wrongly informed, or else not informed 
at all. I have yet to hear from one party re- 
siding in this neighborhood, which is included 
in Mr. O.'s black list, who has had any trees 
damaged by the fro3t this year. That there 
was frost here, as in other portions of the 
county, I do not deny, and I have yet to find 
the locality where there was none; but there 
was not enough to do any damage to the orange 
trees. We have on our place somewhere near 
2,000 trees, and can show new growth on 
nearly all of them that has not been touched by 
the frost. J. H. Leihy. 



Suckerless Plum Stock. 

Editors Press: — It is a matter of great im- 
portance to orchardists to find a plum stock 
that is free from suckering propensities. A 
nurseryman of much note in California, three 
or four years since, offered for sale, extensively, 
a stock of the cherry plum species, which he 
named the "Mirobalon" stock. The common 
plum stock that was generally used-up till that 
time, and is even now used, throws a field of 
suckers around the tree so worked in two or 
three years from planting. I know that the 
cherry stock has been much used the last few 
years. If some of your correspondents who 
have used that stock would give their experi- 
ence and the results so far obtained, it would 
be of great use to fruit growers generally. 

Three years from last February, I obtained 
six German prunes from the nurseryman that 
issued the "Mirobalon" plum stock. Three of 
the trees have suckered a great deal, while 
three of them have so far shown no tendency 
that way. A comparison of notes by those that 
have used the (claimed) suckerless stock, would 
assist in determining its value. If this ques- 
tion is noted in your valuable columns, some 
light no doubt will be thrown on the subject. 
A plum stock free from suckering is a desidera- 
tum for wet, heavy lands. Rusticus. 

Haywood, Cal. 

[The subject is indeed an important one. 
Who has experience to relate concerning it? — 
Eds. Press.] 



52 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 




Correspondence cordially iuvited from all Patrons for this 
depart mont. 



Thoughts When at Work. 

[Written for the the Rural Prbss hy J. B A.) 

Can We Afford to Live in California ? 
The balmy weather of the new-born year 
tempts to outdoor employments, where I 
wander, pruning shears in hand, among trees 
and flowers, sometimes heading back a rose 
bush, or snippiug ambitious shoots in the or 
chards. There is such natural and pure delight 
in being abroad these calm, clear days, that a 
man is less than a man to form excuses for idle- 
ness, even though horticulturists might deem 
the pruning ill-timed. As for that, indeed, we 
hardly know; and I have never yet scrupled 
about pruning or planting a tree when it suited 
my fancy. 

The workshop of the brain is always busy, 
no matter how the hands are employed. Plans 
and ideas are forged, and finished and stored 
away iu the arsenal of the mind for future use. 
The undisturbed work of the daylong allows free 
communion with one's self, when the solitary 
farmer or gardener is sure of good company if 
his mind is stored with readine. He has 
time (and often does give wing to his imagina- 
tion) to argue a case to an imaginary jury, to 
preach a sermon, or mature a newspaper leader, 
that may shape public sentiment long after the 
busy brain that forged it has forgotten the 
occasion. 

So it came about to-day, when the writer 
went to the orchard, the sun was rising over the 
crest of Yullupa ( Indian name for peak of fire), 
tinging its grassy side with mellow rays, and 
painting every hillock, relieved with shadows 
and bringing out the furrows and undulations 
in the hills, like wrinkles on the face of nature. 
The winds were at rest, and the genial warmth 
of the atmosphere, like May in the middle 
States, invited to making garden. But like the 
warp and woof of the busy loom, the ever-active 
mind with flying shuttle, kept weaving all day 
long "thoughts when the hands are at work ; 
and this is the web for your readers to look 
upon, can we afford to live in Calijorniat 

Let us first enquire why the population in- 
creases no faster. There must be other than 
physical reasons, and what are they '! First, 
of those resident here a very large proportion 
came with a mental reservation to return, and 
they have few local attachments to prevent it. 
Gold is no longer found in the placer diggings. 
Farming high-priced lands is unremunerative 
everywhere. The learned professions are 
crowded by physicians, lawyers, ministers, 
civil engineers, and teachers. Of capital, only, 
is there a dearth. Comparatively few farmers 
come with means to purchase lands and im- 
prove them. Why? The Argonauts found 
cheap land; but they took good care to secure 
about all that is most desirable. Farmers with 
means in the Atlantic States, about to go west- 
wardly, think twice before they leave the rich 
virgin soil of the Mississippi, selling at an av 
eiage of five dollars an acre, behind them 
Clearly, then, before we can expect a larger 
emigration, some other inducements besides the 
mild climate and horticultural advantages of 
this State must be held out to the middle class 
of well-to-do farmers. 

When we consider that there is not a neigh- 
borhood in the old States but where one or 
more of its members, at some time, lived here, 
we will understand that a very accurate opinion 
exists, based upon reliable information, as to the 
capacity of our State to make them good homes. 
Why, therefore, do they not come? They do 
come and look. They are charmed with the 
climate, and filled with admiration for all they 
see. But they do not stay. Why? It cannot 
be because of the "sand lot orators" and their 
cry of communism. Men who grow grain and 
cattle, care little for Chinese competition; they 
care less for the wriggling of politicians, anxious 
to outbid each other for the votes of city slums, 
There must be another reason. Can it be that 
our excessively high taxation, and the inequali 
ties of its assessment, have anything to do with 
the matter? Possibly they have learned that 
most of the burdens of government are saddled 
on farmers. They understand that the capital 
employed in banking, mining, lending on mortg- 
ages, and so on, one-third part of that which 
should constitute our taxable basis, entirely 
escapes. They have heard that the annual levy 
for the State and county, leaving out local, 
school, road, and village imposts averages 15% 
on the incomes of the best farms. Men in 
Ohio, Indiana, and other States where the en- 
tire taxation for all purposes is never 1 % on a 
low valuation, consider these things. A dis- 
tinguished member of our Convention said the 
other day that 1(5% of his income from lands 
went for taxes. Another distinguished mem- 
ber, who is ardently in favor of the exemption 
of mortgages and credits from taxation, in- 
formed his fellows that it was not true that 
farmers desire such imposts. He ridiculed the 
assertion of the rural member from "Jackass 
gulch," and scolded him for presumption. 
"The mills of the gods grind slow, and if Mr. 
Creed Haymond but waits a little, the people 



will pass upon the work of such craftsman when 
submitted for their sovereign ratification. 

The writer knows no better soil, or surer 
crops, iu all the State than this valley of Rus- 
sian river. Yet it is also true that its farmers 
must hoard their savings, and out of them, 
after paying necessary expenses, the largest 
sum goes to the tax-gatherer. At this thought 
the shears made several vicious snaps and 
cleared the trunk of an apple tree of a host of 
suckers. 

Perhaps our State and county Government 
have too many suckers. High salaries, the 
same as of the old flush times, when flour was 
$1 a pound in the mines, and too many officials. 
Too many "gross irregularities'' in the manage- 
ment of county affairs may be at the bottom of 
high taxes, as recently found by the Grand 
Jury in a prolonged examination of the acts of 
some of our Sonoma county board of supervi 
sors, which they censured as "gross irregular! 
ties." Which ever party is dominant in i 
county, usually owns a newspaper, styled "the 
official organ," whose business, oftentimes, is to 
explain and defend the thieving operations of 
peculators on the treasury. If not honestly 
conducted, it is loudest in urging on and build- 
ing up party drill, which is invoked to maintain 
a clique in possession of the spoils. 

The price of land on the other side, with the 
usual farm improvements, is from $10 to $30 
per acre. The average price to-day for quarter 
sections of good, rich, improved farms is not 
over $'20. The taxes are less than one-half as 
much as here. So it is that poor men coming 
to this coast crowd into cities instead of tilling 
the soil; and so it happens that those able to 
purchase are careful to learn our public debts 
and rates of taxation first. 

After all, we who came in good faith to stay, 
should be able to answer the question 
"Whether we can afford to live here?" Four 
fifths of the plundering and extravagance is 
committed under our very noses by officials 
elected by us. We are strong enough to right 
these wrongs if we but pull together and 
lay aside all politics in regulating local affairs. 
Let us elect honest men and reduce expenses. 
Each party has capable men who scorn to join 
in the drunken scramble too often seen, for 
place. There is no good reason why Republi- 
cans and Democrats cannot sit side by side as 
Supervisors; they do at church. If you please, 
when it comes to national questions, vote your 
party preferences. If the readers of the Rural 
will unite in this crusade, shoulder to shoulder, 
their influence will be felt. Steadfastly mov- 
ing forward with the trained step of soldiers, 
fighting "for the right, as God gives them to 
see it, the momentum of their march, like 
the Grecian phalaux, will be irresistible. Then, 
and not until then, will the question be an- 
swered, whether California is to be the future 
home of a farming population and prosperity. 

Santa Rosa, Jan. 2d, 1879. 



Insurance. — W T e understand that the Cali- 
fornia Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company iB 
closing up its business, preparatory to a disin- 
corporation ; paying off their indebtedness, and 
refunding balances on unexpired policies of 
those who wish them canceled. 



Election of Officers." 

Clarksvim.e Grange, No. 149, Ki. Dorado 
Co. — Isaac Maltby, M. ; J. Barrett,*).; Charles 
P. Winchell, L. ; Joseph Joerger, S. ; J. Tong, 
A. S.; John York, C. ; G. Carsten, T. ; Samuel 
Kyburz, Sec'y; William Johnson, G. K. 
Emma Woodward, Ceres; Eflie E. Winchell 
Pomona; Ella Kyburz, Flora; C. Carsten, I* 
A. S.; Charles Porter, Trustee. 



Wisconsin Soldiers. -At a meeting of old 
comrades, held at Berlin, Jan. 1st, there was or- 
ganized the Wisconsin Reunion Association. 
Every surviving soldier or sailor who enlisted 
from Wisconsin and was honorably discharged 
from the United States military or naval service 
is earnestly requested to write upon a postal 
card his name, occupation, P. O. address, letter 
of company or companies, No. of regiment or 
regiments, in which he served, and send it to 
Grift. J. Thomas, Secretary of the Wisconsin 
Reunion Association, Berlin, Wis., who will 
arrange a complete roster, in alphabetical order 
by company aud regiment, for record and pub- 
lication. Sailors will give name of boat or boats 
on which they served. 

The Silver City (Idaho) Avalanche published 
Governor Brayman's message in advance of its 
delivery to the Legislature. The (Governor 
favors the extension of the Utah and Northern 
railroad, providing that the people of the Ter- 
ritory will not be subject to any additional bur- 
dens. He favors the extinction of leading In- 
dian reservations, in order that the valuable 
lands now held by the Umatillas and other 
tribes may be thrown open to public settlement. 
He also dwells upon the importance of having 
a large military force in the Territory. 

Personal Adornment. — The number of 
people who have drawn upon the stock of 
Palmer Bros., for their handsome clothing, 
underwear, toilet articles, etc., during the last 
few weeks, is beyond count. The firm, at their 
establishment 726 to 734 Market street, have a 
splendid variety of goods to choose from, and 
one can hardly go amiss in seeking everything 
necessary for personal adornment and comfort 
at their store. 



California. 

BUTTE. 

Outlook. — Record, Jan. 18: The best of 
results is confidently anticipated from the 
inch and a half or two inches of rain that fell 
on Saturday. The storm here, commencing at 
about half-past 9 a. m., did not last quite 
through the day; although the evening continued 
cloudy. The wind veered around to the north 
during Sunday. A clear cold night followed, 
and Monday morning brought one of the 
severest, heavy white frosts ever experienced in 
Chico. It is believed, however, that enough 
rain has fallen in time in this vicinity to secure 
a good crop. The recent rains will start the 
grain. There will be plenty hereafter, during 
the winter and spring months, for land in this 
vicinity to produce well. It was the continu- 
ous wet winter last year that destroyed the 
crops of our Chico farmers. Of course there 
are many pieces of land that require much more 
rain than has yet fallen to produce paying crops; 
but nearly all the grain-producing land of this 
vicinity will do well, now that rain sufficient 
has fallen to give the grain a start. It is not 
yet too late to plow and sow, and a large acreage 
will yet be planted. The belief is confidently 
expressed that a fair harvest will be realized. 

Coyote Hunting. — Some few months ago 
the sheep owners living on Feather river and 
Butte creek, east of the Oroville road, offered a 
reward of 620 for each coyote killed within the 
above range of territory. Numerous parties 
have gone thither firmly believing that more 
money could be made by hunting the tricky 
brutes than by any other legitimate means. 
Success has not favored the first arrivals by any 
means, and Mr. Hamlin informs us that Pete 
Noel, the old Butte county hunter, is the only 
man who has killed one this season. 
COLUSA. 

Fencing. — Sun, Jan. 4: "The fencing of 
North Carolina is valued at §10,000,000, and 
the stock at $2,000,000. In other words, it 
takes S5 worth of fencing to protect the crops 
against $1 worth of stock." We have often 
seen such figures going the rounds of the press, 
and it does not seem to strike those who put 
them out that the conclusion sought to be 
drawn therefrom is fallacious in the extreme, 
These facts are often thrown out as an argu 
ment against a fence law. In the condition of 
things now in this State we think what is 
termed the "no fence law" is good, but we do 
not wish to form our opinion on illogical con 
elusions. Stock is necessary to man's happi- 
ness and prosperity, so are corn, wheat, etc, 
Stock will eat corn, wheat, etc., and hence it 
follows that fencing is necessary to keep the 
two apart. Now, if .?1 worth of stock destroyed 
$5 worth of fence, then it would be impossible 
to grow wheat and cattle and horses in the 
same country. The farmer raises his .?1 worth 
of stock iu his $5 enclosure, and sells it, and 
then he raises another dollar's worth, and so on, 
for a number of years. You might argue, that 
a man ought not to have a stock of goods in a 
house because the house cost more than the 
goods. It is necessary to have a house in 
which to do business. The present value of 
the goods and the present value of the house 
are not taken into the account. It is the wteof 
the house with the possible profits — and it is 
the same with the farm question. This, and 
nothing more. 
EL DORADO 

Editors Press: —We are having extemely 
cold weather for this place. It snowed Satur- 
day and Tuesday, snow lay four to five inches 
deep, and in many places still,! ies on the ground. 
Tuesday night was the hardest frost we have 
had here for over 15 years. This morning is very 
clear and bright, but I do not think it will last 
long. The weather has been pretty hard on 
some things in the garden, but otherwise will 
boa great benefit to this section. — W. C. L. 
Drew, Jan. 16th. 
FRESNO. 

Meat Curing. — MtpotUtr: We are pleased 
to see a new industry developing in this 
county, viz: the curing of meats, hams and 
bacon. For several years past Geo. Bernhard, 
the Fresno butcher, has been putting up a 
limited quantity of meat for the benefit of his 
customers, but the amount was always trivial 
as compared with the consumption. This year 
he has put up about 50,000 pounds of meat. B. 
Marks, at the Central California colony, last 
fall, made preparations for killing and curing 
hogs, and this winter he has put up a large 
quantity of excellent bacon, hams, lard and 
pig's feet. His meats are coming out of the 
smoke-house in splendid condition. P. AV. 
Fink, of Upper King's river, has, this winter, 
put up about 40,000 pounds of hams, bacon and 
shoulders, and about 5,000 pounds of lard. His 
meats are finely cured, and will certainly keep 
well. There is no reason why every pound of 
salt meat and all the lard that is used in the 
county, should not be put up at home. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Scenes in Orange. — Editors Press: This 
section has been visited with two fine rains in 
December and two this month. Fanners are 
generally busy putting in grain, setting trees, 
etc. Everything conduces to make this town 
and vicinity the most desirable place to locate 
for those that wish to make a specialty of rais- 
ing the citrus family of trees. Here, when the 
frost visited other portions of the county, 



[January 25, 1879. 

bananas remained green and flourishing. On 
the well-cultivated ranch of J. B. Parker, I wag 
surprised to see the growth of his nursery and 
orchard, budded trees which had grown seven 
and eight feet high at one year old. Soft-shell 
almonds have bornetheir|firBt crop. The trees 
are remarkably healthy and fine shape. Vol- 
unteer barley is making a good start. One of 
the finest views can be had in the morning from 
Mr. Parker's large octagon house, built of con- 
crete, with an observatory. One can look 
northwest and see the beautiful town of Ana- 
heim five miles away. Westward you sec the 
pleasant Garden (irove district, with its new 
church, and beyond is the thriving town of 
Westminster, surrounded by the farms and trees 
of the settlers all over the Mesa; and old ocean 
bearing the ships of commerce on its blue waves 
southwest. Santa Ana village, with Gospel 
swamp, are in the distance, covered with emer- 
ald green. On the south the church spire and 
schoolhouse of Orange loom up among the 
windmills and evergreen orange orchards. 
There are also glimpses of Tustin City, and the 
valley, and the Santiago canyon, with fine im- 
proved homes, reaching toward the silver mines, 
which are only 20 miles distant Casting the 
eye downward on the right is the Orange ditch, 
which glides gently along, carrying productive- 
ness to the very doors of the enterprising citi- 
zens. On the left, like a silver thread, runs the 
Santa Ana ditch. Both ditches are now com- 
pleted and efficiently managed. The great 
drawback in the past has been the lack of water 
when needed. But the completion of the two 
ditches on this side the river and the finishing 
of the Cajon canal on the other side, which is 
capable of supplying Anaheim and vicinity with 
an abundance of water, insure success to the 
industrious and frugal homebuilders. There is 
no section so favored by climate and soil as 
southern California. One can eat ripe currants 
and red raspberries in the month of January, as 
I have done this year, growing out in the open 
air, and can gather beautiful bouquets of tea 
roses and other rare flowers, and look up at the 
snow-crowned mountains while inhaling the life- 
giving breeze. The rosy, bright-eyed boy of 
our reverend neighbor joyously romps about, 
happy and healthy, without stockings or shoes, 
on the 10th of January, 1879. Where, in this 
world, can be found so many favorable conditions 
combined as here ? However, our nights are so 
cool the year around that good blankets are a 
necessity. We hope that your moBt excellent 
Pacific Rural Press will find its way into 
every home. — K., Orange. 
MARIN. 

The Novato Ranch. — Journal, Jan. 16: The 
sale of one half of this fine property is not yet a 
matter of record. We have it on good authority 
that Mr. De Long has bought Mr. Sweetser's 
interest, and become the sole proprietor of the 
ranch. Mr. J. B. Sweetser will probably live 
in San Francisco. The Parker ranch, it is 
understood, will be reserved by J. B. Sweetser, 
who will erect new buildings, and make it his 
home. The Novato ranch contains 15,000 
acres, and has an apple orchard of 200 acres— 
the largest on this coast, beside a very large 
orchard of general fruits. 

MONTEREY. 

Rain. — Castroville Anju*, Jan. 18: I<ast 
Saturday evening about 5 o'clock rain com- 
menced falling, continuing with more or less 
steadiness until near midnight, the fall amount- 
ing to .56 of an inch. Two days of clear, cold 
weather followed, and on Tuesday morning we 
had several showers which marked a further 
rainfall of .29 of an inch. The rain of the 
Thursday morning preceding is recorded as .12 
of an inch, giving us a total for the season, 
2.21 inches. Many farmers have been plowing 
this week, and as the weather yesterday gave 
every indication of more rain, we may expect 
still greater activity in the line of farming 
operations from this forward. The probabilities 
of a drouth are disappearing. 

Salinas. — Democrat, Jan. 18: Up to the 
morning of yesterday, Dr. Abbott's rain-gauge 
marked .71 of an inch rainfall for the month, 
and 1.91 inches for the season. A gauge kept 
at the Southern Pacific railroad depot showed 
.91 of an inch for the month. 

Agricultural Society. — Democrat, Jan. 4: 
At the regular annual meeting of the Monterey 
Agricultural Fair Association, held Thursday 
last, officers for the ensuing year were elected 
as follows : J. D. Carr, President ; J. R. Heb- 
bron, Ut Vice-President; Eugene Sherwood, 2d 
Vice-President; W. H. Clark, Secretary; Wm. 
Vanderhurst, Treasurer. Directors — B. V. .Sar- 
gent, Paris Kilburn, W. V. MoGarvey, J. B. 
Iverson, N. L. Allen, H. S. Ball. 

NAPA. 

The Storm. — Reijister, Jan. 18: The rain 
that commenced falling Saturday forenoon 
ceased towards nightfall, although the clouds 
hung thick and dark long afterwards. The 
amount of rain registered at the depot was .91 
inches, making the total rainfall of the season 
over six inches. Snow covered the hilltops 
towards the east and the north. It is an asser- 
tion of many persons that more rain may be 
expected as long as snow remains on the moun- 
tains in sight of Napa 

Orange and Laurel. — Register, Jan. 4; We 
had the pleasure a few days since, of visiting 
the farm of W. H. Crabb, near Oakville, and 
there beheld the successful realization of what 
is deemed an experiment, i. e., the successful 
culture of oranges in the northern counties. 
Among the shrubbery arouad his handsome 
residence, Mr. Crabb has a small grove of over 



January 25, 1879J 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



a dozen large orange trees; these are over 10 
years old, and each one has on it now over 300 
oranges in various stages of growth. Some are 
ripe and quite large, and others are yet green 
and about the size of a hen's egg. Mr. C. grafted 
these trees several years ago from the Los An- 
geles seedling, and they now bear well. Al- 
though the locality is somewhat sheltered by 
the hills, yet it is not exempt from frosts, but 
the trees are too old to be materially affected by 
cold. Among his other shubbery, Mr. C. has 
also a number of California laurel trees, which 
are not often seen about grounds and resi- 
dences for shade and ornament, which is some- 
what remarkable, as they are very handsome. 
We understand that Mr. T. J. Safford, a farmer 
in the same vicinity, has a number of large 
oranges trees also, which bear well and are 
in a nourishing condition. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Success in Manuring. — Editors Press: 
Keeping up the fertility of grain land is prac- 
tically shown in the farm and dairy of C. H. 
Hull. A portion is summer-fallowed. Through 
the summer, the accumulating manure is 
drawn out and spread over its surface, giving 
tone and heart to bear up the drawing of its 
strength by cereals. The feeding of 100 cows in 
field and pasture throughout the year, also leave 
a large surplus of richness on the soil, and the 
land does not show the "giving out" that many 
report from various portions of the State. — Geo. 
Rich, Sacramento. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Gopher Poisoning. — Riverside Press, J an. 1 1 : 
D. C. Twogood has tried the following with 
success: Take a raisin, open it, put as much 
strychnine in it as will lie on the point of a 
knike, close it and put one or two in the mouth 
of the gopher hole. They are very fond of 
raisins and will eat it every time. This kills 
them cheaper than other methods. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

The Outlook. — Tribune, Jan. 18: The recent 
rains have put the ground in splendid condition 
for plowing, and our farmers are all as busy as 
bees. So far the season has been as favorable 
as could be desired. There has not been a very 
heavy rainfall in the aggregate, but every drop 
has done service, and there has been none 
wasted. The outlook was never better at this 
time of the year. 
SAN MATEO. 

Reclamation. — Times and Gazette, Jan. 4: 
Is it not about time that something should be 
done towards reclaiming the marsh land along 
the bay in this county ? The area is very large. 
When once converted into productive fields, 
their location will make them very valuable. 
The means of doing the work is within the reach 
of the owners. Those holding the title to these 
lands are very numerous, according to the 
county map amounting to 40. A combination 
of these parties, if unanimous, would divide up 
the cost to sums within the possibilities. There 
is already a swamp land fund of the county 
amounting to nearly $20,000, which is available 
and which will go far towards paying the cost 
of reclamation. The cost of the work, if all 
done entire would be about $10 per acre, accord- 
ing to careful estimates at one time made by a 
competent and reliable engineer ; and when 
completed the land, which is now really worth 
nothing, but which has a market value of about 
$1.25 per acre would be worth, when ready for 
culture, $50 per acre. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Agricultural Society. — Gilroy Advocate, 
Jan. 4: The annual meeting of the Agricul- 
tural Society of Santa Clara valley was held in 
San Jose last Thursday, and the following offi- 
cers were elected for the next term, viz: Presi- 
dent, C. H. Maddox; Directors — full term, J. 
P. Sargent and J. H. Ozier; to fill vacancy, N. 
B. Edwards. The Treasurer is C. T. Ryland. 
Secretary A. P Murgotten presented his report, 
part of which reads as follows: "The stand 
was completed at a cost of $6,128, which was 
paid the contractor. The expense of the stand 
during fair week was $111.55. The other costs, 
plumbing, furnishing, architect's services, etc., 
raised the total cost to $7,268.90. It will take 
some $500 to make other improvements to the 
stand which were inadvertantly left out of the 
plan, which, when completed, will make it one 
of the best buildings of the kind in the United 
States." The financial report shows the year's 
receipts to be $10,390.45. The disbursements 
for race purses, $4,420. Premiums, $2,358. 
Improvements, $874.74. Expenses, $2,693,45. 
The unpaid bills amount to $875. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Beet Sugar. — Watsonville Transcript, Jan. 
17: The Soquel sugar factory is running day 
and night. It is estimated that it will take 60 
days tt work up the beets now on hand. 

January Watermelon and Blackberries. 
— Courier, Jan. 11: We have been presented 
with one-half of a ripe watermelon grown on 
the ranch of C. H. Humes, near Aptos. It is 
fully ripe, of good taste and was picked from 
the vine on Monday last. Mr. Hume informs 
us that he has also on his ranch a fine lot of 
blackberry bushes which are thriving well, and 
are at the present date, bearing luscious, ripe 
berries. The ranch is situated in what is 
known as the warm or thermal belt, and during 
all of the recent remarkably cold weather in 
that vicinity, frost has not visited it to a suffi- 
cient extent to injure even the volunteer pota- 
toes which are growing in profusion on the 
place. At a distance of a mile either above or 
below the ranch, the weather of late has been 



severely cold, forming ice of considerable thick- 
ness and blighting growing crops. 

Acorns. — Pajaronian, Jan. 11: Farmers of 
this valley inform us that there are no acorns 
this year, and that hogs are short of their fa- 
vorite feed in consequence thereof. Mr. Uren, 
of Springfield, showed us last Saturday a bunch 
from an oak, which was covered with extremely 
small acorns, and he says all the oak trees are 
in the same condition; that the acorns are just 
forming. This is the period of the year when 
they should be ripe. 
SISKIYOU. 

Editors Press:— As I write the snow lies on 
the ground about four inches deep. The ther- 
mometer fell to three degrees above zero at 8 
a. m. to-day. The ground under the snow is 
frozen about 4 to 10 inches deep, and has been 
so for a few days over a month. It snowed 
night before last about five inches deep. One 
of my apple trees made a growth of seven feet 
three inches during the year '78. " How's 
that for high ? " My artichokes did well, also 
potatoes. Millet and Egyptian corn were 
nipped by the frost. — R. D. Nunnaly, Etna 
Mills, Jan. 12th. 
SUTTER. 

A Goose Cannon. — Banner: Messrs. Boyle 
& Evans, near Gridley, are having constructed 
at the Empire foundry, in Marysville, a cannon, 
for the destruction of the geese, which are so 
plenty and so destructive in that neighborhood. 
The machine is a cylinder of cast iron, about 
six inches in diameter and four feet in length, 
into one end of which a breech has been fixed 
and other necessary additions made to convert 
it into a cannon. It is expeated that sad havoc 
will be made with this weapon, and that the 
geese, in countless numbers, will be slain at its 
every discharge. 
YOLO. 

Farming Review. — Mail, Jan. 2: We no- 
tice with some little pride and satisfaction that 
many of our farmers are importing to this coun- 
try from the East the best breeds of blooded 
stock. Jersey cattle and China- Poland hogs are 
now quite numerous, and we have some of the 
finest wooled sheep on the continent. It is un- 
necessary for us to say in this review that our 
wheat crop was not a very great success. The 
blight overtook it in the early spring, and the 
promise which gave evidence of abundance dis- 
appointed the tillers of the soil. We had about 
half a crop of second-class wheat, which seemed 
to go begging for a market, and could not find 
it at ruling prices. There have been some ex- 
periments in Indian and Egyptian corn in Yolo 
county the past year, and success has attended 
each experiment. Amos Gable, Wm. H. Troop 
and Mr. Wolgamott have raised fine fields of In- 
dian corn without irrigation. It grew immensely 
tall, and turned off beyond their most sanguine 
expectations. F. S. Freeman. & Co., Mr. Gable 
and C. V. Burke have each raised large yields 
of Egyptian corn of the white and red varieties, 
and there are many others who propose to en- 
gage in it next year. 

Coyotes. — Democrat, Jan. 17: Coyotes and 
other varmints are becoming quite troublesome 
in the hilly portions of the county. Several 
coyotes have lately been killed in the hills ad- 
joining Capay valley. There is a bounty of $5 
each for coyote scalps and $2. 50 each for wild 
cats. The applicant for bounty must deliver 
his scalps to the nearest Justice of Peace, who 
is directed to destroy the same, giving the ap- 
plicant a certificate of the fact. Upon this cer- 
tificate a bill can be drawn, sworn to, and pre- 
sented to the Board of Supervisors for their ac- 
tion. The applicant must tile an affidavit with 
the Justice that the animals were killed in \ olo 
county. 

The Weather. — Up to this time the people 
of this locality have been blessed with only 
2.65 inches of rain. This is unprecedented in 
the history of this county. Talk as they may, 
yet we challenge all weather experts to point 
out a season which has occured within the last 
27 years, that can be likened to the present one 
in any of its principal features. It is true that 
last winter we were not blessed with but a small 
amount of rain until the 13th of January, yet 
that which was received was so distributed as 
to cause the vegetation to be in a very healthy 
and forward condition when the rains did come. 
This season it is entirely different. The long 
cold spells of last month, and of this month 
thus far, have had the tendency to retard the 
growth of all vegetation, and in many places 
killing out the grain to such an extent as to 
make a resowing of the ground necessary. Un- 
less it rains, and that copiously, within the next 
week or 10 days, we may just as well give up 
any hopes of more than half a crop for this year. 
YUBA. 

The Frost. — Marysville Appeal, Jan. 1 1 : 
While the flowering plants about the city are 
cut down by frost, we do not believe the orange 
and lemon trees have been seriously injured, 
except the young standing in much exposed 
places. The lemon has suffered most, and the 
oldest orange trees the least. We notice that 
the leaves of orange trees 10 to 12 years of age 
do not show a particle of yellow or wilt. The 
cold north winds prevailing yesterday ought to 
be good for extracting frost from the leaves. 

Ladies and Gentlemen are both alike pro- 
vided for by Palmer Bros., in all things fitted 
to give satisfaction and comfort in the way of 
clothing, furnishing goods, laces, millinery, and 
the 1,000 articles needed in fitting up the "human 
form divine." You can supply your whole 
family at little expense, by consulting Palmer 
Bro*., at 726 to 734 Market street, S. F. 



News in Brief. 

The ice gorges in the James river have broken 
up. 

The charter of the Louisiana lottery has been 
repealed. 

The distress among workingmen in England 
increases daily. 

The steamship Oberon, from New Orleans for 
Liverpool, is ashore near Queenstown. 

The jail at Pine Bluff, Ark., was fired by a 
prisoner Saturday night and destroyed. 

There were 103 deaths from scarlet fever in 
New York last week, against 274 the week be- 
fore. 

The popular vote in Switzerland gives a large 
majority in favor of a subvention to Alpine rail- 
ways. 

The Upper Columbia river is almost clear of 
ice, and boats will commence making regular 
trips. 

An attempt was made recently in Candahar 
to assassinate Major St. John, of the British 
army. 

The Zulu King expresses a willingness to ac- 
cede to some of the demands of the British ulti- 
matum. 

A Philadelphia dispatch announces the 
death of John B. Bid die, Dean of Jefferson 
college. 

Capt. John Irwin has been ordered to the 
command of the receiving ship Independence at 
Mare Island. 

An indictment has been found in Florida 
against Lieutenant-Governor Hull, on a charge 
of conspiracy. 

The Sub-Treasury building in New York, is 
being fortified -against any raid upon its treasure 
in case of a riot. 

In a collision off the coast of Spain, the 
British sailing vessel Lancashire Witch sunk 
with all on board. 

The recent report relative to Germany's in- 
tended action towards the Samoan Islanders is 
denied from Berlin. 

The Directors of the City of Glasgow bank 
are on trial at Edinburgh, charged with fraud, 
theft and embezzlement. 

The indirect taxes of France during 1878 
yielded a revenue of 2,025,770,000 francs — an 
increase of 75,672,400 francs. 

Andre Christol, the wrestler, had his collar 
bone broken at Detroit, Saturday night, in a 
match with J. H. McLaughlin. 

Six cotton mills at Preston, Eng., running 
188,144 spindles, have given notice of a reduc- 
tion in wages of from 5% to 10%. 

John G. Compton, ex-postmaster of Colum- 
bus, Neb., has been sentenced to 10 years' im- 
prisonment for robbing the mails. • 

A judge of election in Baltimore has been 
fined $100 and four months' imprisonment for 
assaulting a Deputy United States Marshal. 

In sinking a well at lone, Amador county, 
recently, James Parkison struck a vein of coal, 
through which he has already bored six feet, 
without exhausting it. 

J. A. Johnson, Secretary of the Constitutional 
Convention, has tendered his resignation. It 
was accepted, and Ed. F. Smith was chosen as 
Secretary in his place. 

Interesting Articles. — The crush upon our 
advertising pages, forces us to issue this week 
another 24-page paper. This enables us to ac- 
commodate our advertising friends, and also to 
insert three or four extra pages of reading mat- 
ter; to make up for the reading space which we 
have been forced to borrow for the advertisers 
in the last two or three issues. This week's 
supplement, by its increase of reading matter, 
pays back what was borrowed, and leaves a 
balance to the credit of the advertising columns. 
This is as we like it, for, although we are forced 
sometimes to encroach upon the "reading" 
pages slightly, we shall be sure in the end to 
leave the advantage on the side of the general 
reader. 



Fine Beef. — We saw at the California 
market on Wednesday, some fine stall-fed beef 
from the ranch of our contributor, Edward 
Berwick, of Montery county. The animals have 
been fed and cared for according to the formulas 
laid down in Mr. Berwick's paper read before the 
Dairymen's Society, which we printed recently. 
The result is a lot of beef beautifully interlarded 
with fat, juicy, tender and high colored; a trifle 
higher than this market desires, perhaps. Mr. 
Berwick's beef is certainly far ahead of any 
other now in the market. 



House Building.— "House plans for Every- 
body" i3 the title of a new publication by 
Orange Judd & Co., which we receive from A. 
Roman & Co., of this city. It is a little book 
well calculated to aid all in the designing and 
construction of their homes, for it describes and 
gives pictures of all kinds of houses, costing 
from $250 to $8,000. Full descriptions and de- 
tailed estimates are given of materials, labor 
and cost, and although these estimates must 
be varied according to situation and local prices 
for labor and materials, the figures will serve as 
a basis of computation. Many practical and 
valuable points can be gained from the publi- 
cation. 



#3- 

A TENTS AND INVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

[From Official Reports for the Mining and Scientific 
Press, DEWEY & CO., Publishers and U. S. 
and Foreign Patent Agents.] 

By Special Dispatch from Washington. D. C. 

211.595. — Coin Press— T. Scott, S. F., Jan. 21st. 

211.596. — Coin Press— T. Scott, S. F., Jan. 21st. 
211,588. — Amalgamator — J. B. Reynolds, S. F., Jan. 

?lst. 

211,558.— Finger Ring— R.W. Edwards, S. F., Jan. 21st. 
211,546.— Step Ladder— E. M. Benjamin, S. F., Jan. 
21st. 

6,959.— Trademark for Mustard and Spices— D. Ghir- 
adelli, S. F.. Jan. 21st. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of special mention: 

Light Weight Horse Fork. — Byron Jack- 
son, Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. — Dated, Dec. 
3d, 1878. This invention relates to certain 
improvements in devices, known as horse forks, 
such as are employed to handle headed grain, 
and hay or straw. It consists in a novel 
construction of the head in two pieces, and a 
light frame work having as many bars as there 
are tines on the fork, the two outside bars being 
united at one end, and diverging from each 
other at the opposite end, to secure the outside 
tines. The other bars of the frame receive 
the inner tines at one end, and are united at 
the other end to the outside bars. One 
end of each of the bars of this frame is locked 
between the two head pieces, by the tines pass- 
ing through them. The tines being shouldered 
on a light frame brace on one side, and a nut 
sere wed down on the other. The braces are 
cast rolled to a bar of the frame, thus bringing 
the strain of each tine lengthways with each bar 
of the frame. There is then no twisting strain 
on any portion of the frame or head, as is the 
case in the old me thods of using a single head 
piece and clamping the lifting arms to it by 
means of cast or wrought iron bands. By this 
construction the weight is reduced nearly one- 
half, while the same strength is retained. 

Dredging and Ditching Machine. — Daniel 
Bridges, Yoncolla, Douglas county, Oregon. — 
Dated Dec. 3d, 1878. The invention is an im- 
proved dredging and ditching machine, and the 
improvements consist in a novel combination of 
mechanism by which the inventor is enabled 
to cut out and lift the earth by the vertical 
action of the dredging bucket; and in certain 
details of construction, the machine can be 
made on a small scale to be worked by hand for 
ditching purposes or may be made large to be 
worked by steam power for reclamation pur- 
poses. It will operate in any earth stiff enough 
to hold together without falling between the 
forks of the grapple. For softer material a 
plate of metal is used instead of forks. The 
device is intended more particularly to con- 
struct ditches or dikes on marsh swamps, tule or 
tide lands where there is little or no fall to the 
ground, and where the marshy character of the 
soil is such as to preclude the use of horse 
power. The device is used to best advantage 
on a scow, being operated by hand or steam 
power. It has been practically and successfully 
tested in Oregon by the inventor. 

The Crops of 1878. — The Department of 
Agriculture at Washington gives the following 
summaries of its figures on the United States 
crops of last year. The corn crop is 30,000,000 
bushels in excess of that of 1877. Of oats there 
*s a somewhat larger crop than the heavy yield 
of 1877, constituting it the largest ever raised in 
this country. There is no material change in 
barley. Rye is one-sixth larger than in 1877. 
Potatoes foot up 40,000,000 bushels. The cul- 
tivation of sorghum is receiving increased at- 
tention, and the result of the year's culture is 
satisfactory. Grapes, apples and pears show a 
greatly decreased yield. 

Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco. — Week ending January 21, 1879. 



highest and lowest barometer. 



Jan 15 


Jan 10 


Jan 17 


Jan 18 


Jan 19 


Jan 20 


Jan 21 


30.343 


30.307 


30.434 


30.522 


30.408 


30.194 


30.221 


30.271 


30.246 


30.297 


30.459 


30.217 


30.132 


30.167 




maximum and minimum 


THERMOMETER. 




49.3 


50 






69 


56.5 


1 60 


41 


42.5 


£ 


SI 


42.8 


45 


1 « 






MEAN 


DAILY HUMIDITY. 






67.7 


00.3 


78 


69 


03.7 


63 


| 73. S 




PREVAILING WIND. 






S 


1 N 


N 


1 E 


N 


1 N 


| NE 






WIND — MILES TRAVELED. 






200 


151 


137 


152 


102 


139 


| 132 



STATE OF WEATHER. 

Fair. | Clear. | Fair. | Clear. | Clear. | Clear. | Fair. 

RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 

I I -05 | | | | 

Total rain during ths season, from July 1, 1878, 4.37 in. 



54 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



[January 25, 1879. 




Both Sides of ^he Matter. 

Her Side. 

I am only a fanner's girl; 

John is only a fanner's lad. 
But somehow, when we chance to meet, 

The very sound of his mining feet 
Can make my heart so glad 

That up to my cheeks the warm blush flies. 
And he reads his welcome in toy eyes. 

I'm only a farmer's girl, 

.Master Tom is the Squire's son; 
But strange tu (ell, his feet this way 

Turn often toward the close of day, 
After the chores are done, 

When John (he passes the meadow gate) 
Gives such a scowl, and — will not wait. 

I am only a farmer's girl, 

So what can the Squire want of me; 
My heart is John's; John knows it well; 

But it isn't for ine the truth to tell- 
So bashful a lad is he! 

So the Squire may come and the Squire may go, 
But all the answer he'll get is "No!" 

The Squire praises my hair and eyes; 

The Squire says 1 am a lady born. 
What care I for his foolish speech? 

Tis John's voice only my heart can teach 
To sing like the birds at morn; 

But John is jealous, the foolish boy, 
And my day s arc shorn of half their joy. 

Oh, I am only a farmer's girl, 

And John is only a farmer's lad, 
But I'd rather be his in his bumble life 

Than be a "lady" as Squire's wife, 
With a restless heart and sad! 

But John— so bashful a boy is he! 
Is a long time asking my heart of me. 



His Side. 

If I bad told her in theBpring 

The old, old story briefly. 
When sparrow and robin began to sing, 

And the plowing was over chiefly! 

But haste makes waste, and the story sweet, 
I reasoned, will keep through the sowing, 

Till I drop the corn and plant the wheat, 
And give them a chance for growing. 

H:id 1 even told the tale In June, 

When the wind through the grass was blowing; 
Instead of thinking it rather too soon, 

And waiting till after the mowing. 

Or had I hinted, out under the stars, 
That I knew a.story worth hearing, 

Lingering to put op the pasture bars, 
Nor waited to do the shearing! 

Now the barn is full, and so is the bin 
But I have grown wise without glory, 

Since love is the crop not gathered in— 
For my neighbor told her the story! 



Mrs. Hartley's Nephew. 

[Written for the Kiral I'rkss by theauthor of " Nkttik's 

Foktukk.") 

Uncle Joshua, sitting at breakfast, looked 
with a beaming countenance upon the four 
bright girls surrounding the table, then rubbing 
his hands together said, as he had often said 
before, "Well, Milly, isn't it pleasant to see the 
lassies in their own places once again ?" 

"More than pleasant," his wife answered 
heartily, it makes me feel as if we had gone 
back to the old times, before any of our girls 
had married and left us." 

Uncle Joshua shook his head, "Dear, dear! 
If we could only take hold of old Fatiier Time 
and tie his wings ! Here in a little while all of 
you children will be getting husbands of your 
own, and then goodbye to our pleasant summers 
together. We old people, wdl be set aside and 
forgotten. " 

"Never fear, Uncle," said Laura, the eldest 
of the four sisters, "you are likely to have us 
all on you hands to the end of the chapter. No 
male creature ever looks twice at any one of us, 
except Kate, when she is by, and as she seems 
to have foresworn matrimony you see the 
result." 

Now this accusation in one form or another, 
was the standing joke among Kate's relations, 
but Uncle Joshua always affected to be taken 
by surprise, when he heard it ; so, turning to 
the culprit, who was serenely sipping her coffee, 
he said, "Kitty, Kitty, what is the meaning of 
this ? Are you so cruel as to condemn your 
sisters to a life of single blessedness ?" 

" I thought just now you were wishing you 
could do the same thing ; " said Kate mischiev- 
ously. 

" What I wish, has nothing to do with it. 
What do they wish ?" 

" For nothing better, I am sure, than to have 
these summer days last forever, said Kate, 
dropping her jesting tone. " It is so delicious 
to live and breathe in an atmosphere like this, 
that one can ask for nothing more. Uncle, you 
have never given the dear old place a name ; 
suppose we call it 'Heart's Content.' " 

Uncle Joshua leaned over, took Kate's hand 
and raised it to his lips. A very pretty 
speech my dear ; I don't wonder that the young 
fellows find you irresistible." 

"Et tu, Brute!" exclaimed Laura, lifting her 



eyes with an expression of mock despair; while 
Rose and Maggie clapped their hands and 
laughed outright, and even Aunt Milly found it 
impossible to preserve her gravity. 

"Well, well," said Uncle Joshua, I see you 
are determined to have it your- own way girls 
but I mean to judge for myself. What do you 
say to going over to Squire Hartley's with 
me this afternoon ? I must see the Squire on 
matter of business, and I know mother would 
like to go." 

The girls eagerly declared their readiness to 
join the party, except Kate, who said she had 
a piece of work to finish which she could nei 
ther take nor leave. 

"But if you stay at home you spoil my plot, 
said her uncle. 1 thought I should have a tine 
opportunity to judge of your powers of fascina 
tion." 

"And pray whom is she to captivate? 
asked Maggie (who was No. 4.), "the Squire or 
his hired man?" 

"Neither; you little sauce-box. That was 
my secret, but I may as well tell it at once and 
put you out of pain. Mrs. Hartley has 
nephew who was to arrive yesterday on a visit 
he is a medical student, I believe." 

"Oh, Uncle Joshua !" 

There was a perfect shout. 

"Why, what in the world is the matter?" 

"A medical student!" gasped Kate. 

"The boy 1 left behind me!" said Rose. 

"Plus ten," added Maggie. 

Uncle Joshua looked completely puzzled. 

"Medical students have become a bore; Tom 
has had the house full of them for months past,' 
said Hose; "and really, Uncle, if you had been 
there to see, you would not wonder at Kate's 
horror when you speak of another of the tribe. 
In spite of the fact that she calls them all by 
their Christian names and pats them on the 
head, metaphorically, as if they were so many 
good, little boys, they will persist in adoring 
her, every one of them; writing sonnets to her 
eye-brows, bringing bouquets and boxes of bon 
bons. " 

"Rose, do be quiet," said Kate; "that is quite 
enough nonsense for one day. But indeed, 
Uncle, I cannot go. Sue is coming over to 
morrow and I must have the baby's dress 
finished, and there are 30 tucks still to do. Our 
own machine was out of order and I knew Aunt 
Milly 's always works beautifully." 

Sue was Uncle Joshua's favorite daughter. 
She was married to a young farmer in the 
neighborhood; and to propose to stay at home 
to do anything for her was to enlist all his sym- 
pathies at once. 

"Well, my dear," he said, "you shall do just as 
you choose; and in your absence I will see who 
can succeed in taking the young man captive. " 

"Uncle," said Maggie, shaking her head at 
him, "I am ashamed of you. What do you 
think mother would say to your contaminating 
our innocent minds in this manner!" 

"Come, come," said Uncle Joshua, laughing, 
"I see I shall have to brighten up my wits if 
you girls are not to get the better of me alto 
,?ether. You must give me a little time to 
brush off the cobwebs that have grown (while 
you were away." 

From time immemorial, as they were in the 
habit of saying, these four girls had been ac 
customed to spend the summer at Uncle 
Joshua's farm, a charming old-fashioned coun 
try home, where their mother's childhood had 
been spent. When their young companions 
packed their trunks with dainty finery and set 
off for Newport or Saratoga, they, provided 
with calico dresses, stout boots, and broad- 
brimmed hats, buried themselves deep in the 
heart of the hills, whence they emerged as 
bright and fresh as a spring morning when the 
time came to return to their city home. 

Occasionally some well-meaning friend would 
remonstrate with their mother, but she would 
say, "The girls get enough of gayety and 
frivolity during the winter season. If they 
spent the summer in the same way they would 
learn to think there was nothing else to live for. 
And as for their prospects, I did not go to a 
fashionable watering place in search of a hus- 
band, and I don't intend they shall either." 

A wise woman in her generation, she believed 
that not the least important part of their edu- 
cation was, that which they received from Aunt 
Milly, herself a notable housekeeper, and al- 
ways in her element when she was surrounded 
by a levy of young girls, learning by precept 
and example the secret of making a comfort- 
able and well-ordered home. And as for the 
four sisters, they were too thoroughly happy in 
their simple country life to care to exchange 
it for anything else. So with the June roses, 
they had come again to receive a loving welcome 
from the Uncle and Aunt, to whom they were 
scarcely less dear than their own daughters, all 
now married and gone to homes elsewhere. 

After an early dinner the party set out for 
Squire Hartley 's. Kate stood at the door to see 
them off, and there was no lack of merry chatter; 
but at last Aunt Milly said, a little nervously: 
' 1 wish you were coming with us, Kate. There 
are so many stories in the papers about tramps 
now-a-days, that I don't half like leaving you 
alone." 

"Tramps I" exclaimed Uncle Joshua, with 
supreme scorn, "I'll tramp them if they show 
their faces here. Don't put nonsense into the 
child's head, Milly; she is safe enough in this 
part of the country. But if you should want a 
protector, Kate, there is Jim Clark hoeing his 
corn over there in the field beyond the orchard. 
Just blow the dinner-horn and he'll come to the 



rescue. . 

Kate laughingly assented, protesting at the 



same time that she was not afraid. But when 
she went back into the house she thought with 
a little shudder of Aunt Milly's words; every- 
thing was so still, so lonely — no other houBe in 
sight. What if some wandering vagabond 
should make his appearance ? 

"How silly I am!" she exclaimed at length, 
and beginning to sing a cheerful song to break 
the oppressive silence, she went into the little 
sewing-room which opened out of the large, 
sunny kitchen, and sat down to her work. In- 
terest in it soon dispelled other thoughts and 
the busy hum of the sewing-machine kept her 
company. She worked on and on, the tiny 
tucks growing rapidly under her skillful hands. 

"Dear Sue, how pleased she will be!" she 
thought, as she held up the little dress at last, 
and shook out the soft, white folds. "It is just 
pretty enough for that little rose-bud of a 
baby. " 

A knock at the kitchen-door. 
Kate started and turned round. 
There in the porch stood a man, a stranger, 
possibly a tramp. 

But for Aunt Milly's warning she would 
never have dreamed of being frightened; now 
for an instant her heart stood still. 

"I beg pardon for intruding, but I have lost 
my way. May I ask for a glass of water." 

The words and the tone were re-assuring, and 
a hasty glance almost convinced Kate that this 
was a gentleman; but the sober second thought 
suggested "a wolf in sheep's clothing." 

The glass of water provided, another request 
followed: "With your permission I should like 
to rest for a little, and then perhaps you can di- 
rect me on my way." 

The utter weariness of the man was evident 
in his manner; he spoke as if every word was 
an effort. The instinct of hospitality struggled 
in Kate's heart, with the caution and fear so un- 
natural to her; conquered too, for presently she 
said: "If you have lost your way, you have prob- 
ably lost your dinner as well; I can supply that 
want at any rate." 
"Thank you." 

What possessed her that she^felt piqued by 
the short answer. 

"If you will bring me in an armful of wood, 
I will make the fire," she said, as she turned 
away to fold up the little dresB. She did not 
see the curious half smile that passed over the 
man's face as he rose and went out ; but with a 
lingering suspicion still in her mind she went 
into the pantry where she could reconnoiter the 
wood-pile from the window. What she saw 
was this: The stranger stooped and gathered up 
the wood, but even as he rose his arms seemed 
to lose their strength, the sticks fell at his feet 
and he himself sank down in a heap and buried 
Ins face in his hands. It did not occur to Kate 
that this might be only a ruse to bring her 
within reach of the > glittering axe which lay 
beside him ; she only saw a fellow creature in 
distress and hastened to the rescue. 

What is the matter? lam afraid you are 
11?" 

He looked up, and his face was ghastly in its 
pallor. 

I — believe I am faint— from want of food. 
Curious, isn't it? I never knew what the sen- 
sation was before." 

Kate was horrified, but she wasted no time in 
idle words. Into the house she sped, and has 
tened back with a glass of wine and a biucuit 
'Drink this," she said, authoritatively, and he 
obeyed readily enough. 

" Now stay where you are for a few minutes, 
I will call you when your dinner is ready." 
" But your wood — • 

Kate's face crimsoned in a moment. " I am 
luite able to carry it," she said, "and I might 
have seen that you were not. I beg your par- 
don for my thoughtlessness." And with her 
burden she was gone before he could utter a 
word of protest. 

As he sat there waiting for her call, it came 
into his heart that he had never seen so winning 
a creature as this, in her changing moods. What 
good fortune had thrown him in her way ? In 
a little while she came to the door. 

"Will you come now ?" she said, simply. 
The table was prepared with dainty neatness; 
the snowy bread, the golden butter, the deli- 
cate slices of fried ham, and the omelette, which 
was Kate's eltef-cTauvre, might have tempted 
the appetite of a less hungry man, but her guest 
paused before taking his seat. 

"I owe it to your kindness to introduce my- 
self before partaking of your hospitality. My 
name is Clifford. I have an aunt in this neigh- 
borhood whom you may possibly know — Mrs. 
Hartley." 

"Oh, very well indeed," said Kate smiling, 
for more reasons than one. "Are you the 
nephew she was expecting ? My uncle said he 
was a medical student." 

So I am, in one sense, and so I shall be to 
the end," he answered. " But technically I 
ceased to be one a good many years ago. " 

Kate went to the cupboard for another cup 
and saucer, drew up another chair, and sat down 
to the table with Dr. Clifford. 

I am afraid I have acted very foolishly to- 
day," he said. Not finding any one waiting for 
me at the station this morning, I undertook to 
walk to my aunt's house; but I have not been 
ere for many years and I lost my way entirely, 
over-estimated my strength, too, for I have 
been very ill lately, which must be my excuse 
for my performance over the wood; and," he 
added, seeing Kate's color deepen again, "not 
for that only, but for the wonderful appetite I 
have, pardonable only in a starving man or a 
convalescent. " 

Having said so much, Dr. Clifford dismissed 



himself as a subject of conversation, and 
talked as a man of education and culture can 
talk in a tete-a-tete with a charming woman; 
and Kate was perfectly at her ease at once, and 
after explaining the absence of the rest of the 
household, exerted herself to make her guest 
feel at home. 

" Now," she said, as they rose from the table, 
" if you will go into the next room and reBt 
for a little, while I put things to rights here, 
I will drive you over to Mrs. Hartley's. I am 
sure she would never forgive me if I did not " 
Dr. Clifford declared that he was perfectly 
restored and refreshed, still he obeyed; and as 
he leaned back amongst the cushions of the 
comfortable lounge and watched the graceful 
figure flitting about in the adjoining room, gradu- 
ally it grew faint and indistinct before his eyes, 
and he was fast asleep. Then all the fun of the 
situation came over Kate; little smiles rippled 
up over her face, little laughs were smothered 
in her handkerchief. What would the girls say ? 
And Uncle Joshua, too?" 

The kitchen was all in order, but still her 
visitor slept. She stole out very quietly and 
made her way to the stable. There was Bess 
in her stall, the pretty gentle creature she had 
learned to harness last summer. Could she do 
it now? It was worth trying, she did not care 
to set Dr. Clifford a task again. After a good 
many trials every thing was adjusted to her 
satisfaction, and she drove the light buggy 
round to the front door, ran up stairs, changed 
her dress, put on her hat and came down just 
as her guest started up from his nap. 

"I must have fallen asleep," he exclaimed; 
"really, I beg your pardon." "Not at all, - 
said Kate, "I am only just ready; shall we go?" 

It was a pleasant |drive to them both; but as 
they drew near their destination, Kate became 
very silent. Presently she looked np with a 
pretty blush, "Dr. Clifford," she said earnestly, 
"please don't tell Mrs. Hartley how barbar- 
ously I behaved to you." 

"I was not aware of it if you did," he said 
with an amused smile; "but I will promise to 
tell her nothing if you will keep my secret about 
that exhibition of my weakness at the wood- 
pile." 

Meanwhile, at Mrs. Hartley's, all had been 
anxiety and suspense. When her visitors ar- 
rived they found her in a flutter of expectation. 

"Father has gone to the station to meet 
Henry; poor boy, he is quite an invalid. He 
has just recovered from an illness caused by 
overwork. You girls'must help me to amuse 
him while he is here. He needs recreation 
terribly." 

But in a short time, to her great consterna- 
tion, father appeared alone. 
"Has Henry come?" he asked. 
"Why, what do you mean?" was the startled 

response. 

"He came by the early train; left his trunk 
and started to walk." 

"Oh, dear, Oh, dear!" Mrs. Hartley wrung 
her hands. "What has become of him? What 
shall we do?" 

"Do! Nothing. Do not excite yourself, my 
dear; he must have missed his way — turned up 
at some other house and stopped to rest." 

"Oh, my poor boy! And he has been so ill, 
and is not strong yet." 

"Which accounts for it reasonably enough," 
said the Squire. "Come now, Maria, there is 
nothing to do but to wait for him; he will be 
here before long, you may be sure." And, 
man-like, be dismissed the subject and went off 
for a talk with Uncle Joshua, 

Not so poor Mrs. Hartley; she tried to apeak 
of other things, but in vain ; every now and 
then she would exclaim, " Where can he be ? " 
and go off into a long argument to prove that 
some evil must have befallen him, ending by 
asserting her belief that father was right and 
he would soon make his appearance. Aunt 
Milly and the girls sympathized and condoled, 
and as the afternoon wore on Laura proposed 
that she and Maggie should go out into the 
orchard, where they could see a long distance 
down the road, and give warning when anyone 
should come in sight. At first they watched 
and waited in vain, but at length their patience 
was rewarded. Down the road came a light 
buggy. 

Well, I declare!" exclaimed Maggie, "if 
that isn't Kate 1" 

Who in the world has she got with her?" 
They could not tell ; but as the Bound of the 
approaching wheels reached Mrs. Hartley's ears, 
she ran out, and with one cry of delight, rushed 
down the path. 

" Henry! my dear boy! Kate where did you 
find him ? ' 

Then followed introductions and explana- 
tions, in the midst of which Kate suddenly 

said: 

I treated him so inhospitably, Mrs. Hart- 
ley, that the only amends I could make was to 
bring him over to you. " 

"I cannot believe that, my dear, even on 
your testimony," said Mrs. Hartley, who was 
very fond of Kate. 

Well, you need not ask him, for he has 
promised not to tell. " 

The girls exchanged looks, but Kate did not 
see; nor during the remainder of the visit could 
any one of them catch her eye. When it was time 
to leave, she insisted upon taking her Aunt in the 
buggy with her; and as soon aa they had 
started, she said, with a little sigh of relief, 
Now they can have all their fun to themselves 
before they get home. " 

Aunt Milly smiled. " It certainly was a lit- 
tle odd, my dear." 

And oh, Auntie! you don't know how I 




January 25, 1879.] 



behaved. I ordered him about and sent him 
out for wood when he was almost fainting with 
fatigue. I never promised not to tell you. 
What must he think of me ?" 

Ah, Kate, when did it ever trouble you 
before what way he should think of you? 

So thought Aunt Milly, but so she did not 
say. Too tender-hearted to tease at any time, 
she only answered, "I am sure Dr. Clifford's 
thoughts are always kind and just. To-morrow 
will show." 

For at parting he had said, "I will do myself 
the pleasure of calling to-morrow in my own 
character, and not in that of a tramp." 

Kate had laughed at the time as he did, but 
she had winced a little too, feeling that he had 
read her thoughts. "It was a new sensation," 
as he had said, curious, too; but whether it was 
pleasant or not she could not decide. 

The rest of my story is easily told. 

Dr. Clifford came, and came again; with him 
it was a decided case of love at first sight, and 
Kate found him so unlike all her former lovers 
that she was first interested, then nattered, 
then fairly caught in a chain she did not care to 
break. 

I must do the girls the justice, to say that 
they behaved very well ; they teased a little at 
first, the temptation being too strong to resist ; 
but so soon as they discovered that matters 
were becoming serious, they held their peace. 

Uncle Joshua had but one word to say, and 
that was "Fate." But on Kate's wedding-day 
he heartily congratulated each of the sisters, 
upon the removal of the obstacle from her path. 

"You can't blame Kitty now, if any of you 
live to be old maids ; but I am afraid you will 
all follow her example, and leave me desolate." 

"Never mind Uncle," said Maggie, " what- 
ever Kate may have done, I promise never to 
leave you and dear old 'Heart's Content.' " 

And Kate, looking into her husband's eyes, 
said in a soft voice, that no one else might hear, 
"I have not left it Henry, but found it, to abide 
there forever. 



American Buoyancy. — Speaking at Birming- 
ham on the 16th ult., Dean Stanley expressed 
some thoughts suggested by his recent visit to 
America. He noticed in Americans, as a 
marked peculiarity, apparent almost from the 
first, the singular buoyancy and elasticity both 
of the national and individual characters. It 
might be the product of their brilliant, exhila- 
rating, invigorating climate; it might be the 
accompaniment of the vast horizon opened by 
their boundless territory; it might be partly 
the youth of the nation; but its existence was 
unquestionable. If at times there was some- 
thing almost of levity in the readiness with 
which misfortunes were thrown off and life be- 
gun over again; if at times the more sober part 
of the nation was depressed by the sense of the 
difficulties which they had to encounter; yet, 
on the whole, this spring of vitality, if turned 
to good account, must be of incalculable value 
in this working world, where the imagination 
still played so large a part, and where so much 
was given to confidence of victory, even more 
than to victory itself. If perchance the United 
States had too much of it, we, it might be, had 
too little; and this confidence of Americans in 
their own political, ecclesiastical and social 
system was a warning to us to rise above those 
doleful lamentations with which in these days 
we often hear citizens, and churchmen, and 
Christians of England despair of our country, 
our church, and our religion. 



Why it Pays to Read. — One's physical 
frame, his body, his muscles, his feet, his hands, 
is only a living machine. It is the mind, con- 
trolling and directing that machine, that gives 
it power and efficacy. The successful use of 
the body depends wholly upon the mind, upon 
its ability to direct the will. If one 
ties his arm in a sling, it becomes weak and 
finally powerless. Keep it in active exercise, 
and it acquires vigor and strength, and is dis- 
ciplined to use this strength as desired; just as 
one's mind, by active exercise in thinking, rea- 
soning, planning, studying, observing, acquires 
vigor, strength, power of concentration aDd di- 
rection. Plainly, then, the man who exercises 
his mind in reading and thinking, gives it in- 
creased power and efficiency, and greater ability 
to direct the efforts of his physical frame, his 
work, to better results than he can who merely 
or mainly uses his muscles. 



Indestructibility of Enjoyment. — Man- 
kind is always happier for having been happy ; 
so that if you make them happy now you make 
them happy 20 years hence, by memory of it. 
A childhood passed with a due mixture of 
rational indulgence, under fond and wise par- 
ents, diffuses over the whole of life a feeling of 
calm pleasure, and in extreme old age is the 
very last remembrance which time can erase 
from the mind of man. No enjoyment, how- 
ever inconsiderable, is confined to the present 
moment. A man is the happier for life from 
having made once an agreeable tour or lived for 
any length of time with pleasant people, or en- 
joyed any considerable interval of innocent plea- 
sure, which contribute to render old men so 
inattentive to the scenes before them, and car- 
ries them back to a world that is past, and to 
scenes never to be renewed. — Sydney Smith. 



Catching at a Straw. — Curate (visiting a 
sick cabman): "Have you been in the habit of 
going to church ?" Poor cabby (faintly): "Can't 
■ay I hev, sir; but I've druv a good many par- 
ties there, sir 1" — Punch. 



Y@^Q F@Lks T CoLtjpil. 



Whistle and Hoe. 

There is a boy just over the garden fence, 

Who is whistling all through the livelong day, 
And his work is not just a mere pretense, 
For you see the weeds he has cut away. 
Whistle and hoo, 
Sing as you go, 
Shorten the row 
By the songs you know. 

Not a word of bemoaning his task I hear, 

He has scarcely time for a growl I know, 
For his whistle sounds so merry and clear, 
He must find some pleasure in every row, 
Whistle and hoo, 
Sing as you go, 
Shorten the row 
by the songs you know. 

But then while you whistle, be sure that you hoe, 

For, if you are idle, the briers will spread ; 
And whistle alone to the end of the row 

May do for the weeds, but is bad for the bread. 
Whistle and hoe, 
Sing as you go, 
Shorten the row 
By the songs you know. 



An Evening Game. 

The play called "Who Wears the Ring ?" is 
an elegant application of the principles involved 
in discovering a number fixed upon, and is a 
splendid way in which to pass an evening. The 
number of persons participating in the game 
should not exceed nine. One of them puts a 
ring on one of his fingers, and it is your object 
to discover, first, the wearer of the ring; sec- 
ond, the hand; third, the finger; fourth, the 
joint. 

The company being seated in order, the per- 
sons must be numbered, 1, 2, 3, etc.; the thumb 
must be termed the first finger, the fore finger 
being the second; the joint nearest the extrem- 
ity must be called the first joint; the right hand 
is one, and the left hand two. 

These preliminaries having been arranged, 
leave the room in order that the ring may be 
placed, unobserved by you. We will suppose 
that the third person has the ring on the right 
hand, third finger and first joint; your object is 
to discover the figures 3,131. 

Desire one of the company to perform secretly 
the following arithmetical operation: 
1. Double the number of the person who has the 



ring; in the case supposed, this will produce. ... 6 

2. Add 5 11 

3. Multiply by 5 55 

4. Add 10 65 

5. Add the number of the hand 66 

6. Multiply by 10 600 

7. Add the number of the finger 003 

8. Multiply by 10 6,030 

9. Add the number of the joint 0,631 

10. Add 35 6,666 



He must apprise you of the figures now pro- 
duced, 6,666; you will then in all cases subtract 
from it 3,535; in the present instance there will 
remain 3,131, denoting the person No. 3, the 
hand No. l,the finger No. 3,and the joint No. 1. 

The Children's Hour. — Longfellow wrote 
beautifully about the "children's hour." And 
some one who knows their wants and their 
rights, perfectly, writes thus of a matter that 
concerns every household: The long winter 
evenings are here, the golden time for improve- 
ment to those who have warm fires and bright 
light, and a cozy nook for reading and study. 
And now I want to urge every household to get 
ready such an apartment. Let mother but de- 
cide on the room, and then let each of the 
children take a part in fitting it up. I feel sure 
your good mother will give you the room; so, 
boys, set up your stove and get your own pile 
of fuel stored away all in readiness, and put up 
a few simple shelves and a home-made table, if 
you have no other; let the girls hang around the 
room some of their prettiest pictures in simple 
frames, set in a few chairs, have the lamp 
chimney as clear as crystal and all ready to 
light when evening comes, and see if your cqzy 
nook is not the pleasantest room in the house 
to you all. With a good, strong purpose to 
improve, you will surely find the way and 
means. Let the law of love to one another 
reign in your little study, and you will not have 
one jar or discord the whole season. 




Keep Your Nails Clean. 



People differ much in their nail habits. As 
an observer well remarks in the Phrenoloijical 
Journal: Some keep them long and pointed, 
like reminiscences of claws; others bite theirs 
close to the quick. Some pare and trim, and 
scrape and polish up to the highest point of 
artificial beauty; and others, carrying the doc- 
trine of nature to the outside limit, let them 
grow wild; with jagged edges, broken tracts, 
and hangnails as the agonizing consequences. 

Sometimes you see the most beautiful nails — 
pink, transparent, filbert-shaped, with the del- 
icate, filmy little half-moon indicated at the 
base — all the conditions of beauty carried to 
perfection, but all rendered of no avail by dirt 
and slovenliness; while others are yet pleasant 
to look at for the care bestowed on them, their 
dainty perfection of cleanliness being a charm 
in itself. 

Nothing indeed is more disgusting than dirty 
hands and neglected nails, as nothing gives one 
such a sense of freshness and care as the same 
members well kept. But one of the ugliest 
things in nails is when they are bitten, which, 
to judge by what one sees, is a habit having 
irresistible fascinations for those given over to 
it. It is an action, by the way, that has more 
than one significance. It may mean considera- 
tion, doubt, hesitancy, or it may mean anger or 
annoyance. 

In Paris there are "manicures," who treat 
the hands of customers just as the chiropodist 
does the feet of people. It would be a profitable 
enterprise for some to start in America. Many 
persons are apparently too indolent or careless 
to keep their hands in a neat and proper condi- 
tion. 

Winter Clothing for Children. 

The matter of winter clothing for children 
has not heretofore been a subject of much 
thought here on the Pacific coast; but in the 
midst of this exceptionally cold season the 
following hint may not be inappropriate: It is 
generally thought that a very proper article of 
winter clothing for children is a comforter 
swathed around the neck. This is a great error. 
The feet and wrists are the proper members to 
keep warm; the face and throat will harden 
into a healthy indifference to cold; but that 
muffler, exchanged for an extra pair of thick 
socks and knitted gloves, would preserve a boy 
or girl really warm and well. Bronchitis and 
sore throat have declined nearly 50% since the 
absurd use of high collars and twice round 
handkerchiefs went out of fashion, and if the 
poor would take better care of their children's 
feet, part of infantile mortality would disappear. 
It only costs a trifle to put a piece of thick felt 
or cork into the bottom of a boot or shoe, but 
the difference is often considerable between 
that and the doctor's bill, with perhaps the 
undertaker besides 



Diphtheria of late has been prevailing to an 
alarming extent in every county, east and west. 
At the last annual meeting of the American 
Medical Association, it was urged: 1. That, in 
case of diphtheria occurring in a pupil attending 
school, the patient should be wholly separated 
from other children until two or three weeks af- 
ter his recovery; that those who had been spe- 
cially exposed should be allowed to attend only 
after careful medical examination; that, where 
several were afflicted, the school should be 
closed and as many of the children as possible 
removed from the place. 2. That all clothing 
used by a diphtheritic patient should be sub- 
jected to intense heat, either of dry air or hot 
water. 3. That the room should be thoroughly 
ventilated during the patient's illness and af- 
terwards disinfected. 4. That where the dis- 
ease is prevailing as an epidemic, it would be 
desirable in summer to erect a large hospital 
tent in an airy position, whither all the patients 
might be at once transferred, and in winter a 
house might be converted into a hospital for 
the same purpose. 5. That we should treat 
diphtheria as we do scarlatfua and small-pox. 



55 



Hints for Washing Day. 

Clara Francis writes to the Prairie Farmer as 
follows: 

Many housekeepers have great prejudice 
against the use of soda for washing purposes, 
and very justly so, as its indiscriminate use will 
turn the clothes yellow, and in time will rot 
them. There are good washing compounds, 
which, if used carefully, are less harmful than 
severe rubbing, and will, at the same time, save 
a deal of hard work. I give directions for the 
preparation of a compound and the manner of 
using it, that from long trial we feel safe in 
recommending. Pour four quarts of boiling 
water on one pound of unslaked lime, in an 
iron kettle. Dissolve two pounds of washing 
soda and a pound of borax in another gallon of 
water, then mix with the lime and boil for five 
minutes. Remove from the stove, and when 
settled, pour the clear part into a jug and cork 
tightly. Use a pint of this mixture to eight 
gallons of water, and a teacupful of soft soap, 
or hard soap melted. Soak the clothes in water 
over night, in the morning drain them, soap the 
soiled places, and put them in the boiler while 
the water is still cold, but before doing so, mix 
in the soap and fluid. Let them boil for 10 or 
15 minutes — no longer. Take them out into a 
tub of clear water, and examine, rubbing any 
spots which are not quite clear. Piinse through 
two waters, and then blue. Much of the clear- 
ness and whiteness of the clothes depends on a 
thorough rinsing. For a second boiling add a 
little more water, fluid and soap to that left in 
the boiler, being careful to preserve the propor- 
tions, as too great a strength would injure the 
clothes. 

In putting clothes to soak, they should be 
sorted, the finer things in one tub and the 
coarser and more soiled in others. If possible, 
the water should be lukewarm, but it is better 
to put no soap in it, as spots or stains are liable 
to be set by soaking in soapy water. Fruit 
stains should be removed from table linen be- 
fore soaking, by pouring boiling water through 
the spot until the last trace of it disappears. 

When the clothes are all out, the tubs and 
boiler should be well cleaned, dried and put 
away ; the bluing, starch, and other etceteras, 
be deposited in their proper places, and the 
floor scrubbed with some nice hot suds. A lit- 
tle of the washing fluid is excellent for cleaning 
white wood, and stone, but must not be used 
on paint. 

Washing Blankets. 

This is a formidable task to many a house- 
wife, but with the use of the fluid it is rendered 
comparatively easy. Prepare the water the 
same as for boiling, and when it is as hot as can 
be borne by the hands, put in the blankets and 
let them remain an hour, then squeeze and 
draw them through the hand repeatedly so as 
to remove a portion of the water, then hang 
them up to dry, first pulling and stretching ™ 
them well into shape. Do not rub soap on the 
blankets, and use no washboard or wringer in 
handling them, as it will render them less fleecy 
and soft. If very much soiled, they may re- 
quire a rinsing water; be sure and have it of the 
same temperature, and put in a little soap and 
fluid, but much less than in the first water, 
and add also a few drops of bluing. 

Washing' Flannels. 

There is a diversity of opinions as to the best 
method of washing flannels— some persons con- 
tending that boiling water should be used; 
others advocating cold water, while still others 
advise lukewarm. All agree that rubbing on a 
board, or tight wringing are injurious, and it is 
equally true that flannels should never be 
sprinkled, but ironed while still damp with a 
moderately heated iron, as too much heat tends 
to render them harsh and stiff. If garments 
are very much soiled it may be necessary to use 
hot water, but it should never be too hot for the 
hands. Fine flannels, and those which are but 
slightly soiled, will keep whiter, and remain 
soft and fleecy if washed in cold or tepid water, 
in which is dissolved enough soap to make a 
good suds. However they are washed, be sure 
that the rinsing water is of the same tempera- 
ture; put a very little soap and a few drops of 
bluing in it, or use enough of the washing fluid 
to make it soft. If hard water is used, it is 
absolutely necessary that something of the kind 
should be put in, or the flannels will be harsh 
and stiff. Rain-water and soft soap will answer 
without anything further. 



Tapioca Custard Pudding. — Soak two table- 
spoons tapioca over night in cold water; when 
ready to make custard, boil one quart milk; 
while boiling add beaten yolks of three eggs; 
three-fourths cup sugar, and the tapioca; turn 
in the dish you wish to serve it in, have the 
beaten whites ready, sweetened a little and 
spread over top; put in oven and just brown a 
trifle. Eat cold. 



Apple Pan Doody. — For a family of six 
persons use a two-quart tin or earthen pan. 
Use the best pie apples. Pare and slice the 
apples nicely. 1st. Place a layer of apples 
about an inch thick, season with a speck of salt 
and sugar. 2d. Put a layer of cracker crumbs 
half inch thick. Alternate a layer of apples and 
cracker crumbs until the pan is full. Bake one 
hour, and serve with cream or rich milk, 



56 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



[January 25, 1879. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 



Annul Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
K1?TT cksts will be deducted. No new nameB will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Avbrtisino Kj.tks. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos, 

Per line 26 . 80 12.00 $6.00 

Half inch (1 square).. $1.00 $8.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 



Quack 1 Advertising positively declined. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DIWBT. W. B. XWBR. 0. B. STRONG. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 25, 1879. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— A Foe to the Lumberman ; Bagging 
Grapes ; The Effects of the Frost, 49. The Week ; The 
Outlook, 50. The Percheron-Norman Horse ; Arizona, 
57. Well-Boring Machinery ; Horticultural Meeting 
and Fruit Show at Riverside ; Aneut the English Spar, 
rows, 05- 

ILLUSTRATIONS — Cross-section of Cedar, Honey- 
combed by Fungus, 49. Black Percheron-Norman 
Stallion, "El Dorado," 57. The Volcano in the Moon, 
00- The Rust Artesian Well-Boring Machinery, 05. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES —The Phenomena of 
Frost ; orange on the Lime Stock, 56. 

CORRESPONDENCE — Irrigating Canals of Fresno 
County, 50. 

THE APIARY. -The Question of "Standard" Frames, 
50. 

ARBORICULTURE — The Cone-bcarers, or Ever- 
green Trees of California— No 2, 50-1 
FLORICULTURE. -The Penstemon, 51 
THE STABLE. Breeding Horses in California. -No. 
12, 51. 

PISCICULTURE - Carp Culture— No. 4, 51. 

HORTICULTURE.- Frost and Orange Trees in 
Southern California; 51-9. Suckcrless Plum Stock; 
51. Banana Culture, 59. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Thoughts When 
at Work ; Election of Officers, 62. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 52-53. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 53 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE —Both Sides of the Matter (poetry); 
54. Mrs. Hartley's Nephew, 54-5. American Buoy- 
ancy; Why it Pays to Read; Indestructibility of Enjoy- 
ment, 55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. Whistle and Hoe 
(poetry); An Evening Game; The Children's Hour, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH — Keep Your Nails Clean; Winter 
Clothing for Children, 55. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Hints for Washing Day; 
Tapioca Custard Pudding; Apple Pan Doodv, 55. 

MISCELLANEOUS. The Throsher's Industry; The 
Bamboo ; Capillary Attraction, 58. Walled Lakes; Is 
There an Active Volcano in the Moon ? Bioplasm; Mak- 
ing Lumber from Straw, 00. 

Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements, Baker & Hamilton, S. F. 

Heating's Cough Lozenges. 

Oillet's Nurseries, Nevada City, Cal. 

Kentucky Jacks, E. B. Lyle, Sacramento, Cal. 

Eisen Vineyard, Fresno, Cal. 

Saul's Catalogue of Rare Plants, Washington, D. C. 
The "Early Pcabody" Sweet Potato. 
Banana Bulbs, H. H. Messenger, Orange, Cal. 
Diphtheria, Southworth &Grattan, Stockton. 
S. F. Purchasing Agency, G. Newton, S. F. 
California State Agricultural Society— Annual Meeting. 
Imperial Egg Food, O. C. Swan k Co., S. F. 
The "Young New Yorker," Adams ti Co., N. Y. 



The Week. 



We are glad the turkey wag not made the 
bird o' freedom, because no one can ever put 
eagles to the base uses to which turkeys are 
now applied. During the present week nearly 
'200 barrels of Eastern-dressed turkeys and 
chickens have been shipped to this market, and 
merchants who received them are now insulting 
the productive power of this State by crying 
Eastern turkeys far better than Californian; at 
the same time parting with such treasures at a 
"short bit" a pound to our overstocked market. 
All these ill-omened birds can do out here is to 
depress prices for awhile, and thus bother Cali- 
fornia turkey growers. As for the venture- 
some Eastern producers who made these con- 
signments, after they have paid freight and 
commissions, they may have four cents a pound 
left to pay for the turkeys, which would hardly 
encourage any further turkey speculations for 
California sale. We are glad the eagle is not a 
turkey; we could not bear to see him thus dis- 
graced. 

We have whistled the prettiest tunes in this 
corner of the Press for the last two months to 
keep our courage up on the rain question. 
This week we weakened a little, and in 
the article in the next column took the ground 
that it might not rain after all. As soon as it 
was written the barometer began to tumble, and 
now (Wednesday night), is ready for a down- 
pour. We see the mistake. We have been 
writing the weather up, we should have writ- 
ten it down. We will not orr thus again. 



The Outlook. 

If we could have a map of California colored 
according to the tenor of the thoughts and an- 
ticipations of the people to-day, it would pre- 
sent contrasts of light and dark shades. Over 
wide areas of the State, the fear of continued 
drouth is still clouding the outlook. Grain 
which was sown in faith and good soil has 
sprouted and dried up because there was too 
little moisture to maintain the growth. Land 
has lain unbroken in the San Joaquin, although 
the fanners longed to employ their men and 
teams in plowing for the summer- fallow. It is 
now so late that hardly a fraction of the work 
which should have been already done could be 
accomplished, even if the rains should fall now 
free and full. There are it is true a few days of 
grace still remaining, in which rain could save 
the life of grain already started in the Sacra- 
mento valley; but the loss of labor and seed 
which has already been occasioned, is a griev- 
ous burden upon the farmer. On the foothills 
of the Sierras there has been a prolonged 
period of unusual cold and drouth, and farming 
operations have been restricted. Even in some 
parts of the north of the State, the rain has not 
reached the measurement which work and 
crops demand. These are dark shades on the 
map, and those who dwell among them are 
filled with anxiety, and many are struggling 
beneath actual losses. To them we would 
speak every word of cheer which the possibili- 
ties of the season still approve, and urge them to 
hold hand and heart firm to meet whatever con- 
tingency may arise. 

On the other hand, the map of State shows 
bright colors in the triumphant rejoicings of the 
dwellers in the lower coast counties, who have 
already dubbed their domain the "moist belt,' 
because of the comparatively large amounts of 
rain which they have already received. In this 
district of the State, reaching as far north as 
Santa Cruz county and south to San Diego, 
there is being a world of rapid work done by 
cultivators, and an effort will be made to raise 
the production of the area mentioned to the 
highest figures. The fresh feed is starting, and 
with a moderate rain doing^he coming months, 
satisfactory results will be attained in field and 
pasture. Nor are the bright colors restricted to 
these joyful southern counties. There is un- 
usual activity on the titles, and owners of these 
low lands are jubilant over the coming of a 
"tuleyear." There are also districts here and 
there, where greatest results are attained both 
in price and produce when the general area is a 
blank, and these will be pushed in the hope of 
the brisk market, which will follow short crops 
at large. 

Thus it appears that the outlook possesses va- 
rious features. If the coming weeks should do 
their worst, the result would be much less 
grievous than that which makes 1877 a year to 
be forgotten by those who can turn their backs 
upon hardship and disappointment. The drouth 
cannot be so general as in 1877, nor can the 
losses of stock be nearly so heavy. The State 
is full of hay. Never before were the stacks so 
numerous upon the landscape. Many men 
also learned a lesson from 1877, and have large 
stores of straw which will be golden piles in the 
maintenance which they will give to stock 
which finds naught but arid disappoinment on 
their ranges. More than this, there has been 
notable progress in the irrigating enterprises 
during the last two years, and the ditches will 
go far toward paying for themselves if the year 
be generally dry. Whatever may come then, 
we see no reason to expect the return of the 
days of 1877 in all their darkness. It may be a 
year of very moderate returns on the whole, 
but this will be but a light affliction compared 
with the dire distress and suffering which are 
visiting honest workers in some other parts of 
the world. 

The lesson from the outlook is toward a strict 
eoonomy in the fostering of resources of all 
kinds. Let the frills and scollops of life rest 
until the season is more generally propitious. 
Give the attention fixedly to the production of 
every desirable thing which the conditions will 
warrant. There is still time to push to comple- 
tion many irrigating projects of individual or 
associate character. Use what water is attain- 
able, even if it be from a single well, in produc- 
ing some useful or valuable crop from a small 
area. Grow what will fill the storeroom, sup- 
ply the table first and keep the animals in good 
strength. Make sure of these things and the 



family can be carried through the year at small 
expenditure, and with small call for credit at 
the store. Wonderful things are done every 
year by men who work wisely and diligently 
with a small amount of water on a small area of 
ground. These and a hundred other things 
will occur to the mind if one sets out resolutely 
to gain a living for himself and his family from 
narrow places. These are things to think about 
and labor for when the signs of unfavorable sea- 
sons appear. We hope that no one will have 
occasion to practice them this year, and that the 
present doubt and anxiety may dissolve in floods 
of fructifying rain ere it be too late. But if the 
season turns toward the bad, let us take hold 
for a good pull together until the brighter times 
return. Let us help each other by free commu- 
nication of facts which will all bring forward 
some life-giving growth. Let us study the situ- 
ation together and learn where its best features 
lie. To all our readers in the future, as in the 
past, the Rural I'm — holds out a hand for 
mutual labor toward the best that can be done 
with the year. Whatever comes we shall have 
facts for practical application to aid all in their 
work, and we shall have words of cheer and en- 
couragement to strengthen the heart and arm 
of every reader. 



QjE[\lES \hq Replies. 



The Phenomena of Frost. 

Er>iTOR9 Prkss: — We are having terribly 
heavy frosts this winter. It is a mooted ques- 
tion whether the frost comes from the atmos- 
phere or the ground; or, in other words, do 
heavy frosts sap the moisture from the ground? 
— G. W. T. C., Point of Timber, Cal. 

The prevalence of frost this winter may make 
a general review of its occurrence of interest to 
many readers. In the first place the white 
frost, which we see so thickly spread after a 
clear, cold night, is but frozen dew; conse- 
quently it is produced as is dew. The only 
difference is that the temperature, which is 
low enough to condense moisture in the form of 
the dew-drop, is carried still lower in the case 
of white frost. It is carried to the freezing 
point; the dew freezes and tender vegetation, 
upon which the dew freezes, is injured. This 
being the primal fact in the case of white frost, 
it but remains to investigate the occurrence 
of dew to determine the nature of frost, which 
is one of its forms. 

Oew does not fall from above as the rain. It 
does not come from beneath as does water 
drawn up and out by evaporation. It is formed 
just at the point where it is seen, being a con- 
densation of atmospheric moisture upon a sur- 
face having a lower temperature than that of 
the air. It is deposited in minute drops, which, 
as the condensation proceeds, may join them- 
selves to each other to form large drops, as we 
see them trickling from the leaves, or the drops 
may run together and form a thin coating of 
water, as we see it on Hat surfaces in the early 
morning. 

At the surface of the ground the amount of 
moisture in the air varies according to the time 
of day, increasing when the heat decreases. 
Thus the warmer the air, the drier it is; the 
colder it is, the more readily will it be saturated 
with moisture. In temperate regions the air is 
cooler and consequently most saturated with 
moisture just before sunrise. It has been 
proved by many accurate tests with the ther- 
mometer, that on a clear night the grass of a 
meadow may be 10° to 20° colder than the air, 
and this it is which condenses the moisture 
from the atmosphere upon objects near the 
ground. This decrease of temperature is caused 
by radiation after sundown. When there is 
nothing to prevent this heat from the surface 
from being dispersed, it soon becomes irradiated 
and lost. Clear still air facilitates this radia- 
tion, but a cloud, or some artificial covering 
like a sheet of paper or a little smoke, prevents 
radiation ; consequently on a cloudy night, there 
is little or no dew, and being no dew, there is 
little or no white frost. In this fact we find 
the reason for the protection, which is afforded 
by covering a tender plant with a newspaper 
suspended above it. It does not keep the frost 
from descending upon the plant, as some think, 
but it prevents radiation beneath, and this holds 
a temperature which is too high to freeze the 
moisture from the air. What a difference in 
temperature is occasioned by artificially pre- 
venting radiation in this way, is shown by tests 



made by Wells, who was a leading experimenter 
in matters of this nature. He spread a hand- 
kerchief upon four pegs above the surface of 
grass, and found that the temperature under 
the handkerchief was at times 1 1° higher than 
that just outside it, and while the turf outside 
the handkerchief was frozen, that under it was 
several degrees above the freezing point This 
result was secured by preventing the radiation 
of heat from the surface of the earth, and the 
same principle applies in the use of clouds of 
smoke to protect vineyards, as has been done in 
France and in this State. 

Upon the point raised by our querist whether 
heavy frosts draw moisture from soil, the an- 
swer is probably plain enough when it is estab- 
lished that dew and white frost are two forms 
of the same thing, for no one would claim that 
a heavy dew was drying in its effect upon the 
soil. The fact is that dew and white frost are 
condensations from the moisture in the air, and 
when they are deposited upon the surface of 
the earth they impart moisture to it. And 
they do not impart moisture alone, for the com- 
position of dew and mist have been found an- 
alogous to rain, in that they contain a certain 
amount of ammonia and nitric acid, and thus 
enrich the soil with these fertilizing properties 
from the air. Of course the dew is no richer 
in these substances, because the temperature 
which condenses is also low enough to freeze 
the aqueous vapor, nor is it poorer for the 
change in the form of the medium which con- 
tains it. 

The reason why the occurrence of white frost 
is credited with drawing moisture from the 
soil, may be because seasons which are fitted 
by clear cold nights to freeze the dew, generally 
have dry sunny days to speedily evaporate the 
moisture which was deposited, and the earth 
seems the drier day by day. 

Orange on Lime Stock. 

Editors Press: — One of your subscribers, 
Mr. F. Tabor, of Newcastle, Placer Co., wants 
to know how the orange does on the lime stock. 
In your reply you were right to say that the 
Biyarade variety is the proper stock to use for 
orange scions. I will add that the Bigarade, 
or "Seville orange" (a sour kind), is generally 
used for that purpose in Europe, though the 
lemon and lime stock is employed also to some 
extent. The difference between the two is this: 
The lime and lemon stock grows more vigorously 
and faster during the first five or six years than 
any of the orange stock, including the Bigarade, 
but after that time the orange stock gets the 
best of the lemon and lime. In Europe, lemon 
stock is used by nurserymen whenever it is de- 
sirable to obtain quickly a good-sized tree, such 
trees being big enough to be grafted (Pontoise 
graft), when only three to eight months old ; 
then a tree grafted a Ui Pontoise, bears at once. 
Nothing, in fact, is more pretty to look at than 
a little orange tree in a pot, two years old, thus 
grafted on lemon stock and full of oranges. 
Such trees, however, are not so long-lived as 
those budded on the Bigarade, or any other 
orange stock. By the way, let me say here that 
the kind of budding used in the south of France 
and Italy for the orange is 1 ' inverted shield 
budding. — Felix CJillet, Nevada City, Jan. 
19th, 1879. 

These facts are interesting, and so far as the 
working of the orange on lemon stock is con- 
cerned, they agree with the experience of our 
southern California propagators, as we under- 
stand it to have been. Although once com- 
mon, because of the quick growth gained from 
lemon stock, the practice has fallen into dis- 
favor for other reasons and has been generally 
abandoned. 

The grafting a la Pontoise to which Mr. Gil- 
let refers, is now known as "grafting by inlay- 
ing," and though formerly employed specially 
for the propagation of the orange and other 
shrubs, is now used on almost all kinds of trees 
and shrubs. The principle of the operation, as 
described by Baltet, is to inlay the scion, which 
is cut with a triangular face, in the stock so as 
to thoroughly exclude the air. The scion, 
which should have two or three eyes, is cut at 
the lower part with a wedge-like or triangular 
face, and is inlaid upon the stock in an angular 
notch corresponding to the triangular face of the 
scion. The graft is inserted in the crown of an 
amputated stock. We make these notes on the 
method of grafting in case any reader may de- 
sire to experiment with the precocious plants 
which Mr. Gillet mentions. 



Secretary Sherman, on Saturday, called for 
redemption $20,000,000 of 6.20 bonds of 1865, 
consols of 1867- 

Tiie eastern terminus of the Southern Pacific 
railroad is now 48 miles from Yuma, A. T, 



I 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



not spring in, a slight backward turn as the 
auger is being raised will press them in, and 
the loaded auger will come up perfectly free. 

The sides of these augers hinge on a pivot- 
bolt in the lower corners of the head, and are 
fastened by keys, as shown in the cut. To 
empty or discharge the load, the operator 
knocks out the keys, the auger swings open 
and the load drops in a cart or truck run under 
for that purpose. 

A full set of boring tools, shown herewith, 
consisting of augers in Figs. 2 or 3 (any size), 
two turning levers, and the full derrick rig, 
consisting of two wheels, two axles, two 
cranks, four pair boxes, one shreve or pulley 
and one swivel, costs $60. The auger shown at 
Fig. 6 is $10 extra. The shafting or rods used 
with these augers is two-inch gas pipe, with 
one length of solid square iron above the 
ground for turning levers to attach to. These 
are furnished at 50 cents per foot when desired. 

The couplings are all placed inside, and are 
simply a plug of two-inch round iron, one end 
riveted or welded in one end of a gas-pipe, and 
the other end to be inserted in the end of the 
next length of gas-pipe, and fastened by two 
iron pins. The pipe is strengthened at the pin 
holes by a band of iron four inches wide and 
one-quarter of an inch thick, shrunk over the 
end, the pins passing through the band- 
pipe and coupling. 

In lifting the auger from the bottom of the 
well, as each length of shafting comes above 
the ground, the coupling is loosened by a blow 



FIG. 1. 



Horticultural Meeting and Fruit Show 
at Riverside. 

Editors Press A meeting of the Southern 
California Horticultural Society will be held at 
Riverside, San Bernardino county, California, 
on Wednesday and Thursday, February 12th 
and 13th, 1879, commencing 10 A. M. Wednes- 
day the 12th. 

A free exhibition of oranges, lemons, limes, 
and other semi-tropical fruits will be held on 
the evening of Wednesday, February 12th. AU 
interested in semi-tropical fruit growing are in- 
vited to be present. The following subjects are 
suggested for discussion : 

Planting and Cultivation. — When is the best 
time to plant orange and lemon trees, and is it 
advantageous to plow and cultivate them more 
than sufficient to keep down weeds and grass ? 

Irrigation of Semi-Tropical Fruit Trees. — 
Should irrigation be anything more than neces- 
sary to keep the orange and lemon trees in good 
growing condition, or is it better to stimulate 
their growth by liberal watering ? 

Influence of Stock upon the Graft. — What 
influence, if any, has the stock upon the graft ? 
Is the China lemon or lime a suitable stock upon 
which to graft or bud the orange and lemon for 
standard orchard trees ? Is the orange tree a 
suitable stock for the lemon ? 

Frost. — Is there any difference in liability to 
frost, between seedling and budded orange and 
lemon trees ? What is the experience of fruit 
growers as to the influence of late irrigation, 
cultivation and wind-breaks, in protecting or- 
chards from frost ? 

Other Semi-Tropical Fruits and Plants. — 



FIG. 4- 



FIG. 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

THE RUST ARTESIAN WELL BORING MACHINERY. 



January 25, 1879.] 



Well--Boring Machinery. 

Our recent articles on artesian wells have 
interested many readers, if we can judge by the 
tenor of the comments upon them, which come 
in correspondents' letters. The obtaining of 
artesian water is of crowning importance in 
many localities, and this r year there will be 
renewed interest in well-boring, because the 
season's rainfall promises to be rather scanty. 

The engravings of well-boring appliances 
which we have given heretofore, and those 
which appear upon this page, will give readers 
a good idea of the manner in which the inventors 
have aided the well-borer in furnishing him 
effective apparatus. There is a point in favor 
of well-boring in this State, which is noted by 
an experienced Eastern well-borer. He writes 
us that after studying our descriptions of wells 
which have been sunk, he concludes that Cali- 
fornia well-borers have a marked advantage 
over their Eastern confreres, by reason of the 
different stratas encountered here, as compared 
with those in the Eastern or Middle States. He 
refers to the bore at Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
which is over 3,000 feet deep, and fully two- 
thirds of that depth is solid rock. This propor- 
tion holds good throughout the entire oil-bear, 
ing region, and in fact, in all the older States 
where deep bores have been made. On the 
Pacific coast, the proportion of rock is very 
small, there being frequently but a few feet of 
hard rock, in a bore of several hundred feet. 
This difference in the formation necessitates the 
use of entirely different tools from those used in 
the Eastern States. The heavy rock-drilling 
outfits, costing hundreds of dollars, can be ex- 
changed for a light attachment used on the 
derrick, and run by hand, or by spring pole or 
horse-power; the drills costing not over $50, 
and the attachment for man or horse, costing 
only from $10 to $00. These tools have been 
used to cut through hundreds of feet of rock, 
and they are said to work as fast as the more 
expensive ones. 

It is a view of these cheaper devices for deep 
boring which we give on this page. They are 
the inventions of Oscar Rust, and are made and 
sold by the Rust Well Auger Company, of 
Macon, Missouri. They are said to have been 
fully tested and approved by the work which 
has been done with them at the East. 

Fig. 1 represents auger worked by horse- 
power. When at work the upper end of shaft 
is always below the shreve, a pulley in the top 
of the derrick, and a swivel in the lower part 
of the rope near where it is attached to the 
auger preventing any twisting of rope, and 
gives the operator constant hold of the auger. 

Figs. 2 and 3 show ordinary shallow well 
augers. They are made from 12 to 18 inches 
in diameter, and are calculated to work to the 
depth of 100 feet. Greater depths require 
smaller tools. 

Fig. 4 shows wormer for loosening small 
boulders, cobble-stones and hard-packed gravel, 
and for working through hard-pan, slate, coal, 
soapstone, soft sandstone, or anything except 
solid hard rock. It is steel-pointed and war- 
ranted to do the work. 

Fig. 5 shows the drill bit and reamer, in gen- 
eral use throughout the oil region in Ohio and 
Pennsylvania, and by artesian well borers 
throughout the Eastern States. 

Fig. 6 shows an auger devised especially for 
artesian well boring. It is made of all steel, 
and is claimed to be the lightest running, fast- 
est boring and most easily handled auger now 
in use. It is made from four to six feet long, 
and of any diameter from four to ten inches. 
By adding rubber belting valves at the bot- 
tom, and a small hook or hasp to hold the sides 
together in sand, a most effective sand auger is 
secured. The operator with this tool is 
enabled to penetrate clay, sand, gravel or any 
formation he may encounter except solid rock. 

The augers here shown at Figs. 2, 3 and 6, 
each cut a hole from one-half inch to one inch 
larger than the body of the auger, thus giving 
free passage for air and water. These augers 
are especiaUy calculated to work inside iron 
casing. The presence of the hard earth against 
the bits as the auger is being revolved, causes 
the bits or lower end of the sides to spring out 
a trifle, thereby cutting out under the casing, 
so the casing will easily settle. When the 
auger ceases to revolve and the bits no longer 
engage the earth, the sides spring back to their 
original position, and the auger comes up inside 
the casing. But if from any oause the sides do 



of a hammer on each pin, and the length is 
lifted off and left standing in the derrick, 
without stopping the auger in its passage up, 
or 40 feet of shafting may be run out at the top 
of the derrick. These couplings are made at 
an expense of only about one dollar each; they 
are strong and durable, and are said to be 
handled in one-fourth the time of any other. 

Grain Threshing and Threshers. — A num- 
ber of very interesting communicated articles 
will be found in the extra pages of this issue. 
We call attention especially to Mr. Carter's 
review of the grain threshers situation. Mr. 
Carter is a practical thresher, and at our 
request, tells us the perplexities and drawbacks 
which beset the craft. There are some lessons 
for the grain grower and some for the grain 
thresher in Mr. Carter's article, and we trust 
both will be heeded. Between the grower and 
the thresher there are frequent grounds for com-, 
plaint, and part of these doubtless are due to a 
little shortcoming on either side. If each 
would study not only the work of the other but 
also his own duty in the premises there, would 
be less clashing and more cordial satisfaction. 
Grain threshers never call for space in the 
Press for the discussion of matters pertaining 
to their business, and yet there are many points 
which might be elucidated by a comparison of 
views and experiences. As there is leisure time 
between this and harvest, let the grain growers 
and threshers compare notes in the Press, and 
grow in acquaintance with each other's ( deeds 
and dispositions. 



The United States sailing ship Constitution 
went ashore the other day on the English coast. 



What other fruits and plants can be profitably 
introduced into southern California. 

If any of the friends in northern or central 
California cannot be present, and have speci- 
mens of semi-tropical fruits that they would 
like to place on exhibition, for comparison 
with similar fruits grown in southern Califor- 
nia, they can send them to S. C. Evans, River- 
side, Cal. , free by express, and the charges 
will be paid at Riverside. A report of the com- 
mittee on the relative merits will be returned 
to the exhibitor. — S. C. Evans, L. C. Waite, 
A. S. White, H. J. Rudisill, Committee. 

Riverside, Cal., Jan. 21st. 

The "California Horticulturist." — This 
publication appears for the new year in enlarged 
form and with a varied and inviting table of 
contents. Mr. E. J. Hooper has yielded the 
tripod to Charles H. Shinn, of Niles, Alameda 
county, who brings to the work much zeal, en- 
thusiasm, practical acquaintance with horti- 
cultural and floricultural topics, and unusual 
grace and fluency of composition. There is 
abundant room for work in the lines to which 
the Horticulturist is devoted, and Mr. Shinn 
is well qualified to do good service therein. 

Lectures at the College of Agriculture. 
During the coming week the lectures on prac- 
tical agriculture at the State University will be 
continued by Mr. Dwindle. The dates will be 
Monday, Jan. 27th; Tuesday, Jan. 28th, and 
Thursday, Jan. 30th, at 11 A. m. of each day. 
The subjects of irrigation and drainage will be 
discussed. All are invited to attend. 

Says the Dixon Tribune, of Saturday: Most 
of the orange trees in town whioh were las* 
week supposed to be dead, will come out all 
right. In fact, the orange trees appear to stand 
it better than the gum trees, 



6§ 



Anent the English Sparrow: 

Not long since we had reports of the scourge 
which the imported English sparrows had be- 
come to the fruit growers of South Australia. 
The standing of this bird is a vexed question 
among ornithologists, entomologists and prac- 
tical men. As we have the bird in this State 
and in this city, as the especial guest of the 
municipality, it will be well to form correct 
judgment as to the good or evil which the bird 
can do for our farmers. Prof. C. V. Riley, 
United States Entomologist, has lately defined 
his belief on the subject, and his opinions and 
reasons therefor are worth attention. He 
writes as follows : 

As an ornithologist, I presume there are few 
men in the city who have a greater appreciation 
of birds generally, than Dr. Elliott Cones, and 
if he does not extend that appreciation to the 
imported sparrow, he certainly has good reasons, 
if facts, and not sentiment be considered. A 
lover of our native birds cannot witness without 
well warranted regret the effect which the 
importation of the sparrow has had upon many 
of them. America has certainly not gained in 
the practical extermination of the black rat, by 
the spread of the more destructive and annoy- 
ing Norway rat, which has usurped its place; 
while the entomologist who reflects that by far 
the worst insect pests of American agriculture, 
are importations from Europe, or the botanist 
who notes that the large majority of the weeds 
that annoy the American cultivator, are like- 
wise foreign subjects, will be inclined to weigh 
more calmy and seriously the sparrow question, 
than the townsman who is unfamiliar with these 
facts. For my own part, I will concede to no 
one a greater general appreciation of the 
feathered tribe. As an entomologist, I have 
years ago affirmed my belief that, aside from 
their companionship to man, and their direct 
utility to him, they may be looked upon as God- 
appointed guards over the vegetal kingdom, 
which, without their constant surveillance, 
would so far succumb to the attacks of voraci- 
ous insects, as to upset the present state of 
things upon this terraqueous globe, and render 
it scarcely habitable to man. This general 
appreciation, however, does not blind me to the 
fact that many birds at times become downright 
pests to the farmer and the fruitgrower. There 
is an immense amount of sentiment wasted on 
the subject, by those who do not observe close- 
ly, or whose experience does not range beyond the 
waUs of a city. For many years familiar with 
the sparrow in England, France and Germany, 
I have watched its rapid multiplication in this 
country with much interest, and while I love 
to see it in its proper place, and believe that, 
within limits, it is desirable in our cities, I 
cannot shut my eyes to its past history, nor to 
the facts that are against it, and that should 
not be lost sight of in dealing with it in 
America. I recognize that sentiment, as well 
as fact, must have consideration; and that those 
who find a pleasure in the bold familiarity of 
the little chatterer have a right to be 
heard, as well as those who look deeper into 
the facts and see the bare .truth — the effect the 
foreigner has on some of our native birds, and 
the harm it is capable of when unduly encour- 
aged. The lines of the late poet, Bryant, have 
fixed in the popular mind the false idea that 
the "little Turk" or plum curculio, the army- 
worm, the Hessian fly, thrips, slugs, fruit 
moths, and every other noxious insect pest, 
will be thwarted and destroyed by this im- 
ported bird — 

" And fairer harvests shall crown the year, 
For the old-world sparrow at last is here." 

Stern reality tells us, however, that, with 
the exception of the canker-worm, not one of 
the species mentioned in the poet's verse is ever 
touched by the sparrow; and I hope that the 
facts already communicated to you regarding 
the sparrow vs. the canker-worm, are sufficient 
to show that even in this connection it has 
been of comparatively little benefit as a protec- 
tion to our shade trees. The two worst defo- 
liators for our own Washington City shade 
trees are the elm-leaf beetle (Galernca calma- 
riensis) and the bag- worm (Thyridopteryx ephe- 
mera formis); and abundant as the sparrows 
have become, both of these pests continued 
their depredations unmolested last summer. 

I might give you many other facts of this 
kind that tell against the sparrow as a useful 
or desirable bird; but I am far from recommend- 
ing its total extermination on this account, any 
more than I would wish some of our native 
birds exterminated because they occasionally 
take more than their toll of our grains and 
fruits. 

To sum up my own views of this sparrow 
question, I cousider it useless to attempt the 
extermination of the bird. It is now established 
among us, and no measures that can be practic- 
ally adopted would ever rid us entirely of it, 
even were such riddance desirable. In the 
country the bird will at times become agrevious 
pest here, as it has been in Europe; and fanners, 
for self-protection, will ever and anon have to 
systematically destroy it. I would therefore 
like to see it take its chances with our native 
birds, a thing which it is abundantly capable of 
doing; and corporations should not, in my 
judgment, encourage its undue multiplication 
by providing shelter and nesting places, beyond 
what the bird may naturally find. 



Senator John P. Jones has been re-elected. 



66 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 25, 1879. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO CAL, 

Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President G. W. COLBY, 

Manager and Cashier, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 
Secretary FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank wag opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a genera] banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rates. 



GRANGERS' 

Business Association. 

Incorporated February lOth, 1875. 

Capital Stock, • • $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS.-Daniei. Inman. Pres- 
ident : I. 0. Steele. Vice President; Amom Adams, Secre- 
tary; Joun Lewkllinu, Treasurer. DIRECTORS— W. G. 
COLBT, W L. OVEKHIXER. A. D. flCKHUT, R. S C'LAV. A. 
T. Hatch, o. Hubbkli„ Thos. Flint. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 

GRANGERS' BUILDING, 

106 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, 
Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and Advances 
made on the same. Orders for Urain and Wool Sacks, 
Produce, Merchandise, Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., 
solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our 
rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through 
us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Asso- 
ciation, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



Farmers' Union. San Jose. 

Q T. SETTLE President. 

II. E HILL Makaokh. 

W. M. CilNTY f CaMHIKR. 

Authorized Capital - - - - $200,000.00 
Paid up in Gold Coin - - - - 95.000.00 
Surplus - ------ 23,571.87 

Dikkctoks William Erkson, L. F Chfpmsn; Horn >* 
Littlu, (J. T. Settle, David Campbell, James Siunleton, Thos. 
E. Suell. W. L. Mauly, J. y. A. Ballou. 

Will do a (Jeneral Mercantile Business, also, receive De- 
posits on which such Interest will be allowt.-d as mar be 
aKronl upon. <»oJd, Silver ami Currency exchanged. Will 
also, on commission, make purchases and sales (at home aud 
abroad) at low rates. 

Farmers a N i> othkh Citizess are invited to examine 
our constantly large aud varied stuck of nrst-elans goods, 
including Teas, Coffee, Groceries, Provisions, Crockery, 
Hardware, Fanning Implements, Wagons, Kar)>ed Fence 
Wire, Household* iooda, etc. 

All of our patrons can depend upon low cash prices and 
sipiare deal in reliable article* 

Cor. of Santa Clara and San Pedro Sts. 



. A CARD 

To Grangers and Farmers. 



The undersigned it* now prepared to receive and oell 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE, 

That may be consigned to him, at the HIGHEST MAR- 
KET KATES, and will open a trade direct with the con- 
sumer 

Without the Intervention of Middlemen. 

He also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock 
Buyers to co-o|»erate with him, and thus have but one 
commission between producer and buyer. Address 

S. H. DEPUY, 
Nos. 11 & 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 



Grangers' Co-operative Business Ass'n 
Of Sacramento Valley. 

Location: K & 10th Ste., Sacramento, Cal 

Dealers in GENERAL PRODUCE, RETAIL GRO- 
CERIES, and sale of FRUITS. Desire the co-operation 
ami trade of farmers in general. Pay the highest market 
rates for all produce, and sell for the smallest profit. Our 
orders are cash on delivery. Goods shipped; marked C. 
O. D. W. H HEAVENER, Manager. 



MONEY FOOD 

For Farmers. For Hogs. 

CHEAP PORK. 

The Brazilian Artichoke. 

Is the cheapest and U'st food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. 600 to 1,000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No uarvestiug. No feeding, The 
Hogs will help themselves if allowed to do so. I have a 
limited i|tuiutity of seed to sell. Send for Circular giving 
full information to 

J. H. F. GOFF, 

San Felipe, Santa Clara County, Cal 



A FEW DEVONS AND GRADES 
FOR SALE 

Address R. McENESPIE, Chico, California 



pl'rcharerh ok stock will find in this directory t1ik 
Namkk of mo me of the Moht Reliable Breeders. 

Oi k Rateb. — Six lines or lens inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Durham Cattle, S|«mish Mer- 
ino Sheep and Berkshire swine. The above for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 323 Front street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal 
importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred S|>anish 
Merino Sheep. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to i years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, $15 each. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Imiwrters 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc 



A. O RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California, 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



BURBANK & MEYERS, 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Docs, etc. Ecgs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, BelloU, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Im|K>rter, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 

Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



W. & J ROBINSON, Hanford, Tulare Co., Cal, Im 
porters and Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshire Swine 
and Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. Trios a specialty. 



Poultry. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 



116 Acres 

DIVOTKD TO 

FANCY 

POULTRY 




Unlimited Range. 

Healthy Stock. 

Largest Yards 
5 on the Coast. 



Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, Bronze Tur- 
keys, Geese, Pekin Ducks, Guinea Pigs, Etc 

tS"Sa/e arrival of Fowls and Eggs Guaranteed. 

tyPamphlet on the care of fowls- -hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc., adaptkd kspkciallv to tub 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal 



EVERYBODY KNOWS 

That Mrs. C. H. Sprague, at the California Poultry- 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sendini' orders to her. 



Seedsmen. 



R. J. TRUMBULL &. CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*.*"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will be sent prbi to all Customers, it contains in 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
410 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F 



1878-9. 

W. E. STRONG- & CO., 

FIELD, GARDEN, LAWN and TREE 

SEEDS. 



Our Btoek is full, fresh and reliable. In these essential 
particulars we claim to be unexcelled. 

We have largely increased our list of varieties, having 
imported from the very best gTowera both in the East and 
Europe 

Garden and Flower Seeds 

Put up in small packages for the RETAIL TRADE, as 
also in bulk. All DEALERS IN SEEDS will find it for 
their interest to send their orders to us. We make 
specialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER, TIMOTHY, 

Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian 

Grass, Millet, Lawn Grassess, Etc. 
Also, FLOWERING BULBS of every description 
£3rCatalogues furnished free on application. 

— WE ALSO DO A — 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California Green and Dried Fruits, 
Nuts, Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 

Nos. 6. 8 & 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO, Cal 



NEW MUSIC! NEW MUSIC! 



At Gray's No. 105 Kearny Street, 



On receipt of the amount in postage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, post-paid: 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, 35 cts 

BABY MINE, (Schottische) Stuckenholz, 35 cts. 

EMMETT'S LULLABY', (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 35 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schottische) Far West, 35 cts 

THE SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song) Harriott, 35 cts 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chauncoy, 75 cts. 

GOLDEN OPHIR, (Galop). Yanke, 50 cts 



Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 




tST State where vou saw this advertisement. "61 



TRUNKS! 



TRUNKS ! 



Joh.a XTorgrove, 

Manufacturer, Importer and Dealer in 

Trunks, Valises, and Traveling Bags, 

At prices to suit the times. Repairing promptly done. 
12 Geary Street, - - San Francisco. 



That kxcrllent and widely circulated journal, the Pa- 
cific Rural Press.— Vtntura Hit/ml. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES. 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers iu aud 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable, 
FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS. 
Also, Flowering Plants, Bclbs, Fri it and 
Ornamental Treks, Etc. 
JAPANESE PERSIMMON TREES for sale at «50 per 
100; two to four feet iu hight. 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices. All seeds warranted 
fresh, pure and reliale. £3TTrade 
price list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable 
and Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is 
Handsomely Illustrated, and contains full descriptions of 
Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full in- 
structions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO. 

p. o. Box 1023. J 607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



IXAXTXTA-STS 

ZESTTTIR, S IE RIE S, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I wish to invite attention to my large and well assorted 
Stock cf 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Consisting in Part of Apple, Pear, Cherry 
Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricot, Almond, 
Nectarine and Olive Trees. 

Also, a full assortment of 

Small Fruits, Shade and Ornamental 
Trees and Plants. 

My Trees are Healthy, Stalky and well grown. 

JOHN HANNAY, 

Successor to Hanbay Brothers), San Jose, California 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 
Seed Warehouse, 

409 & 411 DAVIS STREET. 

San Francisco. 
ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

Keep constantly on hand the largest etock of FIELD 

GARDEN, CONIFER, or 

CALIFORNIA TREE SEEDS, 

On the Pacific Coast. Seeds all FRESH and GENUINE 
Our Stock is large, especially of the following varieties 

ALFALFA, BLUE GRASS, 

Red and White Clover, Red Top, Timothy, 
Australian Rye Grass. Mesquit Grass, 
Lawn Grass and Millet Seeds 

Of different Varieties. Field Seeds, Mangle Wuriel and 
Sugar Beets, Rutabagas, Carrot Seeds of all Varieties, 
Peas, Beans, etc. Our assortment of GARDEN aud 
FLOWER SEEDS are full and complete. Also, FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES at Nursery Prices. 

30,000 Three-year-old JAPANESE PERSIMMON 
TREES for sale at Lowest Market Rates. For Catalogue, 
Price Lists, etc. , apply as above. 



EXOTIC GARDENS 

— AND — 

CONSERVATORIES. 

Mission St . Opposite Woodwards' Gardens, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

F. A. Miller & Co., - - Proprietors. 

Have the most extensive collection of 

RARE PLANTS, TREES & SHRUBS. 

SEEDS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, BULBS AND 
BULBOUS PLANTS, AND A GENERAL VARIETY 
OF GARDEN AND HOUSE PLANTS. 

WOur NEW CATALOGUE now ready for Mailing. 

Send for it. 

Cut Flowers, Bouquets and Funeral Work furnished on 
short notice and in the l>est style. 



E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 



A General Assortment of 

GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS 

Neatly put up in papers and packages with description of 
variety, general directions for cultivation on each paper, 
and bearing my name, are for sale by responsible mer- 
hants throughout the Pacific States and Territories. 
My stock of 

CLOVER, GRASS, 

VEGETABLE, and Miscellaneous SEEDS, in bulk, is also 
large and complete. 

E. J. BOWEN, 

Seed Merchant aud Importer, 
815 & 817 Sansome St., San Francisco- 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZOUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERINO BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRE8H AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer la Seeds, 
425 Washing-ton Street, - San Francisco. 

CHUFA SEED FOR SALE. 

EISEN BROS., 12 Stevenson St., 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 




LATIN 
EXTENSION SPRING BED. 

MAHFTACTORT, 

1029 Market St., San Francisco, 
C. B. RICHMOND, PROP'R. 

Prices from $4 to $9, according to Size. 

We Challenge the World to produce a Bet- 
ter, Cheaper, Simpler, more Durable 
or Cleaner Bed than Ours. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By N. H. and H. A Kino. The latest work on the 
Apiary, embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid for|l. DEWEY & CO., 20S Sansome Street, 8. F. 



January 25, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUHL F1ESS. 



67 



Nurserymen. 



PRICES REDUCED! 
DIOSPYROS KAKI 

— or — 

JAPANESE PERSIMMON. 




This new and popular fruit at prices to suit the times. 
Nine best varieties. Also Wants of the 

VEGETABLE WAX (Rhus Succedanea.) 

For Sale by HENRY LOOMIS, 
Nos. 419 & 421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

Send for Circular. Good and reliable Agents wanted. 

Pacific Nurseries, 

Baker St., between Lombard and Chestnut, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

FREDERICK LUDEMANN, - Proprietor. 

P. O. Box 916, San Francisco, Cal. 

CAMELLIAS, PALMS, CYPRESS, PINES, CEDARS, 
RARE JAPAN AND AUSTRALIAN EVERGREENS, 
AND BLUE AND RED GUMS, (ASSORTED), 
ROSES OF ALL VARIETIES, 

Acacias, and Hardy Ornamental Plants. 

Our Specialty, PANSIES of the finest and latest German 
and French varieties. 

Orders carefully filled, packed and promptly forwarded 
at reasonable prices. 
For particulars and Catalogue apply as above. 




J. Hutchison's Nurseries. 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1852. 

An immense stock of new and rare Plants, Evergreens, 
Hardy and Ornamental Shrubbery. 

Cypress, for Hedges. 

ROSES, FUCHIAS, PINKS, ETC., ETC, 

In endless Variety, 

AT BEDROCK PRICES. 
SEEDS AND BULBS OF ALL KINDS. 

it3"Send for Catalogue. "Si 




TREES ! 
'Trees and Plants, 

In large or Bmall lots, both wholesale and retail at lowest 
rates at the CAPITAL NURSERIES, SACRAMENTO. 
We have a large and complete assortment not only of all the 
Deciduous Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, 
Flowering Plants, Vines, etc., also, a complete assortment of 
Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Citron, etc., both seedlings and 
grafted of the best known varieties, ranging in price from 20 
cts. to $1.75 each. Many of our grafted trees now have fruit 
on them, and most of them may be expected to bear fruit 
the first and second year from planting. Sample Grounds, 
U and Sixteenth Sts. Tree Depot, I Street, near Court 
House. Branch Yard at Auburn, Cal., (also at our 
New Branch Nursery, known as Oranoe Hill, near 
Penryn. Send for Catalogue and Price List. Address, 
Capital Nursekies, Box 407, Sacramento, Cal., and at 
Auburn or Penryn, Placer County, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON & Co., Proprietors. 

SHINN'S NURSERIES. 

NILES, ALAME DA C OUNTY, CAL- 

We invite attention to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also, Coffee, Cork Oak, 
Olives, Guavas, English and Black Walnuts, Magnolias, 
Loquata, Butternuts, Small Fruits, Evergreens, Etc. We 
have * choice stock of the Diospyroe Kaki ( Japanese Persim- 
tnot^/ of our own growing, and also, grafted stock imported 
direct from several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. 418 California St., San Francisco, 
Or JAMES SHINN, Nilea, Alameda Co., Cal. 



GOOD CURE FOR HARD TIMES. 

A PLANTATION OF EARLY PROLIFIC 
and RELIANCE Raspberries. 

inn nnn plant3 K0R SALE; also, 2OOOOO Cin- 
I UU,UUU ihrella and Continental Strawberry 
Plants. Millions of other Plants, Trees, etc. Everything 
new, nuv ki. and rarb. Prw4» Low, Send for Descriptive 
Cirtular to GIBSON & BENNETT, Nurserymen 
and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, New Jersey. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES ! TREES ! 

I offer for sale this Season a large and full stock of 
market varieties of 

Pear, Apple, Cherry, Plum, Prune, 
and Peach Trees, 

Which will be sold CHEAP to all those that buy largely. 
Japanese, American and Italian 

PERSIMMON. 
Orange and Lemon Trees. 

MONARCH OF THE WEST STRAWBERRY PLANTS, 
KITTATINNY BLACKBERRY PLANTS, GRAPE- 
VINES AND SMALL FRUITS IN VARIETY. 

SHADE and ORNAMENTAL Trees. 

EVERGREENS AND PALMS. 

FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS. 

For a full list send for a Catalogue, which will be mailed 
FREE to all applicants. 

JOHN ROCK, 

San Jose, California. 



500,000 Blue Gum 

TREES, ETC., 



-For Sale by— 



BAILEY & CO 



OFFICE and 
DEPOT, 

No. 1161 

Seventh St. 



Adeline St. 

Station, 

OAKLAND, 

Cal. 



Buy Seeds Direct 



— FROM THE — 



[Eucalyptus Globulus, or rime oura Tree.] 
Cars from San Francisco Stop at Depot 
every Half Hour. 
Also, Nursery at Berkeley, at Dwight Way Station. 



MOUNTAIN_ PLANTS. 

We offer for sale a large and fine stock of pure 

Strawberry Plants. 

"Crescent Seedling," wonderfully productive, said to 
have yielded 16,000 quarts to the acre. "Miners' Great 
Prolific," extra large, late and firm; very productive. 
"Cinderella" and "Continental." Figured in Rural Press 
last season. "President Lincoln," eleven inches in cir- 
cumference. "Monarch of the West," "Great American," 
"Prouty's Seedling," "Duchesse," "Capt. Jack," "Kerr's 
Prolific," "Granger," "Star of the West." Duncan "Cum- 
berland Triumph," Somer's Ruby," "Seth Boyden," "Pres- 
ident Wilder," Springdale," etc 

"Herstine," the most productive, "Highland Hardy," 
the earliest, RASPBERRIES. "Silva's Koning Clau- 
die," the earliest and best early Blue Plum in the world. 
New early and late Peaches. Send for descriptive circu- 
lar to c. M. SILVA & SOk, 
Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



To Fruit Growers and 

NURSERYMEN ! 

— SEND TO — 

Washburne & Reynolds, Ferndale, Hum- 
boldt County, California, 

For Roots of 

THE SALMON BERRY. 

Easily cultivated. Larger than the Blackberry, and 
equal to the Strawberry in flavor. Ripens from March to 
June, and grows in any soil. For particulars apply as 
above. 



CORK OAKS FOR SALE. 

We call attention to our larje stock of CORK OAKS 
two years old, Also, FRUIT TREES and ORNAMEN- 
TAL Trees. 

SHINN & CO.. 

Niles, Alameda County, Cal 



FRESNO SEED FARM ! 

W. A. SANDERS, Prop'r. 



Delivered on board of Cars or at Express Office, at the 
following prices: 

China Corn lOctsperlb 

White Egyptian Corn, (clean seed) 6 " " 

Brown " " " " 5 " " 

Broom Corn, com var'ty " " 4 " 11 

Broom Corn, dwarf " " 6 " " 

Broom Corn, evergreen " " 15 " " 

Kennedy's Amber Cane, (in hulls) 20 " " 

Red Imphee Cane, (clean seed) 50" " 

Sorghum Cane, " '* 10" " 

Penicillaria, (East India Millet), in hulls,. . 100" " 

Chufas, best Spanish 40" ". 

Artichokes 15 " " 

Spring Wheat, earliest, Sherman 5 " " 

By mail, 20 cents per pound additional. 

I have also some choice, thrifty, year-old Trees, which I 
will deliver on cars at 25 cents each, or $2.50 per dozen. 

Oranges, from best Tahiti Seed. 

Black Mulberry, large, sour-fruited, from Tennessee. 

Oleanders, Giant of Battles, Double Red and Single 
White. Black Walnuts, native of California. 

laTSend for Circular of Instructions. 

Address, W. A. SANDERS, Fresno, Cal 




STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, - - - Proprietor. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 
Comprising everything NEW and RARE in my line. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Lemons, 

AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

I have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nativity in Europe, and having 
propagated large quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms 

SULTANA.— A good stock of the SEEDLESS SULTANA 
grapevines for raisins. This is an important specialty, 
and will be sold at the same rates as ordinary stock. 
Send for catalogue and further information. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1858. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

An unusually fine stock of trees is offered for salt; at low- 
est market rates for reliable nursery stock, comprising all the 
leading kinds and varieties of Lardy fruits. Also a general 
assortment of evergreen trees and shrubs, blue gums, Monte- 
rey cypress, etc., iu boxes for hedge and forest planting. 

My trees are gruwn iu a sandy loam, without irrigation; 
can be no finer rooted trees grown ; wood ripens early, and can 
be safely transplanted as soon as sulticient rain falls for lift- 
ing the stock. Early planting recommended. Catalogues 
with list of prices ready for distribution October 1st. 

Address. W. H. FEPPEft, 

Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

SEXTON'S NURSERIES, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

We offer for sale this season of eood growth a general 
assortment of Fruit Trees, Fin it Bushes. Ornamental Trees, 
Evei green Trees and Flowering Shrubs at the lowest market 
rates. Our Trees are grown on sandy loam, without Irriga- 
tion, and matures the wood early. 

We also offer a lartre stock of JAPANESE PERSIM- 
MONS, transplanted. Monterey Cypress, for hedges, Blue 
Gum and Pines for forest planting, Japan Mandarin, Orange, 
Camellias and Camphor Trees at low figures. Address for 
Catalogue and Price List, WM. SEXTON, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

Burbanls's Seedling. 

This alreaJy famous Potato is now for the first time 
offered by the originator for trial on this Coast. For de- 
scription see American Agriculturist, for March, 1878. 
PRICES: 1 lb. by mail, 50 cts.; 3 lbs. by mail, SI. 00; 25 
tbs. by express, $5.00. 

LUTHER BURBANK, Nurseryman. 

Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal. 

LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

S. NEWHALL - - - Proprietor. 

A large and general assortment of FRUIT and ORNA- 
MENTAL TREES, Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, 
Greenhouse Plants, Grapevines, Small Fruits, etc. I offer 
for sale a large and well assorted stock. Low-topped, 
stalky Fruit Trees a specialty. Address 

S. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. 



Blackberry and Cranberry Plants. 

100,000 Plants of new varieties of BLACKBERRY Plants 
—the Early Cluster and Vina Seedling, Missouri Mammoth 
and Deering Seedling, the earliest and the most productive 
of all. I will give satisfactory proof that these berries have 
realized $750 per acre. It paid more than double the 
amount as the old late varieties. Price by mail, .$2 per 
dozen, §8 per hundred, and §30 per thousand. Send for 
Catalogue. Cherry Cranberry plants for §150 per acre, 
planted, not less than 10 acres in one order. We will sell to 
responsible parties, large orders on time, part cash. 

H. NYLAND, Boulder Island, San Joaquin Co.. Cal. 



FOR SALE. 
30,000 Kitlatinny Blackberries, 

Strong Plants, grown by irrigation. Also, 
3,000 GENUINE ZANTE CURRANT CUTTINGS. 
I. A. WILCOX. Santa Clara, Cal. 



FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO.'S 
Semi-Tropical Nurseries, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

FIRST PREMIUM received for two successive years for 
Best Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. We have all the 
varieties, both Foreign and Native. Great reduction iu 
Apple, Pear and Peach Trees, as we wish to close them out 
the coming Beason, and devote our entire energies hereafter 
to the Semi-Tropical Department. JST.S'v/td fur Catalanue. 

e. o. Box m. 



ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY 

NURSERIES. 

Trees. Plants. Shrubs. 



I offer for sale this season a large and well assorted 
stock of FRUIT TREES, SHADE TREES, EVERGREENS 
and SHRUBS. Also, PALMS, CAMELLIAS, JAPAN 
PERSIMMONS, AZALEAS. ROSES and GREENHOUSE 
PLANTS in great variety. 

Pear Seedlings, fine $15 per 1,000 

Roses, in variety, fine $15 p e r 100 

Japan Persimmon, five varieties §25 per 100 

Magnolia, Grandiflora, 6 to 10 in $18 per 100 

Lauristinus, li to 10 in §10 per 100 

Chinese Magnolias, 2 ft $8 per dozen 

Special Inducements to Large Purchasers. 

£2TCatalogue Free on application. T£K 

BERNARD S. FOX, Proprietor, 
SAN JOSE. CAL 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 

616 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal 



L ands for Sa le and to Let. 

ZiOMFOC 
Temperance Colony. 

45,654 49-100 ACRES. 

Cheap and Desirable Homes. 

TERMS OF SALE— 25% cash, and the remainder in eight 
equal annual installments with interest at 10/ o per annum, or 
full payment and Deed immediately. 

Rich Soil and Healthful Climate. 

Located in the Western part of Santa Barbara County, 
California, embracing lO.Oliu acres of the Finest Bean Land 
in the State; as liigh as 3,700 lbs. of Beans to the acre have 
been raised the present year, while 3,000 lbs. to the acre is not 
an uncommon yield. 

DAILY MAIL 

And Telegraphic Communication with all parts of the State. 
The Telegraph Stage Co.'s Coaches now run daily, each 
way, directly through the town ot 

LOMPOC. 

E. H. HF.ACOCK, President. 

IRVING P. HENNING, Secretary. 

November Cth, 1878. 

CHOICE 

Farms and Orchards 

In Santa Clara County. 

212 Acres, 2 miles west of Santa Clara, considered one 

of the best Farms in the County, at $00 per acre. 
41 Acres, 30 acres in Almonds and English Walnuts, 

part in bearing, at Los Gatos, J mile from R. R. depot; 

no frost; Price, 36,000. 
1,040 Acres, in Santa Ana Valley, miles east of Hol- 

lister; is one of the best farms in San Benito County; 

Price, $30,000. 

164 Acres, 8 miles S. W. of San Jose, rolling hills, all 

fenced, small orchard, running water; very cheap, 85,000. 
2,650 Acres, stock ranch, 20 miles south from San 

Jose; good pasture, plenty wood and water; $18,000. 
832 Acres, 22 miles from San Jose;stock ranch; $5,000. 
160 Acres, in the warm belt, 1J miles above Alma, on 

R. R. ; Price, $3,000. 
337 Acres, 3 miles from San Jose, at $70 per acre; No. 

1 farm. 

735 Acres, 5 miles from San Jose; house, barn, etc.; 

at $55 per acre. 
191 Acres, 4 miles from San Jose; choice farm, at $90 

per acre. * 

Several fruit orchards in vicinity of San Jose, from 3 to 
20 acres, on easy terms. Also, improved places in San 
Jose and Santa Clara. Title good in all cases, or no sale. 

JAMES A. CLAYTON, Real Estate Agent, 

288 Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 

A Good Dairy Ranch For Sale 

On Bear B.lver, Humboldt County, Cal., 

containing (iOO acres- of as good grazing land as any in the 
State. New Dairy and Dwelling House. The land is well 
watered, and plenty of timber for firewood and shelter, 
and well fenced. I will also sell with the ranch 100 head 
of choice dairy cows and five horses. Price, $13,000, one- 
half down, 1 1 10 remainder on easy terms for one, two or 
three years. Apply either in person or by letter to Rich- 
ard Johnston, Post-office address, Myrtle Grove, Hum- 
boldt County, Cal. , or to R. J Johnston, No. 1,324 How- 
ard Street, San Francisco. 

C. C. ROBGERS, 

CALIFORNIA LAND AGENCY, 

Office, 276 First St., San Jose, Cal. 

GENERAL LAND, REAL ESTATE, U. S. PENSION 
AND BOUNTY AGENT. 
Will buy and sell Land Warrants; Locate and Survey Pub- 
lic Government Laud, Pre-emption Homesteads, Soldier's 
and Bailor's Homesteads, Timber and Wood Lauds, Desert 
Lands, Etc. 



San Francisco Shopping. 

MRS. M. B. SMITH will purchaso and forward 
goods of every description at reasonable commission. For 
Circulars giving full information and unexceptionable ref- 
erences, address her, No. 200 Stockton St., San Francisco. 



68 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 25, 1879. 



San Jose Nurseries. 

Eds. Press:— I have the pleasure herewith of enclosing 
you Mr. B. S. Fox's advertisement, the pioneer nursery- 
man and florist of San Jose. Mr. Fox established his 

Santa Clara Valley Nurseries 
Here in the year 1853. Thus he has had an experience of 
26 years in the business in this valley. During all these 
years he has devoted his time and his best energies tu 
this, his chosen profession. Whether Mr. Fox has suc- 
ceeded in nuking the business very profitable to himself 
or not, I do not know; yet I have no doubt but there are 
hundreds of homes not only in this valley but all over 
this coast, owe much of their beauty and attractiveness 
to his cultivated taste and energy and skill in introducing 
from foreign countries many beautiful and useful trees 
and plants. 

I confess that 1 never feel more embarrassed and at a 
loss just what to say in attempting to describe things than 
when 1 pass through Mr. Fox's large and splendid plant 
houses. 1 might be able to say something intelligent 
about a well-kept orchard, or the straight rows at young 
trees in the nursery grounds; but when I get away into a 
witching little jiaradise of such strange and beautiful 
things as Mr Fox has gathered from all over the world, 
and grouped and arranged with such taste as to rival the 
very hand of nature herself— 1 had rather not risk betray- 
ing my utter ignorance of such things, and say nothing— 
but this, if you have a love for beautiful tropical plants 
and flowers, a visit to Mr. Fox's place will pay you well, 
and you can then see and judge for yourselves. Even the 
humming birds think it a sweet place I saw lots of them 
fluttering around among the flowers in the plant houses 
as much at home, seemingly, as if in their native southern 
bowers. G. W. M. 

Santa Clara, Cal., Jan. Oth, 1879. 



Portable Steam Engines. 

We call attention to the advertisement in another col- 
umn of the Lawrence Portable Engine, placed on the mar- 
ket by Arniington & Sims, the former builders of the 
engine so long and favorably known on this coast as the 
Hoadley engine. 

The Lawrence engine is an improvement over any now 
jii use here, having an improved cut-off regulator, simple 
and not liable to derangement, with a slide valve instead 
of the objectionable piston valve. In fact it has been the 
aim of the builders after 20 years' experience, to place in 
the market not only the best engine ever built by them, 
but by far the best engine made in the country. In these 
hard times we commend their plan to deal directly with 
the customer, thus saving to him a large amount hereto- 
fore paid to the commission dealers; and although it is a 
departure from the usual method here, yet we are satis 
fled that the saving will be found so large as to mure than 
offset any inconvenience which will arise from the neces 
sity of paying ca9h. 

Engines will be sent at car load rates of freight, and 
application shnuld be made at once to enable orders to be 
filled promptly. Send to them for a catalogue giving full 
description of the improved Lawrence engine. 

Berkshires at Nominal Rates. 

William Niles, of Los Angeles, whose advertisement of 
thoroughbred poultry and pigs appears in another col- 
umn, gives notice that for the purpose of making his 
stock known in Northern California and Oregon, he will 
sell a limited number of pure-bred Berkshires (descended 
from animals directly imported from England) at $25 per 
pair or $:i5 per trio, delivered free at railroad dapot, Mr. 
Niles is well and widely known at the south as a breeder 
of thoroughbred poultry, etc , and his Jannouiicomcnt is 
worthy of attention. 

Our Eastern Agency. 

We have established a special Eastern Agency for the 
Prkss at No. 38 University Place, New York 
City, with MR. JOHN MICHELS. He will cor- 
respond for our columns, and also receive subscription, 
advertisements, etc. , for the accommodation of our Eastern 
frieuus. 

Cheerfully Recommended. 

Cherokee, Sept. 8th, 1878. 
Dewkv k Co. — Gentlemen: - Having received my Let- 
ters Patent for improvement in vehicle wheels, 1 consider 
it a duty I owe your flrm to tender my sincere thanks for 
the interest and pains you have taken in the prosecution 
of the case. I shall cheerfully recommend your firm to 
such as may need your services. I remain yours, 

Very Respectfully, Wm. Tiiunen. 

Popi'LAR Mi sic. — Make your homes merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
can recommend this large, first-class, standard and popu- 
lar establishment. Examine his advertisement, appear- 
ing from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstruments possessing the very highest and most perma- 
nent reputation. Call at 106 Kearny Street. The Rural 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 



When a Lady wants a cloak or suit for herself or child 
and feels in doubt where to buy it, we cheerfully recom- 
mend her to go to Sullivan's, No. 120 Kearny street, San 
Francisco, where she can always find the cheapest and 
best assortment. 



For the best servant girls send to lady Clerk at A. 
Zeehaudelaar's Employment Agency, 027 Sacramento St., 
San Francisco. In ordering/riiiafc help it is always cus- 
tomary to advance the fare. Please remit the traveling 
expenses, for which will be purchased ticket and the girl's 
receipt taken. 

It is to your advantage, Farmers! to send your orders 
for all kinds of labor to the old Employment Agency of 
A. Zeehandelaar (formerly with Labor Exchange) 627 Sac- 
ramento Btrcet, San Francisco. He selects your men with 
care and good judgment, with a view to give satisfaction 
to both employer and employee. 

San Jose is decidedly a very popular place of residence 
on this coast, and James A. Clayton is its leading agent 
for the sale of city and country real estate. See adv't. 



Notr. —Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, January 22d, 1879. 

Dullness and stationary prices arc still the rule in the 
staples. The most interesting topic for talk has been the 
report of the Produce Exchange on the amounts of grain 
on bud in the State on January 1st. These figures we 
give below. The amounts are large, but the prices are 
now so low, and holders so confident in the future, that 
the enlarged amount on hand does not help the "bears" 
at all. The delay of the rains causes much speculation, 
and should they be much longer retarded, the price will 
rise on the chances to sell high next fall. The Eastern 
and foreign markets show no favorable features as yet. 
Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 





Cal. Average. 


Club. 


Thursday — 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday .... 
Wednesday . 


9s — @ 9s 4d 
8s lld@ 9s 4d 
8s lld<8 9s 4d 
8s 1 1 ' I " 9s 4d 
8s 10d(oe 9s 4d 
8s 10d<8 9s 4d 


9s 3d(8 9s 8d 
9s 2d<8 9s 7d 
9s 2dia> 9s 7d 
98 2d(8 9s 7d 
98 ].!■■' 9s 7d 
98 ld@ 9s 7d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare wilh same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1877 10s lld@lls — lis ld(31l8 5d 

1878 12s 6d<312s 9d 12s Skl(8i:is Id 

1879 8s 10d@ 98 4d 9s ld(8 Us 7d 

The Forelsrn Review. 

London, January 21.— The Mark Lane Ezpres* says: 
The aspect of the growing Wheat plant is scarcely satis- 
factory, as Budden changes in temperature have tended lo 
check its early development. But another month or six 
weeks must elapse before any definite opinion can be put 
forward as to the actual state of the crop. Farmers' de- 
liveries have again been moderate, and dissatisfaction con- 
tinues in regard to the condition in which most of the 
English Wheat comes to market. Dry parcels are the ex- 
ception both in London and at the provincial exchanges. 
Nearly all samples offered are damp or sprouted. To its 
defective condition must be attributed the comparative 
neglect from which home-grown Wheat has suffered, and 
which has prevented us from sharing the increased atten- 
tion paid to foreign grain. The imports of foreign Wheat 
into London continue moderate. More attention has been 
paid to this class of produce, as grauaried stocks in the 
United Kingdom show considerable deficiency on those 
held at a corresi>onding time in 1S78. Millers have pur- 
chased with less reserve, and a steady trade has resulted 
at fully late rates. The weak point, as regards the future 
course of prices, is the unusually large surplus available 
for export in America, which must exercise a depressing 
effect if the purchasing i>ower of France has been over- 
estimated. Apart from the uncertainty attaching to the 
operations of our neighbors, who, instead of ex|>orting 
Wheat, have been large importers, it remaiiiB to be seen 
whether the reserves of grain in the hands of French 
farmers will be sufficient to meet the requirements of 
consumption. With large arrivals at ports of call during 
the week, principally California, the floating cargo trade 
for Wheat has ruled steady without quotable change. 
Maize is Ann at an advance of tkl per quarter. Sales of 
English Wheat last w eek were 52,141 quarters, at 33s 1 Id 
per quarter, against 39,425 quarters, at 52s per quarter, 
the previous year. Imports into (Ireat Britain, for the 
week ending January 11th, were: Wheat, 740,747 cwt; and 
Flour, 178,091 cwt. 

Freights and Charters. 

The ship William If. Mareeii, 1,607 tons, has been 
chartered for Wheat to Liverpool or Havre, £1 12s 6d; 
Cork, £1 IBs. 

California Grain on Hand January 1st. 

We are indebted to W. H. Walker, Secretary of th« 
Produce Exchange, for the following statement of stock 
of grain in the Slate on the 1st of January, 1879, and we 
cite for eonqiarison the amounts on hand on the 1st of 
January in preceding years: 

1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. 

Flour, bbls 57,800 58,800 57,200 75,100 

Wheat, ctls 2,822,000 3,640,700 2,646,800 6,781,200 

Barley ctls 832,400 1,458,000 882,000 2,207,100 

Oats, ctls 52,000 80,700 105,000 137,000 

Com ctls 60,000 142,700 110,400 233,500 

Rye, ctls 5,700 14,000 3,900 64,400 

These figures indicate that the State is considerably 
richer in all kinds of grain than she has been on any pre- 
ceding 1st of January since 1876. If the year should 
prove dry, the sale of this extra amount of grain at an ad" 
vauced price will do something to keep up the flow of in- 
coming money from abroad. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

Nkw York, January 18 — Merchandise and produce 
markets have been very dull, owing to snow blockades, 
etc. Flour is quiet and unchanged. Wheat is dull and 
quiet. Barley is depressed. 

Ciiicauo, January IS — The week's markets have been 
quiet and steady as to cereals, and excited and higher as 
to provisions. There seems to be no feature to the grain 
market wurth commenting on, except a decrease in re- 
ceipts, which alone seem to keep prices up even to the 
present low stage. The one fact that would seem to point 
to higher prices is that there has been remarkably favorable 
weather for six months to get the crops into elevators 
February Wheat sold at 83}(«83jc: February Com, 29j(3 
30}c; February Oats, 19}(3l9jc; Kye, cash, 43(844c; Bar- 
ley, 90(896}c. Provisions have had a steady advance, 
notably in Pork, which to-day took a hound upward, and 
in half an hour at the call board some 50,000 barrels were 
disposed of. The immediate cause was the heavy pur- 
chases of a large operator and packer. Sales ranged for 
February, $7.77}(3$S.67i. Lard has also advanced stead- 
ily, and to-day quite decidedly. Sales, February, $5.67} 
(<r$5.97}. The rise in Provisions has been anticipated for 
some weeks, as the low prices have been phenomenal even 
for low-priced times. Closing cash prices are: Wheat, 
823c; Com, 29je; Oats, 19jc; Rye, 43}(344c; Barley, 91e; 
Pork, 88.60; Lard, $5.85. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, January 18 —Wool is in fair demand and 
steady. Sales of 105,000 Its Spring California at IgfjlBIn 

Boston, January IS.— The Wool market is quiet and 
there is no change in prices. Manufacturers appear to 
have no confidence in a higher range of prices, and will 
purchase only as wanted, while holders of desirable Wools 
feel that prices are now as low as they are likely to be. 
The stock of fine Fleeces is, most likely, in the hands of 
two houses, and very little is done, as purchases cannot 
be made except at full current rates. Combing and De- 



laine Fleeces are quiet, but steady. Sales include Ohio 
X, XX and No. 1, at ;u ;•.••«» Michigan X and No. 1, 32 
(834c: Wisconsin medium and X at 31(g33c; Northern 
Fleece, medium, 34c; New Y'ork X and medium, at 20(8 
3:(}c; washed Combing and Delaine, 33(340c; unwashed 
Combing, 22}»*28o; Texas, 15(324c; Eastern and Valley 
Oregon, 19(826e; Colorado and Territory, 13<880c; scoured 
at 27}(855e; Super and X pulled, at 2!i«i40c. In California 
there was a fair business, with sales of 378,000 !t>s, at 14 
M27c, for Spring, and lU(822c. for Fall; 26(826}e were 
outside prices for the most desirable lots of Spring. To- 
tal sales of domestic for the week, 1,063,900 tt.s. 

PHILADELPHIA, January 21.— Wool is ill improved de- 
mand and the market is stronger, but not higher. Colo- 
rado, 17@20c; unwashed, 12(gl4c; Extra and Merino 
pulled, 30t«34c; No. 1 and Super pulled, 27(«30c. 
California Wine at the East. 

New York, January IS. — The Wine ami Liquor 
Trade Circular states that 243,241 gallons of California 
Wine were received on the Atlantic coast last year. Dur- 
ing the last two years the American Wine business has 
nearly doubled, while during six years past the sale of 
foreign still Wines has decreased nearly two-thirds. The 
increase in alcohol exportation is enormous, and the Fall 
trade unusually large and profitable. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals. 

Beans, sacks 

Com, centals. 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks. 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales. 



Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Jan. 1. 


Jan. 8. 


Jan. 15. 


Jan. 22 


44,370 


9.S20 
42,722 


17,042 


53,584 


173,855 


94,663 


142,246 


16,662 


2,442 


6,900 


28,151 


9,060 


1,992 


1,865 


1,122 


10,140 


2,261 


3,122 


4,151 


15,293 


110 


1 ,640 


3,025 


23,955 


2,149 


16,916 


17.4S5 


485 


11 


419 


23S 


183 


11 


74 


89 


135 


2 


70 


108 


725 


50 


771 


1,130 



BAGS — There is no trade and no change in prices. The 
dry outlook prevents purchase for speculation. 

BAKLEY— There is no change in price. We note sales 
of 1,500 Bks good Bay Feed and 600 sks Feed at $1; 1,000 
sks and 600 sks Coast Feed at 97}c; and 100 sks Feed at 
95c. 

BEANS— Our quotations still cover the current rates. 
Receipts are smaller and the trade fair. 

BUCKWHEAT- The ruling rate for good lots is now 
$1.35 per ctl. 

CORN— Since last week Com dropped a little, but has 
recovered, and to-day stands Just at last Wednesday's 
figures. We note sales of 400 sks and 100 sks Large Yel- 
low at $1. 

DAIRY PRODUCE - Prices are as before; rarely a box 
reaching the top fancy price in open market. California 
Cheese niles from 9c to 12}c with a fraction better for the 
new make, which is taken freely. 

EGGS— Eggs are low. Some dealers quote as low as 24 
(825c, for fresh California ; others hold to 25(</27Jc. Sales 
are slow. 

FEED (iround Feed still holds the late advance. Hay 
takes a higher range. We note sales : 30 tons fair Wheat 
at $15, and 20 tons, rather dirty, at $12. 

FRESH MEAT First quality Beef is quoted }c lower, 
viz : 6}c by wholesale. There was a sale of stall-fed 
Monterey Beef here last week at 7c. 

FRUIT Apples are still coming from Oregon. The 
range for California and Oregon iB 50c(8$1.25 ; choice Bell 
Flowers, reaching the latter figure. 

HOPS There is nothing reported over 8c at wholesale 
here now, and sales are few. Sometimes two or three 
bales are jobbed at 12}(813c. Emmet Wells reports the 
New York market, for the week ending January 10th, as 
follows: 

The movement in Hops has been comparatively small 
this week, owing to the inclemency of the weather. The 
price remains the same as last quoted, the range beini; be- 
tween the extremes of 5c and 15c |>er lb, for new, and 2c 
and 6c for olds. Fifteen cents is an extreme rarely met, 
though we notice some of the New York dailies report 
that higher figures would be paid for strictly choice, were 
any such on offer here. The great snow Btorms in north- 
ern and central New York have impeded transportation, 
and this accounts for the light receipts. The exjiort trade 
has also felt the effects of the had weather, and until a 
return of brighter days no improvement in the trade can 
be expected. 

OATS — Unchanged, and sales few. 

ONIONS— This fragrant fruit is now on the top shelf 
Sales have been made of Union City Onions at $7 50 per 
ctl. ; San Leandro at $7.00, and Oregon at $6.50. Receipts 
are of trifling amount. 

POTATOES— A drop of 15c per ctl, is noticeable in 
Petalumas and Humboldt. The steady price for good 
Early Rose is $2 per ctl. 

POULTRY— Our list shows a general fall, owing in part 
to receipts of dressed Fowls and Turkeys from the East 
by rail. One dealer says prices are lower than he has 
known them for a score of years. 

PROVISIONS— The trade is lethargic ; nothing doing- 

VEGETABLES— Our list shows an advance in Cabbage, 
Carrots, Squash, and Turnips. A few East Oakland Tom- 
atoes bring $1.00 per box, and some arc in from Los 
Angeles, for which we do not learn prices yet. 

WHEAT— PriceB are unchanged. Holders are unyielding 
We note sales: 70 tons choice Shipping, delivered at Oak- 
land wharf, $1.75, and 1,000 ctls fair Shipping, Oakland, 
$1.72}; 30 tons strictly choice Milling, $1.80; 150 tons 
choice Shipping, $1.76}; 90 tons good Milling, $1.75; 500 
Bks do., $1.75; 150 tons good Shipping, and 70 tons fair do., 
each $1.71}. 

WOOL- There is nothing notable or reportable in this 
line. 



RETAIL GROCERIES. ETC. 

Wednesday m., January 22, 1879. 



Butter, California 

Choice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Flour, ex. fain, bbl8 

Cora Meal, lb 

Sugar, wh. crsbd 

Light Brown 

Coffee. Green 

Tea. Fine Black... 

Finest Japan 

Candles, Adnit'e.. 
Soap. Cal 



25 (3 
IS 

25 (8 
18 & 
20 <g 
00 (89 00 

21(8 3 
Vilvt 131 

8 (8 9t 
23 (3 35 
50 (81 00 
55 (al 00 
15 <i* 25 

7 W 10 



Rice 

Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 
Can'd Oysters doz2 
Syrup, 8 F Oold'n 
Dried Apples, lb.. 

Ger. Prunes 

Figs, Cal 

Peaches 

Oils, Kerosene 

Wines, Old Port. ..3 
French Claret 1 

Cal, doz bot 3 

Whisky, O K, gal.. 3 
French Brandy. . ..4 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

I WHOLESALE. 1 



8 (3 12 
50 (32 00 
00 (83 50 
75 (<rl 02 

10 (8 14 
12}(£ 10 

9 & 15 

11 l<r 1(1 
60 (8 60 
50 (35 00 
00 (82 50 
00 (84 50 
50 (85 00 
U0 <"S DC j 



ISI.fr>- <t PEAS. 

Bayo, ctl 1 90 (82 10 

Butter 2 37}(82 50 

Pea 3 00 (53 12 

Red 1 70 §1 75 

Pink 1 50 (31 75 

Sral White 2 75 a3 05 

Lima 4 00 (34 50 

Field Peas 1 00 (al 25 

IE ROOM < OKY. 

Southern 2 (j* 2} 

Northern 3 @ 4 

< 1114 TORY, 

California 4 (3 4} 

German 6}@ 7 



Wednesday m., January 22. 1S79. 

Pecans 12}® 14 

Peanuts 4 Cos 5 

Filberts 16 <8 18 

o\io\s. 

Alrlso — ■ — 

Union City, ctl. . .. — @7 50 

San Leandro — &! 00 

Stockton — & — 

Sacramento River. — m — 

Salt Lake — @ — 

Oregon — (p!6 50 

Red. — (8 — 

POTATOES. 

Petalurua, ctl 1 15 (81 35 

Humboldt 1 25 Si 35 



IIAIR1 ntOlll <E, 1. 14 . Cutfcy Cove 



BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, D> 30 (3 

Fancy Brands 32}(3 

Pickle Roll - S 

Firkin — (3 — 

Western 12}<3 17 

New York - 9 - 

CUEESE. 

Cheese, Cal., lb... . 9(3 
N. Y. State 16 @ 

EOUB. 

Cal. fresh, doz. . . . 25 (3 27i 

Ducks' 25 ® 27i 

Oregon — @ — 

Eastern 18 (3 25 

Pickled here 224(3 25 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 17 50 (313 00 

Corn Meal 24 00 .326 00 

Hay 10 00 @17 00 

Middlings 23 00 ig24 00 

OH Cake Meal. 36 00 #- 

Straw, bale 50 I 70 

I I ill It. 

Extra, bbl 5 12}<85 25 

Superfine 4 00 M 75 

Graham, lb 2}(3 3 

lltl.Ml ■SAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, it. 6 

Second 5 

Third 3}i 

Mutton 4 

Spring Lamb 5 

Pork, undressed... 31(3 

Dressed 5J(a 

Veal 4}@ 5 

Milk Calves 6 <3 6} 

do choice... 7 '<'< 7l 
CHAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 85 (31 00 

Brewing 1 15 m 30 

Chevalier 1 75 H 90 

Buckwheat I 35 wl 40 

Corn. White 1 00 @1 05 

Yellow 95 (31 00 

Small Round.... 1 07}(31 10 

Oats 1 25 igl 50 

Muling 1 60 <al 75 

Rye 1 17 ffll 25 

Wheat Shipping . 1 65 ...| 72} 

Milling — (31 75 

Off tirades 1 40 (81 60 

■hues. 

Hides, dry 151(3 IS 

Wet sal ted 7}@ 9 

MOSEY. ETC 

Beeswax, lb 30 (3 31 

Honey in comb. . .. li-" — 

do. No 2 8@ 9} 

Dark 8 @ 9 

Strained 4}<8 6 

HOPS. 
Oregon, — 



I Early Rose, 
32} Half Moon Bay 
34 " 



- ■ - 
*u2 00 

. — m — 

Kidney 1 25 (tel 50 

Sweet — Ids — 

POI I.TR1 «\ «. nil. 

Hens, doz. 5 50 (3 6 50 

Roosters 5 50 (3 6 50 

Broilers 3 00 C ' 

12} Ducks, tarns 7 50 i 

17 do, Mallard - i 

Geeee, pair 2 00 ( 

27} Wild Gray. doz.. 

27}! White do 

Turkeys 

do, Dressed 16 ( 

Snipe Eng — (& 1 50 

do. Common.... 50 (S 75 

Quad, doz 75 W — 

Rabbits 1 50 W 

Hare 2 00 (3 2 58 

PHItVIMOV".. 
Cal. Bacon. H vy.fc 9}(3 10 

Medium 10}(3 11 

Light 11 (3 11} 

Lard. »}(3 11 

Cab Smoked Beef 8}(3 9 
Shoulders. Oover'd 7 <3 7} 

Hams. Cal 11 (3 111 

Dupee's 13 (3 13} 

None Such 13 (3 13} 

Ames...'. — w — 

Wl.ittaker — <8 — 

Royal 13 ® 13} 

Reliable 13 (3 13? 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa. 5 @ 14 

Canary 4}(3 5 

Clover, Red 15 # 16 

White 50 « 55 

Cotton let 10 

Flaxseed 3 I 

Hemp 9 ( 

Italian Rye Grass 35 I 

Perennial 35 l 

Millet 10 I 

Mustard, White 

Brown 

Rape S"( 

Ky Blue Grass 17 ( 

2d quality 16 I 

Sweet V Grass.... 1 00 
Orchard 25 



m i! 



Red Top 13 

Hungarian 8 

Lawn 50 

Mesqult — 

Timothy 7 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6i 

Refined S| 

WOOL. ETC. 

VAIL. 

San Joaquin, free. 



12 

3 

8 
20 
18 

30 
15 
10 

25 
8 

I 6| 
i 8} 



11 (3 15 



California 8 @ 13 South'n Coast, do. . 

Wash. Ter t| 9 iSac. and Northern. 

Old Hops 3(3 5 Mendocino k Hum- 

N ITS— Jobbing. I boldt 16(3 17} 

Walnuts, Cal. 4 (3 10 Southern, burry ... 8 (3 9 

do Chile f».3 8 iNorthera, do 11 <je 12 

Almonds, hd Bhl lb 7 «t 8 Oregon, Eastern... 16 (3 18 

Softsh'l 15(3 18 1 do. Valley.... 21(3 22 

Brazil 12}@ 14 I 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

rwnoLESALi. 1 

Wednesday m., January 22, 1879. 



FRITT MARKET. 

Apples, box - 30 (3 1 25 

Bananas, bnch.. « 6 00 

Cocoanuta 100.. 4 00 m 5 00 
Cranberries, bbl. 12 50 (314 00 

Figs, 11 - 6 (8- 6} 

Grapes @ 

do, Conechon. 2 50 (8 3 00 

Limes. Mex 8 00 (<rl0 0U 

do, Cal. box. . . 2 00 (8 2 50 
Lemons, Cal M. 10 00 (815 00 
Sicily, box ... . 8 00 ffl 9 00 
Australian, bx — — @— — 

Oranges, M 25 00 (835 00 

Tahiti « 

Cal , M 10 00 (325 00 



Peaches : -r 8} 

do pared ... 18 »— 20 

Pears la 10 

Plums 3 & 

Pitted ]2 *@- 1* 

Prunes. 

Raisins. Cal. bx 1 50 i 
do, Halves... 1 75 I 
do, Quarter* . 2 00 I 

Blowers' 2 76 ( 

Malaga 2 75 I 

Zante Currants. . 

sK4.LT AIM I >. 

Beets, ctl — 60 @ 

Beans, String... (8 

Cabbage. 100 lbs 75 (3— 87} 



Pears, box 1 00 <g 1 25 Carrots, ctl 50 (8— 62} 

Winter Nelis . 2 50 (3 4 00 Cauliflower, doz 75 (8 1 00 

Pineapples, doz. 7 50 (8 8 00 iCucumbers. bx.. I 

Plums, Tt.s — 5 (3 — 6 Egg Plants, box.- 

Quinces, bsk w Garlic, New, lb..- 

St'wberries, ch'st (3 Green Peas - 

l»KIF.I» I KI IT. Lettuce, doz 10 I 

Apples, B> 3 (8 5} Parsnips, lb 2 I 

Horseradish. .... 
Squash. Marrow 

fat. tn 10 00 i 

Tomat<>,50 lbs bx— 

Turnips, ctl — 75 I 

White 1 25 ( 



Apricots 15 (3— 

Citron 23 @ 24} 

Dates 9 (3 10 

Fiirs. Blaok 4 @ 5 

White 6 <g 8 



LEATHER. 

f WHOLESALE. | 

Wednesday, m., January 22, 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb SI 

Light SO 

Jodot, 8 Kit. doz 48 00 

11 to 12 Kil 66 00 

14 to 19 Kil 80 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 56 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 

Simon Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 68 00 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 

16tol7Kil 72 00 

Simon. 18 Kil 61 00 

20 Kil 65 00 

24 Kil 72 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Ktl 36 00 

Kips. French, lb 1 00 

Cal. doz 40 00 

French Sheep, all colon 8 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 

For Linings 5 50 

al. Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 

oot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 

BGood French Calf 4 00 

Best Jodot Calf 6 00 

eatber, Harness, lb 35 

LFair Bridle, doz 48 00 

Skirting, lb 33 

Welt, doz SO 00 

Buff, ft 18 

Wax Side 17 



1879. 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Surao It Co. J 

San Fhancisco. January 22, 3 p. M. 
Silver 2|<321. Gold In M ew York. par. 
Gold Bars, 890(3910. Silver Bars. 8@22 9 cent, din 

»unt. 

Exchange on New York, 35, on London bankers. 4:<i'rf 
49} Commercial, 5); Paris, five francs V dollar; Mvxioau 
dollars. 87*389. 

London Consols, 94 7-16; Bonds, 109]. 

Quicksilver Id S. F by the flask, tf lb. «c»41o. 



January 25, 1879.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



69 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



BA«;S-.Iobl>lng, 

Eng Standard Wheat. 9 'a 
Neville & Co. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9 @ 9J 

24x36 -@- 

23x40 11 @— 

Machine Swd, 22x36 . 9 @ 9; 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . 8i@10 

Quarters 5l@ 6} 

Eighths 3i@ 4 

Hessian, 60 inch 12 @13 

45 Inch 8J<8 9 

40inoh 7i@ 8 

Wool Sacks 
Hand Sewed, 31 B)..47i@50 

4 lb do 52J@— 

Machine Sewed 50 (Si- 
Standard Gunnies 13 @14 

Bean Bags 7J<§ 8.'. 

« AMU I S. 

Crystal Wax 17 @- 

Eagle 12 @— 

Patent Sperm 30@— 

CANNED GOODS. 
Assorted Pie Fruits, 

2j lb cans 2 00 @ — 

Table do 3 00 (8 — 

Jams and Jellies. .3 50 @ — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 15 @ — 

Sardines, qr box..l 67J@1 90 

Hf Boxes 2 50 @2 75 

Preserved Beef, 

21b. doz 4 00 O — 

do Beef, 4 lb,doz.6 50 @ — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 lb. doz 4 00 @ — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 @ — 

Preserved Ham, 

2 lb, doz 6 50 (3 — 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 5 50 @ — 

do Ham, itb doz. 3 00 @ — 
CO Air— Jobbing. 

Australian, ton.. 8 00 @ 

Coos Bay 6 50 @ 7 00 

Bellingham Bay. 6 50 @ 

Seattle 6 00 @ 6 50 

Cumberland 14 00 @ 

Mt Diablo 4 75 @ 6 00 

Lehigh 13 50 <» 

Liverpool 7 50 @ 8 00 

West Hartley.. .10 50 @ 

Scotch 10 50 @ 

Scranton 11 50 & 

Vancouver Id. . . 7 00 @ 

Charcoal, sack . . 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 C* 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, lb. — @ 

Costa Rica 15 @ 16 

Guatemala 15 @ 16 

Java 23 @— 26 

Manila 17 @ 

Ground, in os. . . 25 @ 

FISH. 

Sac'to Dry Cod.. 4J@ 5i 
do in cases. . 5 @ 6 

Eastern Cod.... @ 

Salmon, IiWb.... 8 00 @ 9 00 

Hf bbls 5 00 & 5 50 

1 lb cans 1 40 @ 1 45 

Pkld Cod, bbls. .22 00 @ 

Hf bbls 11 00 @ 

Mackerel, No. 1. 

Hf Bbls 9 50 @10 50 

In Kits 1 85 @ 2 10 

Ex Mess 3 25 @ 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 @ 3 50 

Boston SmkdH'g 70 @ 

LIME, Etc. 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 1 25 @ 1 50 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 @ 2 25 

Portland 4 00 ® 



I WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednesday m.. January 22, 1879 



72?, 



Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 -3 3 25 
Laud Plaster, tn 10 00 @12 50 

NAILS. 
Ass'ted sizes, keg 2 90 @ 3 00 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co s 
Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 @ 90 

Castor. No 1 1 10 @ — 

do, No. 2 1 05 <§> — 

Baker's A A 1 25 @1 30 

Olive, Plagniol....5 25 @5 75 

Possel 4 75 @5 25 

Palm, lb 9 @ — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl. 72 @ — 

Boiled 75 @ — 

Cocoanut 55 @ — 

China nut, cs 70 @ 

Sperm 1 40 @ 

Coast Whales 40 @ 

Polar 45 @ - 

Lard 90 @1 00 

Oleophine 22 (S. 22& 

Devoe's Bril't 22 @ 23} 

Photollte — @ — 

Nonpariel 31 @ 32 J 

Eureka 18 @ 42J 

Barrel kerosene.. . 20 @ — 

Downer Ker 37}@ — 

Elaine 37J@ 

r AIMS. 
Pure White Lead. 8 @ Si 

Whiting 1J@ 

Putty 4<a 5 

Chalk li(g> — 

Paris White 2}@ — 

Ochre 3*@ — 

Venetian Red 3J@ — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 @2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 @S 50 

Light Red 3 00 @3 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 @1 60 
RICE. 

China, Mixed, lb.. 5 @ 5 J 

Hawaiian 7 @ 7} 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton.... 15 00 <@22 50 

Common 10 00 (r*12 00 

Carmen Id 12 00 @14 00 

Liverpool fine ... 19 00 (CS 

SOAP. 

Castile, lb 10 @ 

Common brands. . 4J@ 
Fancy brands 7 @ 8 

spices. 

Cloves, lb 45 @ 50 

'Cassia 22J(S 25 

Nutmegs 85 @ 90 

Pepper Grain 15 @ 17 

Pimento 15 @ 16 

Mustard, Cal., 

i lb glass 1 50 @ — 

St i. t It. ETC. 

Cal. Cube, lb 1H® - 

Powdered — 

Fine crushed ~ 

Granulated 11 @ — 

Golden 9i@ — 

Cal. Syrup, kgs... 70 @ — 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 26 (g 30 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 

Country pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 (8> 60 

Hyson 30 @ 35 

Fooo-ChowO 35 ffl — 

Japan, 1st quality 40 (§> — 

2d quality 20 @ 25 



10{ 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds for 1879, rich in engravings, will be 
ready in January, and sent FREE, to all who apply. Cus- 
tomers of last season need not write for it. I offer one of 
the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever sent out by 
any seed house in America, a large portion of which were 
grown on my six Seed Farms. Printed directions for 
cultivation on each package. All seed warranted to be 
both fresh and true to name; so far, that should it prove 
otherwise, / will refill the order gratis. The original in- 
troducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's Melon, Mar- 
blehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other Veg- 
etables. I invite the patronage of all who are anxious to 
have their Seed directly from the grower, fresh, true, and 
of the very best strain. 

NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

James J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, Mass. 



BELTJNG 



MANUFACTURED BY 



HI. ^OlrTEIR,, 

Nos. 855, 857, 859 & 861 Bryant Street, Cor. Fark Avenue 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



27 @ 30 



Dl A Kin Beautiful Concert Grand Pianos, ftRP A M 
riHN.U c08t $l,6CO, only $425. Bu-VnUHH 
pcrb Grand Square Pianos, cost $1,100, only $255 
Elegant Upright Pianos, cost $800, only $155. New 
Style Upright Pianos, $112 50. Organs. $35. 
Organs, 12 Stops, $72- 50. Church Organs, 16 stops, 
cost $390, only $115 Elegant $375 Mirror Top Or- 
gans, only $105. Tremendous sacrifice to close out 
present stock. Immense New Steam Fac'ory soon to be 
erected. Newspaper with much information about cost 
of Pianos and Organs, SENT FREE. Please address 
DANIEL F. 1SEATTY, Washington, New Jersey. 



San Lorenzo, December 6th, 1877. 
Messrs. Dewky & Co. — Gentlemen: I received the Let- 
ters Patent for my invention on the 5th Inst., and beg 
to thank you for the gentlemanly and business-like man 
ner in which you have dealt with me from the beginning 
of my application. I shall always feel it a pleasure to 
recommend you to all I come in contact with who need 
Letters Patent. Respectfully, Wm. Dale. 



J. M. NEVILLE. 



GEO H. BRYANT 



NEVILLE & CO., 

Bag; Manufacturers, 

ALSO MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Awnings, Tents, 

And a General Assortment of this Line of Goods. 



We take pleasure In in- 
forming the public that 
we have removed from 
our old stand, No. 113 
Clay street, to our new 
and commodious store, 
Nos. 31 and 33 California 
street, and Nos. 16 to 30 
Davis street, corner of 
California and Davis Sta. , 
where we have completed 
arrangements that make 
it one of the best ap- 
)K>inted Bao MANUFAC- 
TORIES on the American 
Continent. We are now 
prepared to fill orders at 
prices that defy competi- 
tion, and in a style of 
finish KgUAL, if not supe- 
rior, to any Bag Factory 
on this Coast. 

We have recently im- 
ported 

New Presses for 
Printing 

Flour, Meal, 

SALT, 

Grocers and other 
BAGS, 

Made expressly for us, 
and especially adapted to 
the requirements of the 
business, being capable 

Of doing BETTER WORK, 

and in less time, than 
any other presses on the 

Pacific Coast, and possessing^all thejimprovements that have been suggested in the interest of Bag Printing for the 
past twenty-five years. FLOUR BAGS, all sizes and grades. FLOUR BAG BRANDS supplied to suit. 

We have also made arrangements as "Selling Agents of the Cable Flax Mills, of Troy, N. Y.," 
for a full supply of the best TWINES in the world, of which we shall constantly carry full lines. 

We specially call the attention of Millers, and others, to any and all branches of our business, and we confidently 
think that it will be particularly to their interests to communicate with us as to prices and qualities, before mak- 
ing purchases elsewhere. 

We shall keep constantly on hand a full line of TENTS, of all kinds and styles, and make to order anything in 
the line of TENTS that can possibly be required. AWNINGS of all the different styles and designs, on band 
and made to order. ORE BAGS from all grades of Duck, Canvas, Burlap, Etc. 

Dundee and Calcutta GRAIN BAGS, of all sizes. 

WOOL BAGS, imported and otherwise, of all sizes and weights. All numbers of Duck and Canvas in store. 
Horse, Wagon and Floor Covers on hand and made to order 

BORDERS ARE RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED, AND SATISFACTION GUARANTEED.*^ 

NEVILLE & CO., 

31 & 33 California St., San Francisco. 

January 1st, 1879 




A NEW CALIFORNIA BOOk 



FOR- 



Farmers, Country Gentlemen, Nurserymen and 
Amateur Florists. 

ZLnTOW 1 1ST PRESS. 

PACIFIC 



RURAL 

HANDBOOK. 

Containing a series of brief and practical Essays and Notes on 
the Culture of Trees, Sh